Faanya Rose

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Scientist

Faanya Lydia (Arch) Rose (born July 9, 1938) is a British-American business woman, conservationist, philanthropist, and explorer.[1] She was the first woman and the first British citizen elected president of The Explorers Club.[2][3][4]

At founding in 1904, the membership of the Explorer Club was “limited absolutely to men who [had] been in the open and the wild places of the earth.”[5] Women were not admitted until 1981, and would wait nineteen years before being considered for president.[6] Faanya said of her election she wanted, “Not to be the first woman president, but to be the first woman to be the best man for the job.”[7]

Birth and education

Faanya was born in Johannesburg when South Africa was a dominion of Great Britain.[8] She is the oldest child of Cecilia “Cissie” Elizabeth Arch (née Wainer)(1909-1978)[9] and Simon Arch (1910-1977),[10] a diamond merchant and financier.[11]

She is Jewish, of Eastern European descent, her family emigrating from the Pale of Settlement at the first of the twentieth century for South Africa.[12] Her father left Berdychiv, Ukraine, with his family as a boy for Berlin, and when Nazism became ascendant in Germany, immigrated to Johannesburg.[13] Her mother’s family arrived in Johannesburg from the Poswohl region of Lithuania.[14] Members of the Wainer family were founders of the Poswohl Synogogue,[15] today on the List of heritage sites in Gauteng.[16]

Faanya attended Johannesburg Girls Preparatory School of Barnato Park, in her time a school for young ladies.[17][18][19] After graduation, she enrolled at University of the Witwatersrand.[20] As an executive in London during the 1980s and 1990s, she pursued course work with the London Business School and the Association of Corporate Treasurers.[21]

Marriages and children

Faanya and Robert Rose at Garsington Opera, Oxford, UK, 2004.

Faanya was married in 1956 to South African Donald Goldin (1933–1979), an avid sportsman and businessman.[22][23]

In 1965, he became general manager of the Victoria Falls Casino Hotel,[24] which took him, Faanya, and their young family to Rhodesia.[25] Goldin became a naturalized Rhodesian citizen, and in the Rhodesian general election, 1977 he was elected a member of parliament, a voice in the Ian Smith government for greater black inclusion. He served less than his full term before dying at age 46 on Air Rhodesia Flight 827, a casualty of the Rhodesian Bush War.[26]

The Goldins had three sons: Grant Joseph (born 1957), Malcolm Daniel (born 1961), and Andrew Saul (born 1972).[27]

Faanya met Robert Rose (1921-2009) in London in the early 1990s.[28] He was a retired American entrepreneur, world traveler, and enthusiastic explorer.[29] They married in 1993.[30][31] Robert Rose introduced his new wife to the Explorers Club by way of the Club’s British Chapter.[32][33] The couple maintained residences in New York and London and an active lifestyle in exploration and philanthropy.[34] During her marriage to Rose, Faanya established dual citizenship with the United States and Britain.

When Robert Rose died at age 88, he was a much storied[35] and greatly beloved patron of the Explorers Club.[36]

Rhodesia

Business brought Faanya to Rhodesia in 1965.[37] Her father Simon Arch[38] agreed to finance the first ever casino for the country to be built in the township of Victoria Falls.[39] Arch named Faanya’s husband Donald Goldin to oversee construction and manage day-to-day operations; Faanya was a contributing partner.[40] Prime Minister Ian Smith was on hand in November 1965 for the laying of the foundation stone.[41]

During her time in Rhodesia, Faanya was a witness to the collapse of minority rule.[42][43] She arrived with Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI), embraced life in the bush, withstood the privations of sanctions imposed by Britain and the United Nations in response to UDI,[44] and weathered the horrors of the escalating guerrilla war and counterinsurgency.[45]

Donald and Faanya Goldin at dinner in Rhodesia, 1970.

The Goldins maintained two residences: one in Victoria Falls, near the casino and the seat of local government for the region, and Salisbury (now Harare), the capital and the seat of national government.[46] They also kept a 3,400 hectare farm in the northwest bordering the Matetsi River and the Wankie Game Reserve (now Hwange National Park).[47][48] Long aware of the challenges to African wildlife and the wild spaces of the continent, the Goldins adopted aggressive conservation practices to quell rampant poaching and the over hunting of game which was decimating the big herds.[49] Their efforts also embraced practices to impede soil erosion.[50] In their care the farm matured to help boost the leopard population in the country and of Faanya personally planting acres of bougainvillea to retain the topsoil.[51]

Through the 1970s, as Rhodesia became more and more dangerous, the Goldins sent their sons to boarding school in South Africa, going to the farm less and less, and splitting their time between Salisbury and the relative safety of urbanized Victoria Falls.[52] Her husband was active with the Rhodesian Front political party winning the parliamentary seat for Wankie (now Hwange). Great loss concludes this decade for Faanya with the deaths of her parents and the loss of her husband in a politically motivated act of terror.[53]

In January 1980, Faanya immigrated to England. In April of that year when majority rule took effect, and Rhodesia became Zimbabwe, her interests in the country were forfeit.[54]

Business and civic involvement

Faanya became a British citizen in 1983. As she established residency for the three years prior, she studied business and worked pro bono.[55] In 1986, she became group treasurer of British property development and investment company Hammerson plc.[56] In 1988, she became group treasurer of British Airports Authority or BAA plc (now the privately held Heathrow Airport Holdings Limited), retiring from the firm in 1998.[57][58] During her time at BAA she was special financial adviser to the London Ambulance Service.[59]

Faanya has devoted many years of service to volunteer leadership:

Other organizations in which she is active are the Foreign Policy Association and the Pilgrims Society.

Exploration

Faanya on the "Great Elephant Quest" in Bardia, Nepal, 1994.
Faanya Rose by explorer Robert Hyman. Base Camp, Mount Everest, 1999.

In her twenties, Faanya was a civilian observer of Operation Noah (1958-1964),[66] the world’s largest wildlife rescue from the flooding of the Kariba Gorge by the completion of the Kariba Dam.[67] During her years in Rhodesia (1965-1979), she went on safari to hunt and on expeditions into the bush to observe animal habitat and the terrain.[68] In 1993, she participated in an expedition to Tunisia to study the mosaics of Roman Africa sponsored by ASPROM (Association for the Study and Preservation of Roman Mosaics).[69][70] In 1994 she joined British expedition leader Colonel John Blashford-Snell of the Scientific Exploration Society (SES)[71] on the “Great Elephant Quest” to investigate rumors that giant mammoths thought to be extinct were raiding Nepalese hunting grounds.[72]

Faanya became a member of the Explorers Club in 1994,[73] was elected director in 1998,[74] and in 2000 by a vote of the board of directors became the first woman president.[75] Her sponsors for membership were John Blashford-Snell and past Club president John Levinson, MD (1927-2009).[76][77]Thor Heyerdahl, notable for his Kon-Tiki expedition, was a strong advocate for her election to the board.[78]

Faanya is a Fellow of the Royal Geographic Society.

Faanya's exploration résumé includes these Explorers Club Flag Expeditions:[79]

Year Flag # Expedition Name Expedition Leader
1998 186[80] Kota Moma Expedition I[81] John Blashford-Snell
1999 117[82] Everest Extreme Expedition (E3) Scott Hamilton[83]
2002 74[84] Humpback Whale Research Project I Scott Hamilton
2003 74[85] Humpback Whale Research Project II Scott Hamilton
2007 162[86] NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation #12 Kenneth Kamler
2010 176[87] Tibetan Refugee Eye & Vision Expedition[88] Scott Hamilton
2011 189[89] Mount Everest High Altitude Research Expedition[90] David Hempleman-Adams

Publications

  • Goldin, Faanya & Toms, MR. “Treasury Management, The BAA Experience,” Airport Forum, V. 25, No. 6 (DEC 1995): pp. 24–26. For an online abstract see TRID, the Transportation Research Board database, retrieved April 5, 2016.
  • Rose, Faanya L. “Almost Swept Away.” They Lived to Tell the Tale: True Stories of Modern Adventure from the Legendary Explorers Club. Edited by Jan Russell. (Guilford, CT: The Lyons Press, 2007). pp. 149–150. To view the story online see Google Books, retrieved May 19, 2016.

About

  • Osmond-Evans, Anthony, “Faanya Lydia Rose. A Woman of Achievement.” 50 Remarkable Years: The New Elizabethan Age. (Good Connections: The Beautiful Publishing Division, 2001). pp. 50.
  • Rapoport, Sandra E. “Acknowledgements.” Biblical Seductions: Six Stories Retold Based on Talmud and Midrash. (Jersey City, NJ: KTAV Publishing House, 2011). pp. xvii.
  • Selby, Frederick. “A Life Fulfilled - Sir Edmund Hillary.” Postcards from Kathmandu: Life Among Gods, Kings and Diplomats. (Kathmandu: Vajra Books and Vajra Publications, 2008). pp. 173–174.

Timeline

Chart of the life events for Faanya Rose (collapsible).

<timeline> ImageSize = width:670 height:1300 PlotArea = left:40 right:10 top:10 bottom:10 DateFormat = yyyy TimeAxis = orientation:vertical order:reverse format:yyyy Period = from:1930 till:2020 AlignBars = early ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 start:1930 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:1 start:1938

Colors =

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 id:lightsteelblue value:rgb(0.418, 0.609, 0.800)

Define $dx = 20 # shift text to right side of bar

PlotData =

 bar:event width:20 color:gray shift:($dx,-4)

 from:start till:end color:lightsteelblue

 mark:(line, white)
 at:1938 text:July 9, 1938 – Born in Johannesburg.
 at:1955 text:1955 – Graduates from Barnato Park Girls Preparatory School.
 at:1956 text:1956 – Enters the University of the Witwatersrand | 1956-1979 – Married to Donald Goldin. 
 at:1957 text:1957 – Son Grant born.
 at:1960 text:1960 – Civilian observer of Operation Noah.
 at:1961 text:1961 – Son Malcolm born.
 at:1965 text:1965 – Moves with family to Rhodesia | Rhodesia issues UDI | Corner stone laid for Victoria Falls casino.
 at:1972 text:1972 – Son Andrew born.
 at:1977 text:1977 – Donald Goldin elcted member of parliament | Father Simon Arch dies.
 at:1978 text:1978 – Mother Cissie Arch dies.
 at:1979 text:1979 – Husband Donald Goldin dies on Air Rhodesia Flight 827.
 at:1980 text:1980 – Immigrates to Britain, establishing residence in London | Rhodesia adopts majority rule becoming Zimbabwe.
 at:1981 text:1981 - Women first accepted for membership in the Explorers Club
 at:1983 text:1983 – Becomes British citizen.
 at:1986 text:1986 – Becomes group treasurer of Hammerson plc.
 at:1988 text:1988 – Becomes group treasurer of BAA plc. 
 at:1993 text:1993 – ASPROM Expedition - African mosaics, Tunisia | 1993–2009 – Married to Robert Harrison Rose.
 at:1994 text:1994 – Becomes member of the Explorers Club | SES Expedition - Great Elephant Quest, Nepal.
 at:1998 text:1998 – Elected director of the Explorers Club | Explorers Club Flag Expedition - Kota Moma I, Peru.
 at:1999 text:1999 – Explorers Club Flag Expedition - Everest Extreme Expedition (E3), Nepal.
 at:2000 text:2000 – Becomes first woman elected president of the Explorers Club.
 at:2002 text:2002 – Explorers Club Flag Expedition - Humpback Whale Research I.
 at:2003 text:2003 – Explorers Club Flag Expedition - Humpback Whale Research II.
 at:2007 text:2007 – Explorers Club Flag Expedition - NEEMO 12.
 at:2008 text:2008 – Obtains dual citizenship U.S. and Britain.
 at:2009 text:2009 – Husband Robert Harrison Rose dies.
 at:2010 text:2010 – Explorers Club Flag Expedition - Tibetan Refugee Eye & Vision, Tibet.
 at:2011 text:2011 – Explorers Club Flag Expedition - Everest High Altitude Research.

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References

  1. Faanya Lydia Rose, Membership Application, 1994. Research Collections, The Explorers Club.
  2. "About the Explorers Club", The Explorers Club © 2016, retrieved January 23, 2016.
  3. "The Explorers Club Board Elects First Woman President in Its 96-Year History", The Free Library © 2016, April 4, 2000, retrieved April 6, 2016.
  4. North, Edmundo Carrillo|Journal. "New Mexico woman, 89, inducted into Explorers Club". http://www.abqjournal.com/662514/new-mexico-woman-89-inducted-into-explorers-club.html. 
  5. “Explorers Now Have Their Own Club: General Greely and Others Plan Lectures on Discoveries", New York Times, November 5, 1905, p. 39, retrieved March 24, 2016.
  6. The vote was secret, and close, with some members threatening to resign if women were admitted. Said then president Charles F. Brush III in favor of accepting women, “It is highly bizarre to call ourself an explorers’ club and exclude half the world.” From John Barnable, "Explorers to Admit Women", New York Times, April 13, 1981, retrieved March 24, 2016. For more on Brush (1923-2006) see “Brush Engineered Materials Mourns Loss of Dr. Charles F. Brush III, Director Emeritus", The Free Library © 2016, Business Wire, 2006, retrieved April 6, 2016.
  7. Faanya L. Rose oral history interview conducted by Mark Katzman in New York City on January 14, 2004, Oral History Project, Unedited Transcript. Research Collections, The Explorers Club. For the 2004 centennial celebration, the Explorers Club interviewed past presidents and notable members to preserve first-person accounts of their lives and contributions to exploration.
  8. Faanya was born four years after the Status of the Union Act, 1934, which declared the former colonies of South Africa one self-governing independent state. With her family first established in South Africa during the colonial era, Faanya has said, “I was colonial, very much colonial.” Oral History, 2004. South Africa was to become a republic in 1961.
  9. For South African birth and death records see “The South African Jewish database of Jewish Migration and Geneology” SA Jewish Rootsbank © 2016, retrieved March 2, 2016.
  10. SA Jewish Rootsbank.
  11. Oral History, 2004.
  12. In absence of direct statements from Faanya’s early relatives, this general observation: “By and large the Jews who came to South Africa from Eastern Europe in the last two decades of the nineteenth and the first two decades of the twentieth centuries were not the most scholarly, well-educated or ritually observant … they were seeking economic advancement and social acceptance, not religious freedom which they had enjoyed to the full in their homeland.” John Ian Simon, “A Study of the Nature and Development of Orthodox Judaism in South Africa c. 1935”, PhD Dissertation, University of Cape Town, 1996, Google Scholar, retrieved February 23, 2016.
  13. Oral History, 2004.
  14. Oral History, 2004.
  15. Oral History, 2004.
  16. The synagogue is no longer a house of prayer, the descendants of the founders are dispersed, and in Lithuania the original community is vanquished. See Hymie Amoils, “The Poswohl Synagogue – A Memorial to a Community that No Longer Exists”, The Heritage Portal, October 20, 2015, retrieved March 2, 2016.
  17. Membership Application, 1994.
  18. Faanya graduated from the original school for girls housed at Joel House, Barnato Park, which was demolished in 1962 to make way for the present campus buildings. In 1964 the institution became the co-educational Barnato Park High School.
  19. Of her schooling in 1940s and 1950s Faanya said, “It's hard for these young women today to realize that to be married was a goal … but I was slightly lucky because […] my father was the real Renaissance man.” Oral History, 2004.
  20. Membership Application, 1994.
  21. Membership Application, 2004.
  22. Goldin worked his way up the lingerie trade to own shops and introduce new approaches to retailing including the design of a specialized hangar to display merchandise. See Donald Goldin, “United States Patent: D200942 S – Clothes Hanger”, Google Patents, February 17, 1964, retrieved February 2, 2016.
  23. Oral History, 2004.
  24. For a description see “Victoria Falls Souvenir Guide Book 1969”, (Salisbury, Rhodesia: Sarum Imprint, 1969) and reproduced online by Our Rhodesian Heritage, September 26, 2013, retrieved February 24, 2016.
  25. Oral History, 2004.
  26. “59 Killed in Viscount Disaster”, The Herald (Rhodesia), February 13, 1979, reproduced online by Our Story: ORAFs – Old Rhodesian Airforce Sods, February 12, 2009, retrieved March 13, 2016.
  27. Oral History, 2004.
  28. Oral History, 2004.
  29. Robert Harrison Rose, Membership Application, 1992. Research Collections, The Explorers Club.
  30. Oral History, 2004.
  31. Robert Rose was first married to Wanda Cochran (1923–2008) in 1948. See also “Cochran, Wanda: Death Notice”, New York Times, March 11, 2008, retrieved March 24, 2016. His second wife was Gillian Rosemary Rose (1935–1986). See RootsUK, from www.rootsuk.com, retrieved March 24, 2016.
  32. “Great Britain Chapter”, The Explorers Club © 2016, retrieved March 19, 2016.
  33. Oral History, 2004
  34. Oral History, 2004.
  35. One such story was his father’s dismay when the young Rose detoured before college. “I graduated from high school in Grand Rapids, Michigan [… during the Great Depression]. I became a hobo. A year of riding freight trains, living in hobo jungles, herding sheep, lumbering.” Robert Harrison Rose, Letter to the Membership Committee, 1992. Research Collections, The Explorers Club.
  36. Rose is interred at the family plot in Jenkintown, PA. Obituaries appeared in London and Philadelphia: “Robert Harrison Rose”, Legacy.Com (Philly.Com) © 2016, October 9, 2009, retrieved March 31, 2016, and “Robert Harrison Rose”, The Telegraph UK, April 2010, retrieved March 31, 2016.
  37. For context, Faanya lived in ‘Rhodesia’ during the time before majority rule. To clarify, the territory of ‘Rhodesia’ was first established in 1890 by the British South African Company. In 1898 the territory was named Southern Rhodesia. From 1923 to 1953 this territory became the self-governing Colony of Southern Rhodesia. From 1953 to 1963, the colony became a component of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (this federation was also known as the Central African Federation (CAF)). In 1964 the name became Rhodesia, an unrecognized country, and from 1970 to 1979, and still unrecognized, the Republic of Rhodesia. In April of 1979, when the country transitioned to majority rule the new name was briefly the Republic of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia. In late 1979 to 1980, fleetingly and the only period of direct rule by Great Britain, the territory became again the Colony of Southern Rhodesia. Since 1980 the territory is the Republic of Zimbabwe. This note is based on a citation by Bill Schwarz, The White Man's World: Memories of Empire, Oxford University Press, 2011, Kindle Edition, retrieved March 20, 2016.
  38. Arch was highly regarded, with jewelry stores in Johannesburg, Salisbury (now Harare), Lusaka, many business interests, and a residence in Nice. He traveled widely and kept his finger on the pulse of Africa. “He was a Jew, a brilliant man," translated from the Portuguese, “Ele era um Judeu, um homem brilhante,” from “A Beira e o Grande Hotel Da Beira”, The Delagoa Bay Review, February 17, 2011, retrieved February 18, 2016.
  39. Oral History, 2004.
  40. Oral History, 2004.
  41. Newsreel footage shows the prime minister visiting Victoria Falls to lay the foundation stone and Faanya’s father Simon Arch presenting Mrs. Smith with a diamond brooch. Faanya is seen at the reception. “Latest Film Dispatch 1965”, British Pathé, November 25, 1965, retrieved January 12, 2016.
  42. Oral History, 2004.
  43. Many accounts of the collapse of minority rule Rhodesia are available on the internet including Paul Moorcraft, “Rhodesia’s War of independence”, History Today, Volume 40, Issue 9, September 1990, retrieved March 11, 2016.
  44. Sanctions led to the rationing of chocolate, cosmetics, razor blades, and golf balls. Oil was embargoed and tobacco, the country’s biggest export, was boycott on the world markets. Lee Hall, “Defiant Rhodesia”, TIME, May 27, 1966, Vol. 60, pp. 25, retrieved April 2, 2016.
  45. Said Faanya of the violence, “When I […] hear all these terrible things that the terrorists do [today], it's like living with déjà vu.” Oral History, 2004.
  46. Oral History, 2004.
  47. According to Faanya, a major facet of life in Rhodesia was the ‘farm,’ which could also be called ‘ranch,’ depending on how the land was used. Oral History, 2004.
  48. For context: 3,400 hectares = 8,401 square acres = an expanse about 11 times the size of Central Park in New York City, New York. For comparison, Ian Smith owned a 2,000 hectare farm in Selukwe (now Shurugwi). Schwarz, The White Man’s World, 2011.
  49. For Rhodesian conservation practices during Faanya’s time in Rhodesia see GFT Childs, “Problems and Progress in Nature Conservation in Rhodesia”, KOEDOE, 1977, pp. 116-137, retrieved January 28, 2016.
  50. Oral History, 2004.
  51. Oral History, 2004.
  52. Oral History, 2004.
  53. Goldin was a passenger aboard Air Rhodesia flight 827 destroyed by SAM missiles on February 12, 1979. The day after, The Associated Press filmed guerrilla leader Joshua Nkomo admitting that his forces believed mistakenly a military target, Lieutenant-General Peter Walls, commander of the Rhodesian security forces, was aboard. “Joshua NKomo Interview on the Shooting Down of Rhodesian Viscount”, AP Archive, February 15, 1979, retrieved April 2, 2016.
  54. Faanya said of Rhodesia, “to be a Rhodesian at that time was a state of mind, not an accident of birth. Because [we] came from all over the world. And the thing was that [we] loved [our] country.” Oral History, 2004.
  55. Oral History, 2004.
  56. Membership Application, 1994.
  57. Membership Application, 1994.
  58. Kim Holdsworth, who took over for Faanya when she retired from BAA in 1998, said she was “fortunate enough to have an excellent mentor in Faanya Goldin.” Graham Buck, “Career Profile: Kim Holdsworth”, The Treasurer (from the Association of Corporate Treasurers), February 2010, retrieved April 4, 2016.
  59. Membership Application, 1994.
  60. Fight for Sight, the largest eye research charity in the United Kingdom, was formerly the British Eye Research Foundation (2004-2006), and earlier the Iris Fund for the Prevention of Blindness (1986-2004). Faanya served all three. See “About Fight for Sight”, Fight for Sight © 2015, retrieved April 5, 2016. Her commitment to eye health was prompted by her father’s blindness in one eye. Oral History, 2004.
  61. Faanya traveled to Nepal in 2011 for the dedication of the ‘Faanya and Robert Rose Library,’ captured in a "photo of the event", retrieved April 5, 2016. For the history of the monastery see “History”, Pema Ts'al Sakya Monastic Institute © 2013, retrieved April 5, 2016.
  62. The Lindbergh Foundation was established in 1977 by members of the Explorers Club who were friends of Charles Lindbergh and his wife Anne Morrow Lindbergh. See “Who We Are”, Lindbergh Foundation © 2016, retrieved April 5, 2016.
  63. The Jewish Association of Business Ethics (JABE) was an influential though short lived British charity founded by Chief Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks, who nominated Faanya for Founding Trustee. She served in varying capacities from 1995 to 2002. Oral History, 2004.
  64. DofE is a worldwide youth awards program founded in 1956 by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. See “About Us”, Duke of Edinburgh International Award © 2016, retrieved April 5, 2016.
  65. SCSST was founded in United Kingdom in 1971 as a national non-governmental body to work with industry to enhance technology education. See “Section 25: The Standing Conference on Schools Science and Technology”, Science Education Newsletter of The British Council, No. 18, April 1972, retrieved April 6, 2016. In 1993, SCSST became Council for Science and Technology (CST).
  66. In addition to Wikipedia see “Operation Noah: Wild Animals Imperiled by Rising Water Are Removed from Danger”, New York Times, July 6, 1962, retrieved April 4, 2016. For a stirring first-hand account with photographs by nature cinematographer Charles Lagus see Operation Noah (New York: Coward-McCann, 1960).
  67. Oral History, 2004.
  68. Membership Application, 2004.
  69. ASPROM is the British branch of l'Étude de la Mosaïque Antique (AIEMA) established in 1978 for the study of Roman Mosaics in Britain. See “About ASPROM”, ASPROM © 2015, retrieved April 4, 2016.
  70. Membership Application, 2004.
  71. See “About the Scientific Exploration Society”, The Scientific Exploration Society © 2016, retrieved April 5, 2016.
  72. For Faanya’s contribution to the expedition see John Blashford-Snell and Rula Lenska, Mammoth Hunt: In Search of the Giant Elephants of Nepal (London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1996), pp. 131, 139, 150, 160.
  73. Membership Application, 2004.
  74. Minutes of the Board of Directors, April 1998. Research Collections, The Explorers Club.
  75. See “A Night to Remember”, Expedition News, Volume 7, Number 4, April 2000, retrieved April 6, 2016.
  76. Membership Application, 2004.
  77. Dr. Levinson was a past president of the Explorers Club. See “John Levinson”,Legacy.Com (New York Times), October 11, 2009, retrieved April 6, 2016.
  78. Thor Heyerdahl, Letter to the Membership, February 1998. Research Collections, The Explorers Club.
  79. Carrying the Explorers Club Flag represents the pinnacle of excellence in exploration and field science. See “Carrying the Flag”, The Explorers Club © 2016, retrieved May 15, 2016.
  80. Flag Index 1998, Flag #186. Research Collections, The Explorers Club.
  81. For Faanya’s contribution to the expedition see John Blashford-Snell and Richard Snailham, Kota Moma: Retracing the Lost Trade routes of Ancient South American Peoples (London: Headline Book Publishing, 2000), pp. 27, 29, 50, 72.
  82. Flag Index 1999, #117.
  83. “Scott W. Hamilton MED ’82”, The Explorers Club © 2016, retrieved April 5, 2016.
  84. Flag Index 2002, #74.
  85. Flag Index 2003, #74.
  86. Flag Index 2007, #162.
  87. Flag Index 2010, #176.
  88. “Flag Report 2010, #176: Tibetan Refugee Eye & Medical Project: Pokara, Nepal 2010”, The Explorers Club © 2016, April 2010, retrieved March 4, 2016.
  89. Flag Index 2011, #189.
  90. “Mount Everest High Altitude Research Expedition 2011 [Flag #189]: Scientific Objectives”, The Explorers Club © 2016, retrieved March 4, 2016.

External links