First Muslim female medical doctor of Indo-Pakistan

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The first Muslim female medical doctors in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent were Dr. Amturraqeeb and Dr. Umm-e-Kulsoom.


Agra Women Medical College, India Degree 1920

Both Amturraqeeb and Umm-e-Kulsoom were daughters of Mohammad Yaqoob, who was born as Ganeshi Lal in 1867 to a rich and affluent Hindu merchant family in Nagina, near Delhi. At the age of around sixteen, he converted to Islam and changed his name to Mohammad Yaqoob. Despite facing criticism from his newly adopted Muslim community, Yaqoob provided his daughters with modern education, allowing them to become the first Muslim female medical doctors in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Medical education in those days was given in mixed classes at men’s colleges; conservative Indian women, especially Muslims, were not joining these colleges.[1]

The Yaqoob sisters earned their Licensed Medical Practitioner (LMP) diploma, which was the only authentic medical practicing diploma/degree at that time, from Agra Women Medical School in 1920.[1][2] The LMP was later replaced by LSMF (Licentiate of State Medical Faculty) and then to MBBS in Indo-Pak Subcontinent.[2]


Dr Amturraqeeb was born in Mullana, District Ambala, Indo-Pak subcontinent on February 22, 1900. She got schooling from St. Johns Girls High School, Agra. Amturraqeeb graduated from Agra women Medical School (present Sarojini Naidu Medical College (SNMC)[3] on 9 October 1920 along with her sister Umme Kulsom and became the first Muslim Woman Licensed Medical Practitioner (LMP). In that same year she got married to Dr. Ishaq Siddiqi Nashit.[4]Template:Rp She had one son and three daughters; Professor Dr. Hasan Ashfaq Siddiqi, Amtul Haseeb Daud, Afifa Mahmood and Latifa Azim.[4]Template:Rp Amturraqeeb had her medical practice in Bareli and Aligharh before partition. After the creation of Pakistan she moved to Karachi and worked at Kharadar Maternity Hospital as Resident Medical Officer. She passed away on July 7, 1971 in Quetta, Pakistan. File:Dr._Amturraqib_with_her_son_and_daughters.png File:Dr._Amturraqib_as_a_doctor.png


Dr. Umm-e-Kulsoom was born in Mullana, District Ambala, on 27 June 1898. She got schooling from St. Johns Girls High School, Agra. After graduation from Agra Women medical College on 9 October 1920 she became the first Muslim female doctor with her sister Dr. Amturraqeeb. Umm-e-Kulsoom had a long and active medical, political, social and academic career. She became member of State Board of Medical Faculty Upper Provinces, Indo-Pak Subcontinent.[5] She was also Pakistan Movement Activist; was President of Pilibhit District, All-India Muslim League (Women wing).[5] Due to her great services for women of India in medical field, the then government of UP awarded her an honorary degree of “Fellow of State Medical Faculty” (FSMF).[5] She was also member of Pilibhit municipal board for 18 years.[5] Her scholarly activities included a book “Rudad-e-Qafas” and editor of magazine “Harem” published from Pilibhit from 1927-1930.[5] Dr. Umme Kulsoom married Dr. Abdul Ghafoor Bismil and migrated to Pakistan and settled in Larkana, Pakistan. They had no children of their own but adopted her youngest sister Amtulmujeeb. Later she became family physician of Sir Shahnawaz Bhutto.[4]Template:Rp[5] She passed away on 4 January 1975 in Karachi, Pakistan.


  1. 1.0 1.1 Mathur, NN (1998). "Indian Medical Colleges". The National Medical Journal of India 11: 97–100. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Crawford, D.G.. "Chapter XLIII: Medical education in India". Roll of the Indian Medical Services 1615-1930. 1. UK: Naval and Military Press Ltd. 
  3. "History". Sarojini Naidu Medical College. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Siddiqi, Hasan Ashfaq (2000). Nida-e-Nashit. Islamabad: Word Mate. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Bismil, Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor (1952). Rudad-e-Qafas. Sind Madrasa, Karachi: Al Ilm: All Pakistan Educational Conference. p. 5.