Impacts of tourism

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The rapid growth in tourism throughout the world led to questions of impacts that the tourism industry imposes among the: community, tourists, and destination. The study of Tourism Impacts is a relatively new area of research, that involves humans and animals along with the environment in which they reside in; this includes the natural environments, plants, animals and their habitats, the impacts of these can not always be easily categorized.[1] The impacts of Tourism are like in any other, there are positive impacts and negative impacts, and be Direct or indirect and which can be objective depending on perspective and the lens in which the impacts are being observed through. Tourism Impacts are multifaceted and can be broken down into three main categories:

  1. Environmental Impacts
  2. Social and Cultural Impacts
  3. Economic Impacts

Realizing when evaluating Tourism Impacts the observer must keep in mind; where is, it happening, when is it happening and the seasonality of the activities and the infrastructure built.[1] Impacts become apparent after time and with varying effects and appear in all stages of development and operation of the Tourism destination.[2]

Positive Impacts for the tourism industry is usually seen in Economic Growth particularly in Rural and Developing countries. A positive impact can refer to the increase in jobs, a higher quality of life for locals and an increase in wealth of an area. Tourism also has the advantage of rebuilding and restoring historic sites and encouraging the revitalization of cultures.[3] A positive impact is to increase or to make better either for the tourist, the host community and residence and/or the tourist destination. The positive impacts are related more to the materialistic well-being, rather than to the happiness of a host community or tourist.[4] The tourist destination is having positive impacts, if there have been improvements to the natural environment such as protection, national parks, or man-made infrastructure;waste-treatment plants.

Negative Impacts are the effects, that are caused in most cases, at the tourist destination site with detrimental impacts to the Social and cultural area, as well as the natural environment. As the population increases so do the impacts, resources become unsustainable and exhausted, the carrying capacity for tourists in a destination site may become depleted.[5] Typically, when negative impacts are occurring, it is too late to place restrictions and regulations. Tourist destinations seem to discover that many of the negative impacts are found in the development stage of the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC).[6]

The direct impacts of tourism; are from interactions that have direct implications on either the host community, tourist, or destination location. These impacts can have effects on the environmental, social, or economic aspects. Example: Tourist traveling to Kahuzi-Beiga National Park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, unknowingly bringing diseases with them [7]

Indirect impacts of tourism which are also called secondary impacts, are results from the destination that are not direct effects but steam from a direct impact of a tourist destination. Example: The Gorillas in Kahuzi-Beiga National Park, developed respiratory diseases from tourist entering the park.[7] Social and Cultural impacts are also known as Soci-Cultural, the impacts are associated with interactions between peoples and culture backgrounds. Which addresses the attitudes and behaviors, cultural relationships, and the material goods.[8] The introduction of tourists to sensitive cultural and cultural sites, can have detrimental outcomes to the host community and the locals, which can cause a loss of culture for generations. Increase tourism can also contribute to the preservation of culture and cultural sites encourage development of resources and stability in financial means.

Environmental impacts are impacts that effect our natural environment and influence locals and have an impact on the tourist overall experiences in a destination. Environmental impacts can affect the vegetation, air quality, bodies of water, the water table, wildlife, rock formations and add to congestion in areas that may not have the carrying capacity. The environmental impacts include the natural environment and the built environment and have both positive and negative effects on the destination site. Economic Impacts are usually seen as positive and contributes to growth and stability within communities. Economically tourism increases Job opportunities, increase the average incomes, and stimulates the economy in the community.[9] These impacts also contribute to high living costs within the community, pushing local business out of the areas and during high tourist season make the price of living unattainable to locals [9][10]

Environmental Impacts of Tourism

As more and more people each year become interested in Ecotourism, nature tourism, wildlife tourism, adventure tourism it gains in popularity each year. Ecotourism takes place across the globe and in a variety of different regions, topologies such as rain forests, high alpine, wilderness, lakes and rivers, coastlines and marine environment, and also in the built environment in urban centers, rural villages and coastline resorts.

As the desire for people to experience greater, authentic and challenging experiences, then these tourist destinations become more remote and occupy the few remaining pristine and natural environments left on the planet. As a region or area becomes a tourist destination then there are a series of impacts that are exacted onto it. There are positive environmental impacts such as increases awareness of pro environmental behaviour.[11] There are also negative environmental impacts created by tourism, such as increase in pollution and garbage. There are both direct and indirect impacts, there are immediate and long-term impacts, and there are impacts that are both proximal and distal to the tourist destination. These impacts can be separated into three categories: facility impacts, tourist activities, and the transit effect.

Facility Impacts

As a region area develops from the exploration to involvement and then into the development stage of the tourist area life cycle model.[12] During these phases there can be huge direct and indirect environmental impacts attributed to the construction of superstructure such as hotels and restaurants and infrastructure such as roads and power supply.

Superstructure is seen as a negative direct impact during the construction and during the working life of the building, whereas there are some positive impacts caused by the construction of infrastructure. As the destination develops, more tourist seek out the experience, consequently, their impacts increase accordingly. The requirement for water, for washing, waste disposal and drinking increases dramatically. Rivers can be altered, excessively extracted and polluted by the demand placed by the facility. Noise pollution and light pollution are direct impacts, power generation is often performed by diesel or gasoline generators. These cause load noise, create smoke and GHG emissions. The noise created by these generators has the capacity to disturb wildlife and alter behaviour. Likewise, light pollution can disrupt the feeding and reproductive behaviour of many creatures. General waste and garbage are also a result of the facilities. As more tourists arrive there is an increase in variety of food and beverages, which in turn creates waste plastic and non-biodegradable products.

Tourist Activities

For many tourists the main reason for their vacation is to provide an opportunity to engage in various types of physical activities, and enjoy interacting with nature in a way that they would not ordinarily be able to do. These activities such as, hiking, trekking, kayaking, bird watching, wild life safaris, surfing, snorkelling, scuba-diving and many more have an ecological effect. Even the most environmentally aware tourist cannot help causing some degree of impact while partaking in their activity.

Some of the most popular activities for tourists are hiking and trekking and camping. The act of a single person walking along a designated trail will have little environmental impact by itself. Unfortunately, due to the large numbers of participants engaged in this one activity, and due to seasonal nature of the activity, the number of people involved during a narrow window of opportunity creates a significant direct impact on the local environment. There are a range of impacts from hiking; trekking and camping that directly affects the activity area. The most obvious is the erosion and compaction of the trail itself. The daily use of the trail by hikers the trail wears the trail down and compacts it, if there are any obstacles such as fallen trees or puddles of mud then the trail becomes widened or informal trails are created to bypass the obstacle.[13] There is a multitude of other direct impacts exacted on the tread area, such as damage or removal of vegetation, loss of vegetation height, reduction in foliage cover, exposure of tree root systems, migration of trampled vegetation, and immigration of non-native species.[14] As well as the direct impacts, there are indirect impacts on the trails such as, the change in soil porosity, changes to microflora composition, problems with seed dispersion and germination and degradation of the soil nutrient composition.[15] As many hikers and trekkers wish to partake in multi-day trips, a large number of these will wish to camp overnight either in formal or random campgrounds. There are similar impacts on campgrounds such as soil compaction, erosion and composition, loss of vegetation and foliage plus the additional issues of campfires for cooking and heat. Informal trails are created around the campsite in order to collect firewood (and water), and trees and saplings can be trampled, damaged or cut-down for fuel, while the heat or burning directly impacts the tree-root system.[16] In formal campgrounds, tent pad areas are normally devoid of any vegetation which random camping can damage sensitive plants and grasses during a single overnight stay.

As with most recreation activities, including hiking and camping there will be the need for the participants to eat and pass human waste. These natural requirements generally cause the deposition of garbage and waste. In both cases this can cause human-wildlife interactions and the habituation of wildlife. This can have a detrimental effect on the wildlife and cause danger for the human. the provision for deposit, collection, and removal of all waste will also have a direct impact on the local environment.

Another activity that can have severe direct and indirect impacts on the environment is wildlife viewing. This happens in a range of formats, on land and in the ocean. With the increasing popularity of eco-tourism, there is an increased desire to experience the most exciting creatures in their natural environment. Wildlife safaris in African countries such as Kenya, Botswana and Tanzania have been very popular for many years. They specialize in the Big Five game megafauna; the African lion, African Elephant , African leopard, cape buffalo and rhinoceros. As with every human-wildlife interaction, there is a change in the natural interaction of the species. The very presence of humans can increase the heart rate and stress hormones of even the largest animal.[17] Other changes in behavior have been recognized. For example, baboons and hyenas have learnt to track tourist safari vehicles to lead them to cheetah kills, which they then steal.[18] This direct impact of tourism can severely damage the delicate balance of the food webs and keystone species. In a similar vein, there is a small but significant number of tourists that choose to pay vast sums of money in order to trophy hunt lions, rhino, leopards and even giraffes. It has been fiercely argued that there is a positive and negative, direct and indirect environmental impact caused by trophy hunting There is a continued discussion at federal and international government level as to the ethics that provides funds for conservation efforts by killing the animal they are hunting.[19] Another tourism destination activity is Scuba diving. There are many negative direct environmental impacts caused by recreational diving. The most apparent is the damage caused by poorly skilled divers standing on the reef itself or by accidentally hitting the fragile coral with their fins. Studies have shown that "naïve" divers who are participating in underwater photography are considerably more likely to accidentally damage the reef.[20] As the cost of underwater photography equipment has reduced and the availability increased it is inevitable that there will be an increase of direct damage to reefs by divers. Other direct impact include over-fishing for "marine curios," sedimentation and in-fill.[21] There is also direct environmental impact due to disturbed and altered species behaviour from fish feeding, as well as import of invasive species and pollution caused by dive-boats. There are also indirect impacts such as shoreline construction of superstructure and infrastructures.

Transit Effects

Anthropogenic climate change is the term used to describe the manufacture of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by human activity: GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and the halocarbons, (fluorine, chlorine and bromine). Across the globe scientists, climatologists and meteorologist are increasingly convinced that the actions of humankind have caused the dramatic increase of GHG's in the earth's atmosphere.[22] As a result of the recent, massive accumulation of GHGs the annual average global temperature is rising by an alarming amount each year. New records were set in 2014, 2015 and it is predicted that 2016 will yet again exceed the previous highest average global temperature.[23] The majority of GHG's are released during the combustion of fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas in order to generate electricity. However, other large contributors to the amount of GHGs in the atmosphere are caused by personal transport such as automobiles and air travel.

Since 2009 there has been a steady year-on-year increase in the amount of tourist arrivals worldwide of approximately 4.4%. In 2015 there were 1186 million tourist arrivals worldwide, of which fifty-four percent arrived by air, (640 million) and thirty-nine percent (462 million) by motor vehicle, five percent by water 59 million and only two percent by rail (23.7 million).[24] To put these figures into context, a seven-hour flight on a Boeing 747 produces 220 tonnes of CO2, which is the equivalent of driving an average size family saloon car for a 365 days, or the energy requirement for an average family home for nearly seventeen years.[25] With the ever-increasing amount of tourist arrivals there is an ever-increasing amount of GHG's being produced by the tourism industry. In 2015 it is estimated that five percent of the global GHG release was attributed to air-travel alone.

The irony is that as more eco-tourists seek remote, pristine, undeveloped regions and practise low-impact, Leave No Trace adventure vacations their GHG contributions have increased exponentially. The effects of increased GHG in the atmosphere are becoming increasingly obvious. The average global temperature is increasing, causing the oceans to warm and causing increased frequency of abnormal weather events such as floods and hurricanes. The massive increase in the amount of CO2 dissolved into the oceans is changing the pH, leading to acidification of the oceans, which in turn has lead to "bleaching" of coral reefs worldwide. In 2016 it was determined that the worlds largest coral reef, The Great Barrier Reef, is so badly affected by bleaching that only ten percent remained unspoiled and the remaining ninety percent has varying degrees of degradation[26] A recently discovered issue in the Pacific Northwest caused by acidification, is the decreased survival of pteropods, a key source of food for salmon. These microscopic invertebrates known as sea butterflies are unable to form their outer shells and die.[27] These tiny creatures make up a significant portion of the salmon diet. Without this nutrition available to the salmon, they may not grow to maturity, and return to their spawning grounds to reproduce and provide food for the bears. Bears cycle nutrients through the forest, where tourist come to view (or hunt) the bears. Thus the food web is disturbed. Anthropogenic climate change has both a direct and indirect impact on tourism.

Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism

Sociology and cultural impact are often amalgamated into one word Socio-cultural as both fields exam the interaction between people of different cultural backgrounds. Sociology tends to the address the attitudes and behavior that occur in these interaction and the cultural component focused on their relationship and the material good.[28] It is these aspects that form our understanding of the tourism when examining the human element over the environmental element and the economic element. Tourists can experience culture by taking in different interactions of that culture, from the local arts and crafts, food, language, histories, costumes and the architecture.[28] Tourist are attracted to cultural tourism as a way of experience the authenticity of the both the history and the natural environment.[29] This provides the tourist with the opportunities to participate in different types of cultural tourism, from heritage tourism to urban tourism and ethnic tourism.[30] Although cultural tourism provides opportunities for a deeper cultural understanding and education there are some serious impacts that arise as a result. Theses impacts have positive and negative implications for the culture and society that is playing host to the tourist. It has the ability to influence change within the local culture and aspect associated with the local culture. The positive impacts associated with tourism tends to be outnumbered by the negative or viewed in a negative manor. The majority of the positive impacts have some indirectly negative aspects associated with them. However the number of negative implication of tourism does not halt its progress. Social exchange theory suggested that the host communities encourage tourism because it improves several aspects of the community including the social and physiological needs of the community.[29]

The impacts tend to be influenced by the volume of tourists visiting that destination and affect the intensity at which these problems are felt. It is not only volume of tourist that play a role but the social interaction that occurs between host and tourist. Ryan[7] uses the term of micro-individual interchange and micro social impacts as a way of analyzing the social impacts of the tourism. Micro-individual interchanges analyzes the interaction and what happened during these interactions, whereas micro-social impacts address what happens as a responses to the aforementioned interactions.[7] The analysis of cultural impact tends to focus on the micro-social because these changes tend to be more visible.

Tourism also creates three different effect at the local level, the commodification of culture, the demonstration effect and the acculturation of another culture. The economic pressure that occurs a host sells cultural artifacts and experience is referred to as the commodification of culture as it puts a price on culture. It is positive that it brings financial benefits but by putting a price on the culture. Commodification is an important tool for any culture seeking to develop a tourism sector and allows for the sharing of culture.[31] It also creates opportunities for the over commercialization of good and services and leaves room for knock of products. Mason states that demonstration effects occurs when is a great degree of difference between the host and the tourist, creating a gap between the generations, this commonly occurs in developing communities.[28] This can come in the form of make a skeptical out everyday occurrence, or having large number of people in attendance on cultural events. This is a different form acculturation as the culture is influenced by other cultures. Mason states that acculturation occurs when the culture of the developed world out competes the culture of the developing world[28] The possible form that this could take is the two culture amalgamate and become one. This creates detachment for the existing culture. Potentially it can also affects the visitors experience and affect the authenticity of the cultural experience.[28]

Positive Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism

Tourism can be beneficial for the both tourist and the host community as it provides communities with the financial means and the incentive to preserve cultural histories as well as develop resources within the community. Tourism provides the economic potential, allowing for a diversification of employment and income possibilities, and increases the community to improve infrastructure and service that will benefit both the locals and the tourists.[30] Communities tend to developed to meet the demand of the tourist and a result in a diversification of employment arises to meet these demands. Tourism requires infrastructure to support tourist resulting in change within the host communities, this can be beneficial as it improves existing infrastructure.[29]

Along with improved infrastructure comes an increase in the needs to preserve culture. As another positive impact of gain financial benefit from tourist, the opportunity to preserve local heritage and custom as well as ability to gain wealth by selling local craft works.[30] Tourism can provide opportunities for communities to preserve cultural heritage sites.[29] It is not only heritage site that benefit from tourism but the culture as well. Different forms of tourism have provided these opportunities, such as cultural or heritage tourism. Mason notes the benefits that are associated with the cultural tourism as the opportunity to revitalize and preservation of historical infrastructure, traditional and cultural aspects of life, and the environment, as well as boosting the local economy.[28] Whereas, heritage tourism focus on the local history or historical event that occurred in the area, and tends to promote education.[32]

Negative Socio-Cultural Impacts

There are a lot of negative implication that result from tourism and the interactions that occur between tourists. Although there are positives associated with interactions but there can be negatives when these interactions go poorly. This can result in negative interactions can result in negative experience for the visitors and the host.[33] Tourist can sometimes violate customs [34] as well as culturally sensitive locations. It is not just the negative implications that can come directly as result of the micro-individual interactions but the micro-social impacts that are measured when analyzing the impacts. The introduction of different cultural beliefs by visitors tends to create disconnect between the older and younger generations. This can change in a cultural belief and effect the cultural being passed down. Locals can struggle to co-exist with tourists because they share a different set of values and the tourist have the ability participate in leisure activities.[28] Tourism can also effect the transition from traditional employment to new tourism employment affecting the traditional jobs. The number of tourism can overwhelm the host community challenging their ability to cope and preserve their traditions, as well as lifestyle.[30] Another potential impact that arise from tourism is the rise of elicit activities, such as, prostitution, drug use and crime [28] increase in crime.[30]

Economic Impacts

Direct & Indirect Economic Impacts of Tourism

Global tourism in 2014 represents a direct contribution to the world's GDP of 3.7%, or upwards of $2.5 billion, with its total contribution rising to almost 10% of world GDP.[35] This influx of GDP comes from the over 1 billion international tourists worldwide; a number that has been growing by 5% annually since 2012[36][37] Visitation and economic contributions to GDP are expected to continue to rise in the near future as falling oil prices contribute to reduced living costs and increased available income for households, as well as reduced costs for air travel.Tourism can be divided into subcategories into which impacts fall; spending from visitors on tourism experiences like beach holidays and theme parks (domestic and international), spending on leisure items like bicycles, business spending, and capital investment.[35][38]

The economic contribution of tourism is felt in both direct and indirect ways, where direct economic impacts are created when commodities like the following are sold: accommodation and entertainment, food and beverages services, and retail opportunities. Residents, visitors, businesses, and various levels of governments (municipal to federal) all influence direct tourism impacts through their spending in or near a given tourism area.[35][36][39] The key component of direct economic impacts of tourism is that they occur within a country's borders and are implemented by "residents and non-residents for business and leisure purposes".[35] In contrast, indirect economic impacts of tourism can be found in investment spending surrounding a tourism offering from private and governmental interests. This investment may not explicitly be related to tourism, but benefits the tourist and local stakeholders all the same.[35] Indirect impacts of tourism are exemplified by the purchase and sale of intermediary items like additional supplies for restaurants during the high tourism season, or widened sidewalks in busy downtown centres.[36] Indirect economic impacts (the supply chain, investment, and government collective) account for 50.7% of the total GDP contribution from travel and tourism in 2014.[35]

Induced spending, the re-circulation of a tourist dollar within a community, is another way that tourism indirectly has an impact on a community.[40] For example, a foreign tourist injects money into the local economy when they spend a dollar on a souvenir made by a local at the tourism destination. That individual goes on to spend that dollar on lunch from a local vendor, and that vendor goes on to spend it locally too[41][42]

Positive & Negative Economic Impacts of Tourism

There are both positive and negative effects on communities related to the economic impacts of tourism in their communities.[40][42] Positive impacts begin when there is an increase in job opportunities for locals as the tourism industry becomes more developed. There is also an increase in average income that spreads throughout the community when tourism is capitalized on.[40] In addition, the local economy is stimulated and diversified, goods are manufactured more locally, and new markets open for local business owners to expand to.[40] Unfortunately, these benefits are not universal or invulnerable. While more employment may be available, tourism-related jobs are often seasonal and low-paying for entrants into the job market.[40] Prices are known to fluctuate throughout the year; they rise in the high tourism season to take advantage of more tourist dollars, but have the side effect of pricing goods above the economic reach of local residents, effectively starving them out of a place that was once their home.[36][40] Additionally, the economics of tourism have been shown to push out local tourism business owners in favour of strangers to the region.[40][41][42] Foreign ownership creates leakage (revenues leaving the host community for another nation or multi-national business) which strip the opportunity for locals to make meaningful profits.[40][43] The foreign companies are also known to hire non-resident seasonal workers because they can pay those individuals lower wages, which further contributes to economic leakage. Tourism can raise property prices near the tourism area, effectively pushing out locals and encouraging businesses to migrate inwards to encourage and take advantage of more tourist spending[40]


Employment, and both its availability and exclusivity, are subsets of economic impacts of tourism.[43] Travel and tourism create 10.7% of the total available jobs worldwide, in both the direct and indirect tourism sectors.[35][43] Direct tourism jobs, those that provide the visitor with their tourism experience include, but are not limited to: accommodation (building, cleaning, managing), food and drink services, entertainment, manufacturing and shopping[40][42][43] Indirect tourism employment opportunities include the manufacturing of aircraft, boats, and other transportation, as well as the construction of additional superstructure and infrastructure necessary to accommodate these travel products (airports, harbours, etc.)[43]

Tourism Satellite Account (TSA)

A tourism satellite account (TSA) is a system of measurement created by the United Nations to define the extent of an economic sector that is not so easily defined as industries like forestry or oil and gas [43] Tourism does not fit neatly into a statistical model; because it is not so much dependent on the physical movement of products and services, as it is on the position of the consumer.[43][44] Therefore, TSAs were designed to standardize these many offerings for an international scale to facilitate better understanding of current tourism circumstances locally and abroad.[43] The standardization includes concepts, classifications, and definitions, and is meant to enable researchers, industry professionals, and the average tourism business owner to view international comparisons [43] Before TSAs were widely implemented, a significant gap existed in the available knowledge about tourism as an economic driver for GDP, employment, investment, and industry consumption.[39][43] This gap meant missed opportunities for development as tourism stakeholders were unable to understand where they might be able to better establish themselves in the tourism economy. For example, a TSA can measure tax revenues related to tourism, which is a key contributor to the level of enthusiasm any level of government might have towards potential tourism investment.[43] In addition, Tyrrell and Johnston [43] suggest that stakeholders in tourism benefit from the TSA because it…

  • "provides credible data on the impact of tourism and the associated employment"
  • "is a standard framework for organizing statistical data on tourism"
  • "is a new international standard endorsed by the UN Statistical Commission"
  • "is a powerful instrument for designing economic policies related to tourism development"
  • "provides data on tourism's impact on a nation's balance of payments"
  • "provides information on tourism human resource characteristics"

Before TSAs, finding the types of information listed above was imprecise and based on indicators that were primarily approximations and therefore lacking in scientific and analytical viewpoints.[44] By collecting more qualitative data and translating it into a more concise and effective form for tourism providers, it could be more easily interpreted, and implemented, meanings TSAs were able to fill much of the gap in knowledge.[44] Information delivered and measured by a TSA includes tax revenues, economic impact on national balances, human resources, employment, and "tourism's contribution to gross domestic product".[43]

Projections for 2020

Predictions for the extent to which impacts of tourism will impact the world's economic system appear to agree that the number of international tourist arrivals will reach approximately 1.6 billion by the year 2020.[36][43] Of those tourists, 1.18 billion are expected to be intra-regional, and 377 million to be long-haul.[43] Of these travelers, arrivals in developing countries are expected to continue growing from the recorded 47% of total arrivals recorded in 2011 as access to these more remote locations becomes easier[36][37][38] Direct contributions of travel and tourism to the world economy and GDP are expected to rise from 3.09% in 2015 to 3.3% in 2025, with the most impacts found in the investment and supply chain sectors.[35] Employment is anticipated to rise parallel to GDP contributions; reaching 3.9% of world employment in 2025 (up from 3.6% in 2015).[35] Direct tourism employment in 2025 will be an estimated 3.9% of total world employment (up from approximately 3.6% in 2015), while indirect tourism employment will be at approximately 4.5% (up from 3.6% in 2015).[35]

See also


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  3. Robert W. Wyllie. 2000. Tourism and Society; A guide to problems and issues. Venture Publishing. State collage, Pennsylvania. Chapters 01-03
  4. Kyungmi K. (2002) Doctor of Philosophy in Hospitality and Tourism and Management: The Effects of Tourism Impacts upon Quality of Life of Residents in the community, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Retrieved from: November 28, 2016
  5. J.G Nelson, R. Butler, G. Wall. 1999.Tourism and Sustainable Development; A civic approach. Heritage Resource Centre Joint Publication Number 2, University of waterloo and Department of Geography Publication Series Number 52 University of Waterloo
  6. Nelson, J. G., Butler, R., & Wall, G. (1999). Tourism and Sustainable Development A Civic Approach. Department of Geography, University of Waterloo, Canada.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Ryan, C. (2003). Recreational tourism: Demand and impacts (Vol. 11). Channel View Publications.
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  9. 9.0 9.1 Rollins, R., Dearden P. and Fennell, D. (2016) Tourism, Ecotourism and Protected Areas. In P. Dearden, R. Rollins and M. Needham (ed.), parks and Protected Areas in Canada: Planning and Management (fourth edition) (PP. 391-425) Toronto: Oxford UniversityPress.
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  11. Moghimehfar, F., & Halpenny, E. A. (2016). How do people negotiate through their constraints to engage in pro-environmental behavior? A study of front-country campers in Alberta, Canada. Tourism Management, 57, 362-372.
  12. Butler, R. W. (1980). The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: implications for management of resources. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien, 24(1), 5-12.
  13. Marion, J.L. (1998). Recreation ecology research findings: Implications for wilderness and park managers. In: Proceedings of the National Outdoor Ethics Conference, April 18–21, 1996, St. Louis, MO. Gaithersburg, MD: Izaak Walton League of America. pp. 188-196.
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  21. Hawkins, J. P., & Roberts, C. M. (1994). The growth of coastal tourism in the Red Sea: present and future effects on coral reefs. Ambio, 23(8), 503-508.
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  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 (Fernandes)
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 (Fagence,
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