India and state-sponsored terrorism
- Wikipedia editors had multiple issues with this page:
- This article was considered for deletion at Wikipedia on September 27 2016. This is a backup of Wikipedia:India_and_state-sponsored_terrorism. All of its AfDs can be found at Wikipedia:Special:PrefixIndex/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/India_and_state-sponsored_terrorism, the first at Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/India_and_state-sponsored_terrorism.
India is accused of sponsoring terrorism in Pakistan,Template:SfnTemplate:Page neededTemplate:SfnTemplate:Page needed and Sri Lanka. Terrorism in Pakistan has been focused in the Baluchistan province where separatist groups have been allegedly financed by the Indian intelligence agency RAW since 1977. In 2015, Pakistan accused India of carrying out "economic sabotage". Template:Failed verification Terrorism in Sri Lanka has been attributed to TELO and LTTE, both of which were allegedly financed and trained by RAW. There are also allegations that RAW is involved in supporting home grown terrorist elements inside India.
Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi decided to support the Tamil insurgents in 1983, and within one year the Indian intelligence agency RAW created thirty training camps in Tamil Nadu, which provided sanctuary, financial support, training and arms to more than 20,000 insurgents. The initial training was usually provided at certain Indian military camps located in Uttar Pradesh, while special training was given at special RAW centers in New Delhi, Bombay, and Vishakhapatnam. The recruits deemed capable for the most sensitive training were trained at India’s "most prestigious military academy" near Dehra Dun. Although the Indian government banned the group in 1987 during the Indo-Sri Lankan accord, the LTTE continued to operate freely and continued to have links with RAW until the defeat of the LTTE in 2009. Lieutenant general Depinder Singh, the Overall commander of the IPKF in Sri Lanka from July 1987 to March 1990 states that even when the IPKF was engaged in fighting the LTTE, RAW was engaged in aiding and training the terrorists.Template:Page neededTemplate:Quotation needed According to journalists, TELO was selected for training in India before LTTE, but this led to a competition erupting between the two factions; which created a further rift between the two rebel organizations. But even after this rift nearly every functioning terrorist cadre was given training facilities by the Indian government.
The Sri Lankan President's secretary Lalith Weeratunga alleged that India's intelligence agency RAW had a "big hand in planning and executing terrorist strikes" in Sri Lanka, and "India aided and abetted terrorism, repeatedly violated Sri Lankan sovereignty".
Rohan Gunaratne in his book Sri Lanka Tamil Insurgency alleged that from August 1983 to May 1987, India, through RAW, provided arms, training and monetary support to six Sri Lankan Tamil insurgent groups including the LTTE. During that period, 32 training camps were set up in India to train these 495 LTTE insurgents, including 90 women who were trained in 10 batches. The first batch of insurgents was trained in Establishment 22 based in Chakrata, Uttarakhand. The second batch, including LTTE intelligence chief Pottu Amman, trained in Himachal Pradesh. Prabakaran visited the first and the second batch of Tamil Tigers to see them training. Eight other batches of LTTE were trained in Tamil Nadu. Thenmozhi Rajaratnam alias Dhanu, who carried out the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi and Sivarasan—the key conspirator were among the militants trained by RAW, in Nainital, India.
In April 1984, the LTTE formally joined a common militant front, the Eelam National Liberation Front (ENLF), a union between LTTE, the Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO), the Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students (EROS), the People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE) and the Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF).
India's Research and Analysis Wing supported the separatist/nationalist terrorist organization called Al Zulfiqar since 1977 and continued with their operations inside Pakistan even after Al Zulfiqar was disbanded in 1989.Template:SfnTemplate:Verification neededTemplate:SfnTemplate:Verification needed
This terrorist group conducted hijacking in March 1981 of a Pakistan International Airlines plane from Karachi to Kabul.Template:Sfn In 1982 a camp was set up at Surya Nagar, Delhi to receive members of Al-Zulfiqar. After training them in the use of firearms and subversive activities they were given missions and infiltrated back into Pakistan.Template:Quotation needed
In December 1994, Pakistan ordered the closure of the Indian consulate in Karachi and accused it for "sponsoring terrorism" and violence in the city.  According to Pakistani foreign minister Najmuddin Shaikh, the consulate had been coordinating "networks of agents trained for the purposes of conducting terrorism and other anti-state activity" and Pakistan had arrested 14 people to this effect who claimed to have recruited by India's intelligence. The Indian high commissioner S. K. Lambah denied the accusation, and foreign ministry spokesperson termed the allegation "completely false".
In 2015, a BBC report quoted Pakistani officials stating that Indian intelligence had "trained hundreds of MQM militants in explosives, weapons and sabotage" over the past decade, within camps located in India.
According to N. Elahi, in response to Pakistan's alleged support of separatist movement in Kashmir and Indian Punjab, India sponsored terrorist activities across Pakistan in 1980s.Template:Better source needed According to Pakistani military expert Ayesha Siddiqa, these terrorists acts were conducted by the two cells of RAW, Counter Intelligence Team-X (CIT-X) and Counter Intelligence Team-J, that were specially set up for this purpose in mid 1980s. In January 1999, Subhash Chander, an Indian national was arrested by Pakistan's security agencies for carrying out sabotage activities including bomb blasts.Template:Better source needed
Two Research and Analysis Wing recruits were arrested by Pakistan while infiltrating from Jammu and Kashmir to Azad Kashmir across the Line of Control on 4 May 1994. The infiltrators were carrying explosives and rocket launchers.
Insurgency in Balochistan
RAW has an extensive network of agents inside Pakistan and supported dissident elements in that country.Template:SfnTemplate:Verification needed In 2016, Pakistan arrested Kulbhushan Yadav, a RAW agent who confessed that he has been involved in terrorist activities in Balochistan and Karachi.Template:Better source neededTemplate:Better source needed India has allegedly been supporting insurgency in Balochistan, Pakistani Government and ISI have accused Indian consulates in Kandahar and Jalalabad, Afghanistan, for providing arms, training and financial aid to the BLA in an attempt to destabilize Pakistan.Template:SfnTemplate:Sfn
Pakistan has repeatedly accused India of supporting Baloch rebels, and Wright-Neville writes that outside Pakistan, some Western observers also believe that India secretly funds the Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA). In August 2013, US Special Representative James Dobbins said Pakistan's fears over India's role in Afghanistan were “not groundless".Template:Sfn
A diplomatic cable sent 31 December 2009, from the U.S. consulate in Karachi and obtained by WikiLeaks said it was "plausible" that Indian intelligence was helping the Baluch insurgents. An earlier 2008 cable, discussing the Mumbai attacks reported fears by British officials that "intense domestic pressure would force Delhi to respond, at the minimum, by ramping up covert support to nationalist militants fighting the Pakistani army in Baluchistan."
However, Richard Holbrooke who was United States Special Envoy for Afghanistan and Pakistan in 2009 stated that Pakistan didn't provide any credible evidence to back their accusations against India.
- This article needs additional references for verification. Please help by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material will not be challenged and removed. (October 2016)
In 2011, the Guardian published an opinion piece which mentioned that India is a safe haven for many Hindutva extremists and that the Indian Government has turned a blind eye to many Saffron terror groups that operate within its territory. It urged the Indian Government to crack down on various terror groups that operate with impunity.
The Indian-based Hindutva extremist group Abhinav Bharat have links with the Indian Army and with RAW.[no citations needed here] Some of its members such as Swami Aseemanand, Lt Col Shrikant Purohit, Sadhvi Pragya Thakur, Lokesh Sharma, Kamal Chauhan, Sunil Joshi and Rajendra Choudhary allegedly carried out the Malegaon terrorist bombings, the 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings, the Malegaon blasts, Mecca Masjid bombing and the Ajmer Sharif Dargah blast.
- "Pakistan accuses India of financing terrorism, supporting militancy". Indian Express. 8 September 2016. http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/pakistan-accuses-india-of-financing-terrorism-supporting-militancy-3020765/. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
- Mateen Haider. "RAW involved in terrorist activities across Pakistan: foreign secretary". http://www.dawn.com/news/1181908. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "India’s unhealthy obsession with China-Pakistan Economic Corridor". http://blogs.tribune.com.pk/story/27940/indias-unhealthy-obsession-with-china-pakistan-economic-corridor/. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Eager, Paige Whaley (2016-04-15) (in en). From Freedom Fighters to Terrorists: Women and Political Violence. Routledge. ISBN 9781317132288. https://books.google.com/books?id=m_IFDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA136.
- Fair, Christine (2004). Urban Battle Fields of South Asia Lessons Learned from Sri Lanka,India, and Pakistan. RAND. pp. 35. ISBN 0-8330-3682-3. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG210.pdf.
- Jayshree Bajoria (November 7, 2008). "RAW: India's External Intelligence Agency". Council on Foreign Relations. http://www.cfr.org/publication/17707/raw.html. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- "Full of holes". Frontline (Chennai, India). Nov 29 – Dec 12, 1997. http://www.hindu.com/fline/fl1424/14240260.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- Singh, Depinder (1992). The IPKF in Sri Lanka. Trishul Publications. ISBN 9788185384054.
- Swamy, M. R. Narayan (2002-01-01) (in en). Tigers of Lanka, from boys to guerrillas. Konark Publishers. https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=yzpuAAAAMAAJ.
- Kulandaswamy, M. S. (2000-01-01) (in en). Sri Lankan Crisis: Anatomy of Ethnicity, Peace, and Security. Authorspress. ISBN 9788172730338. https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=DDhuAAAAMAAJ.
- Radhakrishnan, R. K. (2012-05-15). "“India abetted terror in Sri Lanka in the mid-1980s”" (in en-IN). The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/india-abetted-terror-in-sri-lanka-in-the-mid1980s/article3419381.ece.
- "LTTE: the Indian connection". Sunday Times. 1997. http://sundaytimes.lk/970119/plus4.html. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Uppermost in our minds was to save the Gandhis' name". Express India. 1997. http://www.expressindia.com/ie/daily/19971212/34650923.html. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Pottu Amman: Patient but ruthless Tiger". The Nation. 2009. http://www.nation.lk/2009/10/04/militarym.htm. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- "Transcript- Rohan Gunaratne". Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission. 2010. http://www.llrcarchive.org/2010/10/rohan-gunaratne/. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- "Killing Rajiv Gandhi: Dhanu's sacrificial metamorphosis in death". tandfonline.com. 2009. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19472490903387191. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- Russell R. Ross & Andrea Matles Savada (1988). "Tamil Militant Groups". Sri Lanka: A Country Study. http://countrystudies.us/sri-lanka/72.htm. Retrieved 2 May 2007.
- "Terrorist Organization Profile – START – National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism". umd.edu. http://www.start.umd.edu/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=195.
- Anwar, Raja (1997). The terrorist prince : the life and death of Murtaza Bhutto. London: Verso. pp. 138-139. ISBN 1-85984--886-9.
- "Pakistan orders Indian mission to close". New Straits Times. 27 December 1994. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1309&dat=19941227&id=UCJOAAAAIBAJ&sjid=nBMEAAAAIBAJ&pg=1333,2546378&hl=en. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- Sik, Ko Swan; Pinto, M.C.W.; Syatauw, J.J.G.. Asian Yearbook of International Law 1995. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 401. https://books.google.com/books?id=KkrKoVFA7QwC&pg=PA401&lpg=PA401#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- Bennett-Jones, Owen (24 June 2015). "Pakistan's MQM 'received Indian funding'". BBC. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-33148880. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- "UAE officials suspected India-Taliban link: WikiLeaks". Dawn. 6 September 2011. http://www.dawn.com/news/657082/uae-officials-suspected-india-taliban-link-wikileaks. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- "UAE OFFICIALS BELIEVED INDIA SUPPORTED PAKISTAN TALIBAN, PASHTUNS". DNA India. 6 December 2010. http://www.dnaindia.com/world/report-uae-officials-believed-india-supported-pakistan-taliban-pashtuns-1477347. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- Elahi, N. (2010). "The Existential Threat". In Butt, Usama. Pakistan's Quagmire: Security, Strategy, and the Future of the Islamic-Nuclear Nation. New York, N.Y.: Continuum International Publishing Group, Limited. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-8264-3300-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=DOIE6IN1JMMC&pg=PA127. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
- Bajoria, Jayshree (7 November 2008). "RAW: India's External Intelligence Agency". Council on Foreign Relations. http://www.cfr.org/india/raw-indias-external-intelligence-agency/p17707. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- Mickolus, Edward F.; Simmons, Susan L. (1997) (in en). Terrorism, 1992-1995: A Chronology of Events and a Selectively Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Press. p. 615. ISBN 9780313304682. https://books.google.com/books?id=UIBzCC0c2McC&pg=PA615. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
- "US aware of RAW agent Kulbhushan Yadav’s arrest in Pakistan". thenews.com.pk. https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/111214-US-aware-of-RAW-agent-Kulbhushan-Yadavs-arrest-in-Pakistan. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- "Pakistan’s people, armed forces ready to defend ‘motherland’: FO - SAMAA TV". samaa.tv. http://www.samaa.tv/pakistan/2016/09/pakistans-people-armed-forces-ready-to-defend-motherland-fo/. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- "MPs told Russia, India and UAE involved in Baloch insurgency". The Express Tribune. http://tribune.com.pk/story/84902/wikileaks-india-russia-supporting-baloch-insurgency/.
- "'RAW Is Training 600 Balochis In Afghanistan' – Mariana Baabar – Apr 24,2006". outlookindia.com. http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?231032.
- Butt, Qaiser. "Balochistan conflict: ‘PM’s talks with leaders unlikely to succeed’". The Express Tribune. http://tribune.com.pk/story/225958/balochistan-conflict-pms-talks-with-leaders-unlikely-to-succeed/. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- David Wright-Neville (11 May 2010). Dictionary of Terrorism (1st ed.). Polity. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0745643021. http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=ZgmXxoLHv8MC&pg=PA48#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
- "US acknowledges Pakistan’s fears of Indian presence in Afghanistan – Pakistan". Dawn. Pakistan. http://dawn.com/news/1034778/us-acknowledges-pakistans-fears-of-indian-presence-in-afghanistan.
- Declan Walsh. "WikiLeaks cables: Britain 'over-reacted' in wake of Mumbai attacks". the Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/dec/01/wikileaks-cables-india-mumbai-attacks. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- "Pak provided no evidence on India's role in Balochistan: US". Times of India. 2009-07-30. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2009-07-30/india/28196240_1_balochistan-pakistan-richard-holbrooke-pakistani-leaders. Retrieved 2013-02-28.
- Kapil Komireddi. "India must face up to Hindu terrorism". the Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/belief/2011/jan/19/india-hindu-terrorism-threat. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "ATS may arrest Abhinav Bharat leader today". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/ATS-may-arrest-Abhinav-Bharat-leader-today/articleshow/3733665.cms. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- Jain, Bharti (Feb 27, 2013). "Maharashtra government moves to ban Abhinav Bharat". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Maharashtra-government-moves-to-ban-Abhinav-Bharat/articleshow/18700472.cms. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Narco test to be carried on Abhinav Bharat activist". The Times Of India. 10 November 2008. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Narco_test_to_be_carried_on_Abhinav_Bharat_activist/articleshow/3696561.cms.
- Dan G. Cox; John Falconer; Brian Stackhouse (1 September 2010), Terrorism, Instability, and Democracy in Asia and Africa, UPNE, ISBN 978-1-55-553746-3
- British Broadcasting Corporation (1998), Summary of World Broadcasts: Asia, Pacific, Issues 3294-3306, The University of Michigan, https://books.google.com/books?id=3_lWAAAAMAAJ&q, "Pakistan itself continues to be the target of Indian-sponsored terrorist activities"
- Pakistan & Gulf Economist, Volume 20, The University of California, 2001, https://books.google.com/books?id=K80bAQAAMAAJ&q, "Pakistan had already suffered a lot by Indian sponsored terrorism since independence."
- Richard Bennett (24 April 2012), Espionage: Spies and Secrets, Random House, ISBN 978-1-44-813214-0
- Ahmed Rashid (2008), Descent Into Chaos: The US and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia, Penguin, ISBN 978-0-67-001970-0, https://books.google.com/books?id=vLzcHaEqumUC&pg=PA286, ""There was little doubt that India was supporting Baloch insurgency""
- Khalid Mahmud Arif (1995), Working With Zia: Pakistan's Power Politics 1977-1988, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-577570-9, https://books.google.com/books?id=26TjAAAAMAAJ&q
- Bruce Riedel (28 July 2014), What We Won: America's Secret War in Afghanistan, 1979-89, Brookings Institution Press, ISBN 978-0-81-572585-5
- Iqbal Akhund (2000), Trial and Error: The Advent and Eclipse of Benazir Bhutto, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-579160-0, https://books.google.com/books?id=fQJuAAAAMAAJ&q
- Rohan Gunaratna; Douglas Woodall (26 January 2015), Afghanistan after the Western Drawdown, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-1-44-224506-8, https://books.google.com/books?id=DOk1CgAAQBAJ&pg=PA21
- Congressional Record, January 24, 2000 to February 23 2000, Government Printing Office, 2004, https://books.google.com/books?id=M7tfHHebfxMC&pg=PA453
- Zuhair Kashmeri; Brian McAndrew (6 September 2005), Soft Target: The Real Story Behind the Air India Disaster - Second Edition, James Lorimer & Company, ISBN 978-1-55-028904-6, https://books.google.com/books?id=4nCgC4o3eoIC