New Romanization of Korean

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Business name used in store. '피부 소매' written in New Romanization of Korean, 'PIBU SOMÄ'. (Note: Usage of umlaut to write 'ㅐ' Ä.

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The New Romanization of the Korean Language (정형표기법, 正形表記法; lit. Orthomorphemic transliteration), although largely phonemic, includes many instances of spellings that are historic and morphemic rather than phonemic. The pronunciation of almost every word can be derived from its orthography. Unlike the McCune-Reischauer Romanization and the Revised Romanization systems, which focus more towards describing the phonology over the morphology of Korean,[1] the New Romanization, like the Yale Romanization of Korean, Shibu Shohei System of Romanization,[2] New Korean Orthography[3] and Hangul,[4] is a morphological orthography.

Overview

A few orthographical principles are present in the New Romanization, and are as follows:

  • Monographic transliteration. One Hangul jamo to letter; digraphs are avoided, with the exception of 'dr', all other digraphs reflect digraphs in Hangul.
  • More morphemic than phonemic. Sound changes are implicit rather than explicit in its orthography, avoiding confusion from homophones.
  • Non-anglocentric. Letters are used more closely to that of the German or Turkish alphabets than that of the English or French alphabets. Features such as the usage of the umlaut for palatization and the 'j' for iotification closely resemble their usage in German orthography. The lack of digraphs used to represent truly unique vowel sounds, such as the English 'aw' or the French 'ou' or 'eu', separates the New Romanization of Korean from those orthographies.

In the Yale Romanization of Korean, the digraph used to represent 'wu (ㅜ)', as well as 'ay (ㅐ), ey (ㅔ), oy (ㅚ), wi (ㅟ), uy (ㅢ)', is inconsistent with its internal rules, where 'wi (ㅟ)' breaks from the other four palatized vowels. The New Romanization of Korean corrects these inconsistencies in the Yale Romanization of Korean.

Pronunciation

The New Romanization relies heavily on the standard pronunciation of Korean, which for some speakers of the younger generations of South Korea primarily from Seoul who speak with a Seoul dialect might find some parts of this transliteration system, is not intuitive. Where in the Seoul dialect, ㅐ, ㅔ, ㅚ, ㅟ and ㅢ, are pronounced 'e', 'e', 'we', 'wi' and 'ɯi' or e', respectively, in the pronunciation of Korean, ㅐ, ㅔ, ㅚ, ㅟ and ㅢ, are pronounced 'ɛ', 'e', 'ø', 'y' and 'ɨ', respectively. The Revised Romanization is based primarily on the pronunciation used in the Seoul dialect, and not on the pronunciation of Korean. Significant differences between the quasi-standard Seoul dialect in South Korea from the standard Korean dialect used in South Korea, North Korea, and the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in China, render the New Romanization of Korean the closest of all the standard romanizations of Korean to the current orthography of Hangul in both South and North Korea.

Transliteration Guide

This is a transliteration guide for the New Romanization system.

Vowels

Hangul
Romanization a ä (ai) ja jä (jai) e ë (ei) je jë (jei) o wa wä (wai) ö (oi) jo u we wë (wei) ü (ui) ju y ÿ (yi) i

Notes:

  • ( ) - Alternative form to be strictly used when umlaut ( ¨ ) is unavailable.

Consonants

Hangul 1ㄱ/ㄲ aㅇ/ㆁ 2 3 4ㄹ/ㅇ 5 b 6
Romanization Initial g gh k q - n d dh t r - dr l m b bh - p s sh c ch ç - - h
Final g gg k - ŋ n d - t r rr dr - m b - v p s ss c - ç - x h

Notes:

  • 1 Only used for particles, e.g. -고, -ㄹ까, -는가, -ㅂ니까, -기, etc., but not for -구나, -겠다, -것이다, etc.
  • 2 The letter 'ᄙ' is written as 'ㄹㄹ' in Hangul for Modern Korean found in verbs such as, 흐르다 ('hyrry.da', to flow), 빠르다 ('bharry.da', to be fast), etc.
  • 3 The letter 'ㅿ' is written as 'ㄷ' or 'ㄹ' in Hangul for Modern Korean reflecting the change found in verbs such as, 걷다 ('gedr.da', to walk), 묻다(問) ('mudr.da', to ask), etc.
  • 4 This 'ㄹ' is written as 'ㄹ' or 'ㅇ' in Hangul for Modern Korean reflecting the r-drop 1. found in verbs such as, 갈다 ('gal.da', to sow), 놀다 ('nol.da', to play), 2. found in words such as, 여행 ('ljehäŋ', travel), 역사 ('ljegsa', history), etc., and 3. found in names such as, 이명박 ('Li Mjeŋbag', Lee Myungbak), 이승만 ('Li Syŋman', Rhee Syngman), 임경업 ('Lim Gjeŋeb', Im Gyeong-eop) et al.
  • 5 The letter 'ㅸ' is written as 'ㅜ/ㅗ' or 'ㅂ' in Hangul for Modern Korean found in verbs, i.e. 굽다 ('guv.da', to cook), 춥다 ('çuv.da', to be cold), 쉽다 ('süv.da', to be easy), etc.
  • 6 The letter 'ㆆ' is written as 'ㅇ' or 'ㅅ' in Hangul for Modern Korean found in verbs, i.e. 낫다 ('nax.da', to heal), 짓다 ('cix.da', to build), etc.
  • a This 'ㅇ' is originally the obsolete 'ㆁ'.
  • b This 'ㅇ' is not 'ㆁ'.

Particlesab

Hangul 는/은 가/이 를/을 에서 에게/께 까지 부터 로/으로 로써/으로써 면/으면 ㄹ까 ㄴ가/는가 ㅂ니다/습니다
Romanization .n .ga/.i .r .se .ë.se c.ë.gë .ggaci/.ghaci .bute .ro .ro.sse .qo .qi .mjen .mje .do .da .r.qa .n.qa b.ni.da/sb.ni.da
Hangul 시/으시 니/으니 나/으나 d 세/으세 e라고/이라고 와/과 랑/이랑
Romanization .si .jo .ni .na .ra .së .rago .wa/.gwa .raŋ

Notes:

  • a For slots with two values, first value is if the particle follows a final vowel, and the second value is if the particle follows a final consonant.
  • b Period '.' is required before particle to distinguish from word.
  • c Not .ë.që
  • d E.g. -니라 (.ni.ra), -느니라 (ny.ni.ra), etc.
  • e E.g. 무엇이라고 합니까? (Mues.rago ha.b.ni.qa.)

Transcription Guide

This is a transcription guide for the New Romanization system.

Vowels

Hangul
Romanization a ä (ai) ja jä (jai) e ë (ei) je jë (jei) o wa wä (wai) ö (oi) jo u we wë (wei) ü (ui) ju y ÿ (yi) i

Notes:

  • ( ) - Alternative form to be strictly used when umlaut ( ¨ ) is unavailable.

Consonants

Hangul aㅇ/ㆁ
Romanization Initial g gh k - n d dh t r m b bh p s sh c ch ç - h
Final g gg k ŋ n d - t r m b - p s ss c - ç - h

Notes:

  • a This 'ㅇ' is originally the obsolete 'ㆁ'.
  • b This 'ㅇ' is not 'ㆁ'.

Usage

Verbs

English Hangul
(Hanja)
IPA New Romanization
(Transliteration)
New Romanization
(Transcription)
“to phone” Template:Lang Template:IPA Gel.da
Gel.e
Gel.ni
Gerda
Gere
Geni
“to walk” Template:Lang Template:IPA Gedr.da
Gedr.e
Gedr.ni
Gedda
Gere
Geryni
“to fold; to gather” Template:Lang Template:IPA Ged.da
Ged.e
Ged.ni
Gedda
Gede
Gedyni
“to be easy” (adjectival verb) Template:Lang Template:IPA Süv.da
Süv.e
Süv.ni
Sübda
Süwe
Süuni
"to use" Template:Lang Template:IPA Shy.da
Shy.e
Shy.ni
Shyda
She
Shyni
"to go" Template:Lang Template:IPA Ga.da
Ga.a
Ga.ni
Gada
Ga
Gani
"to do" Template:Lang Template:IPA Ha.da
Ha.je (Ha.i)
Ha.ni
Hada
Haje (Hai)
Hani
"to become" Template:Lang Template:IPA Dö.da
Dö.e
Dö.ni
Döda
Döe
Döni
"to have" Template:Lang Template:IPA Iss.da
Iss.e
Iss.ni
Issda
Isse
Issyni
"to be" Template:Lang Template:IPA I.da
I.e
I.ni
Ida
Ie
Ini

Nouns

English Hangul
(Hanja)
IPA New Romanization
(Transliteration)
New Romanization
(Transcription)
wall Template:Lang Template:IPA Bjeg Bjeg
character, letter Template:Lang Template:IPA Gyrxca Gyrca
“to the kitchen/in the kitchen” Template:Lang Template:IPA Buek.ë Buekë

Example

The following text is the preamble to the constitution of the Republic of Korea. The first section is written in Hangul; the second section is a transcription using New Romanization without particle punctuation and standardized letters, e.g. ‘l’, ‘v’, etc.; the third section is the standard New Romanization of Korean, a transliteration with all letters and particle punctuation.

Hangul

Template:Lang
Template:Lang
Template:Lang

Transcription

Cenmun
Juguhan Jegsawa Centoŋë Biçnanyn Uri Dähan Gugminyn 3·1 Undoŋyro Genribdön Dähanmingug Imsi Ceŋbuÿ Bebtoŋgwa Burÿë Haŋgehan 4·19 Mincu Injemyr Gjësyŋhago, Cogugÿ Mincu Gähjeggwa Pjeŋhwaceg Toŋirÿ Samjeŋë Ibgaghaje Ceŋÿ·indowa Doŋpoäroshe Mincogÿ Dangjeryr Goŋgohi Hago, Modyn Sahöceg Pjësybgwa Burÿryr Tapahamje, Cajurgwa Cohwaryr Bataŋyro Caju Mincuceg Gibon Cirseryr Deug Hwaggohi Haje Ceŋçi·Gjeŋcë·Sahö·Munhwaÿ Modyn Jeŋjegë Issese Gaginÿ Gihöryr Gjundyŋhi Hago, Nyŋrjegyr Çögodoro Barhühagë Hamje, Cajuwa Gwenrië Dharynyn Çägimgwa Ÿmuryr Wansuhagë Haje, Anyronyn Gugmin Säŋhwarÿ Gjundyŋhan Hjaŋsaŋyr Gihago Baggyronyn Haŋgucegin Sëgjë Pjeŋhwawa Inrju Goŋjeŋë Ibacihamyroshe Uridyrgwa Uridyrÿ Casonÿ Ancengwa Cajuwa Häŋbogyr Jeŋwenhi Hwagbohar Gesyr Dacimhamjense 1948njen 7wer 12irë Cëceŋdögo 8çaë Gerçje Gäceŋdön Henbebyr Icë Gughöÿ Ÿgjeryr Geçje Gugmin Tupjoë Ÿhaje Gäceŋhanda.
1987njen 10wer 29ir

Transliteration

Cenmun
Jugu.ha.n Ljegsa.wa Centoŋ.ë Biçna.n Uri Dähan Gugmin.n 3·1 Undoŋ.ro Genrib.dö.n Dähanmingug Imsi Ceŋbu.ÿ Bebtoŋ.gwa Burÿ.ë Haŋge.ha.n 4·19 Mincu Injem.r Gjësyŋ.ha.qo, Cogug.ÿ Mincu Gähjeg.gwa Pjeŋhwaceg Toŋir.ÿ Samjeŋ.ë Libgag.ha.je Ceŋÿ·indo.wa Doŋpoä.ro.sse Mincog.ÿ Dangjer.r Goŋgo.hi Ha.qo, Modyn Sahöceg Pjësyb.gwa Burÿ.r Tapa.ha.mje, Caljur.gwa Cohwa.r Bataŋ.ro Caju Mincuceg Gibon Cirse.r Deug Gwaggo.hi Ha.je Ceŋçi·Gjeŋcë·Sahö·Munhwa.ÿ Modyn Ljeŋjeg.ë Iss.e.se Gagin.ÿ Gihö.r Gjundyŋ.hi Ha.qo, Nyŋrjeg.r Çögodo.ro Barhü.ha.gë Ha.mje, Caju.wa Gwenri.ë Dhary.n Çägim.gwa Ÿmu.r Wansu.ha.gë Ha.je, An.ro.n Gugmin Säŋhwar.ÿ Gjundyŋ.ha.n Hjaŋsaŋ.r Gi.ha.qo Bagg.ro.n Haŋguceg.i.n Sëgjë Pjeŋhwa.wa Inrju Goŋjeŋ.ë Ibaci.ha.m.ro.sse Uri.dyr.gwa Uri.dyr.ÿ Cason.ÿ Ancen.gwa Caju.wa Häŋbog.r Jeŋwen.hi Hwagbo.ha.r Ges.r Dacim.ha.mjen.se 1948njen 7wer 12ir.ë Cëceŋ.dö.qo 8ça.ë Gerçi.e Gäceŋ.dö.n Henbeb.r Icë Gughö.ÿ Ÿgjer.r Geçi.e Gugmin Tupjo.ë Ÿ.ha.je Gäceŋ.ha.n.da.
1987njen 10wer 29ir

See also

References

  1. Eui-sung, Cho. "조선말규범집". University of Tokyo Foreign Studies. http://www.tufs.ac.jp/ts/personal/choes/korean/nanboku/gyubeom87_1.html#2.. 
  2. Eui-sung, Cho. "Shibu Shohei System of Korean Romanisation". Tokyo University Foreign Studies. http://www.tufs.ac.jp/ts/personal/choes/korean/middle/Esibu.html. 
  3. Kim, Sun Joo (2010). The Northern Region of Korea: History, Identity, and Culture. University of Washington Press. pp. 171–172. 
  4. Jeung-Ryeul Cho; Ming Ming Chiu; Catherine McBride-Chang. Literacy Development in Korean and English (2011 ed.). Routledge. p. 385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2010.487143. 

External links

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