Sudan Medical Archives

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Sudan Medical Archives (SUMA) is an on-going health and medical archives and documentation project launched by Professor Ahmad Al Safi under the umbrella of the Sudan Medical Heritage Foundation (SMHF) in 2005 to serve as memory of health and medicine in Sudan. The physical component of SUMA is kept in SMHF HQ.

SUMA currently holds around 300 images (photos, figures and plates), 100 artefacts, several video tapes, and documents of historic value.

This project needs the support of every Sudanese inland or abroad by simple donation of material, documents and artifacts, or by editing the content of this page.

Contents

Vision

Provide a repository for medical archives and records and serve as memory of health and medicine in Sudan.

Mission

  1. Acquire and preserve valuable medical and health artifacts, images, medical memorabilia, seminal and historical documents.
  2. Publicize and promote archive services in Sudan.
  3. Keep up-to-date bibliographic information on health, and biographic information of health care providers.
  4. Provide advisory services on cultural competence.
  5. Provide custodial services for public and private records of enduring value.
  6. Retrieve, preserve and make available to researchers migrant medical records (e.g., Durham, Wellcome, etc.)

Biographical Dictionary of Health Care Professionals in Sudan.

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Bibliography of Biomedical Literature in Sudan (1900-2015)

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Pioneers of Sudanese Medicine

  • Abdalla Omer Abu Shamma
  • Abdalla Saad
  • Abdel Aal Abdalla Osman
  • Abdel Halim Mohamed
  • Abdel Hamid Bayoumi
  • Abdel Hamid Ibrahim Sulaiman
  • Abdel Monem Wasfi
  • Abdel Rahim Mohamed Ahmed
  • Abdel Rahman Atabani
  • Abdel Salam Saleh Eisa
  • Abu Hassan Abu
  • Abul Gasim El Hadi
  • Adib Abdalla
  • Ahmad Abdel Aziz Yacoub
  • Ahmed Abdel Mageed
  • Ahmed Hassan Shehata
  • Ahmed Mohamed El Hassan
  • Ali Bedri, Ali Bedri is one of the first seven graduates of Kitchner School of Medicine, Khartoum, Sudan.
  • Ali Khogali
  • Anis Mohamed Ali El Shami
  • Baghir Ibrahim
  • Bakhiet Mohamed Omer
  • Daoud Mustafa Khalid
  • Habib Abdalla
  • Hadi Ahmed El Shaikh
  • Hadi El Zain El Nahas
  • Hassan Mohamed Ibrahim
  • Hussain Ahmed Hussain
  • Hussain Sulaiman Abu Salih
  • Ibrahim Abdel Aziz
  • Ibrahim Mohamed El Moghrabi
  • Kamal Bushra Ibrahim
  • Kamal Zaki Mustafa
  • Khalda Zahir El Sadati
  • Mahmoud Mohamed Hassan
  • Mansour Ali Haseeb
  • Mohamed Ahmed Ali
  • Mohamed Ali Ahmed
  • Mohamed Hamad Satti
  • Mohamed Ibrahim Ali Omer
  • Mohi El Din Mahadi
  • Mohi El Din Mahadi
  • Omer Mohamed Belail
  • Saad Mohamed Ibrahim
  • Sayid Hassan Daoud
  • Shaikh Abdel Rahman
  • Shaikh Mahgoub Gaffar
  • Sulaiman Mohamed Modawi
  • Tahir Fadul
  • Tigani Mohamed El Mahi
  • Zain El Abdeen Ibrahim
  • Zarwi Sirkisian

Notable Physicians

The notable men and women in the medical field collectively set respectable traditions and established a firm foundation for health care delivery, research, teaching and training. They have taught and trained several generations, and more importantly, mentored and provided guidance and encouragement to the young and aspiring generations. They were, without exception, meticulous clinicians, imaginative and illustrious teachers, and hard-working researchers who made new discoveries or devised novel techniques. In their exemplary lives, they maintained unimpeachable professional integrity, upheld strict medical ethics, and set models of admirable behaviour inland and abroad.

Their contribution as scientists or physicians to science and life has been exemplary. They searched for continuous improvement in their lives and in the institutions in which they worked. They have been constantly involved in the pursuit of fact and truth about everything in life. That is why they were also notable social workers, sportsmen, poets, musicians, political and social leaders, writers, and competent administrators.

  • Abbas Mokhtar
  • Abdalla Ahmed Dafaalla
  • Abdalla Hidaytalla
  • Abdel Galil Mohamed
  • Abdel Ghaffar Abdel Rahim
  • Abdel Hamid El Sayid Billia
  • Abdel Hamid Sayid Omer
  • Abdel Moneim El Seed Mohamed Khair
  • Abdel Monem El Shafie
  • Abdel Rahman Abdel Salam
  • Abdel Rahman Kabbashi
  • Abdel Rahman Mohamed Musa
  • Abdel Rahman Musa
  • Abdel Rahman Salim
  • Abdel Salam Mohamed Gerais
  • Adla Shashati
  • Ahmad Al Safi (MB BS, DA FFARCS, FRCA) is a Sudanese anesthesiologist, researcher, administrator, and writer. He is known in the medical field as a medical biographer, and noted for his role as founder of institutional research in the history of medicine and health heritage. He broke new grounds by establishing unique non-governmental high skills medical training. (See Al Safi CV-January 2013.doc Resume). Ahmad Al Safi has an extensive record of accomplishment of activities in working with and in groups for four decades. He founded or co-founded several organizations – governmental and non-governmental, and held executive offices in many. He worked with culture building, and strengthening people. In each situation he worked in, he looked for better management, efficiency, perfecting techniques, practices and processes.

Early interests

In 1965, Sudan Research Unit in the Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum announced Mohamed Ahmed Al Salamabi Prize competition. The late Professor Tigani El Mahi was on the prize advisory panel, and the one who included traditional medicine in the list of subjects to be judged. Second-year-medical student Ahmad Al Safi participated in that contest and won the first prize. The winning work was published in English in 1970 in a book entitled Native Medicine in the Sudan: Concepts, Sources, and Methods. That publication ushered in a memorable relationship with the late Prof. Tigani El Mahi, and the studies for that work were more than a summer vacation activity. They initiated and triggered extensive research in traditional medicine in Sudan in the following decades. For the author, that work lead a second specialization in Sudanese health culture.

Tigani El Mahi Legacy

After the death of Tigani El Mahi in 1970, Ahmad Al Safi spent ten years collecting and studying his published and unpublished work. He documented the legacy of the man in two books entitled (Tigani El Mahi, Selected Essays) one in Arabic in 1982 and the other in English in 1984. He wrote a third book entitled (and Tumbura in Sudan.pdf Zar and Tumbura in Sudan) in 2008 in Arabic. The book included Tigani’s pioneering work on spirit possession cults.

Medical career

In 1971, Ahmad Al Safi graduated from Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum. After two years in general practice in Nyala and Khartoum Civil Hospitals, he joined Edinburgh Royal Infirmary in Scotland in a government scholarship in 1973 to specialize in anaesthesia. In 1976, he acquired the Diploma of Anaesthesia, DA (RCP RCS), and in 1977 the Fellowship of the Faculty of Anaesthetists of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (FFARCS). When the Faculty was turned into an independent Royal College, he was made Fellow of the Royal College of Anaesthetists of England (FRCA). He studied Acupuncture as applied to anaesthesia, analgesia and therapy in Nanjing College of Traditional Medicine in China in 1982.

In addition to hands-on clinical practice, Ahmad Al Safi managed departments of Anaesthesia, research institutions and hospitals. He has been consultant Anaesthetist and Intensive Care consultant in different hospitals around the world including the 1200-bed Khartoum Teaching Hospital in Sudan (1979-1988). He was one of the founding anesthesiologists of open-heart surgery with the late Mr. Ibrahim Mustafa, and neurosurgery with Mr. Hussain Sulaiman Abu Salih in Shaab Hospital in Khartoum in the 1980s. He made substantial contributions in establishing and managing the Intensive Care Unit in Shaab Hospital (1982-1988). During that period, he contributed considerably to the teaching and training of Anaesthesia registrars and assistants. He ran a mock primary FFARCS in Khartoum, and wrote a curriculum for the Anaesthesia Assistants School, which was until then unwritten, and contributed enthusiastically a complete manual of lectures on anaesthesia and recovery room techniques in Arabic.

Traditional Medicine Research Institute

In 1979, Ahmad Al Safi initiated a movement to organize research in traditional medicine in Sudan. He submitted a proposal to the Medical Research Council, which lead eventually to the foundation of Traditional Medicine Research Institute (TMRI) in the National Council for Research (NCR) in 1982. Thanks to the enthusiastic support of Mr. Khalid Hassan Abbas, Minister of Health, and Professor Ahmed Abdel Rahman El Agib, President of the National Council for Research at that time.

Later, the WHO, both at its Headquarters and Regional Office in Alexandria, recognized the ability and readiness of TMRI to contribute to its global programme of traditional medicine, designated TMRI a WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Traditional Medicine in 1984. Both institutions are still functioning with a reasonable quota of researchers, fieldworkers, support staff, and several research programmes. Ahmad Al Safi was Director for both institutes until 1989. The two centres contributed significantly to research in and documentation of the Sudanese health culture. During that period (1982-1992), Ahmad Al Safi was a member of the WHO Expert Advisory Panel for traditional medicine in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

Medical Anthropology

With the inception of TMRI, Ahmad Al Safi proposed that Sudan should establish Faciae for Establishing Medical Anthropology in Sudan.doc medical anthropology in an organized and institutionalized manner. On his part, he sent medical doctors, biomedical and social scientists for training on medical anthropology and medical folklore abroad. Many attained Diplomas, Masters and PhD degrees in this field.

Sudan Museum of Medicine and Health

He also proposed as early as 1982, the establishment of a national Fasciae for Establishing a Museum of Health.doc Museum of Medicine & Health. He believes that this project is an excellent innovative project, which will provide a facility unavailable in Sudan. The Museum's mission is to provide a repository of Sudanese medical and health artifacts including surgical instruments, pathology specimens, commemorative objects, and public health items. The historical documentation of the material culture, expressed by the collection will reflect the legacy of health care in Sudan, and as such, the museum will help in research in and understanding of health care diversity in the country. In 1984, with the inception of the Traditional Medical Research Institute, he set a nucleus for this museum, and started collecting artifacts. The nucleus is still there but far from a fully-fledged museum. Thirty-five years later, and in spite of the several approaches to sell this idea to others, the idea has not been appreciated and accordingly did not materialize. He is currently reviving this idea of establishing this museum as a private venture under the umbrella of the Sudan Medical Heritage Foundation.

Literary career

Ahmad Al Safi wrote extensively on health care issues namely in traditional medicine in both Arabic and English. His book named (Sudanese Medicine.pdf Traditional Sudanese Medicine, a primer for health care providers, researchers, and students) is a voluminous work that appeared in 1999. This book is a wide-ranging 730-page account of traditional Sudanese health culture targeting health care providers, students of medicine, pharmacy, veterinary, agriculture, medical sociology, medical anthropology, and folklore. The book includes a comprehensive 2500-reference Bibliography of Sudanese Traditional Medicine, and 600-item Sudanese native recipes. Many readers asked for an Arabic version of this book. Instead, Ahmad Al Safi published in 2013 a major text on Sudan’s health culture entitled (Al Hakeem) in Arabic. In this book, he outlined the progression of medicine from early times to date.

His book (A Manual on Rules and Procedure of Deliberative Assemblies) (المرشد إلى قواعد وإجراءات التنظيمات الحديثة) (first edition, Cairo 1999: 630 pages, second edition, Cairo 2006: 580 pages) puts him in the forefront of Sudanese and Arab writers who have drawn attention to and provided a useful manual in the field of parliamentary procedure. Critics have noted that this book is probably the only one of its kind in Arabic, and that it provided and invaluable and timely toolbox for modern organizations in a country undergoing democratic transformation.

Sudanese Writers Union

Ahmad Al Safi has been honoured by the Sudanese Writers Union (SWU) in December 2013 in recognition of his valuable contributions in studies of the Sudan’s health heritage, and for his scholarly publications in these virgin fields. The Writers’ Union applauded his remarkable contributions in improving knowledge and enlightenment in academic work in Sudan.

In February 2014, Professor Ahmad Al Safi was elected President of SWU.

Solicited work

In the period 1978-88, he carried out important studies for the Sudan Medical Council (SMC), Sudan Medical Association, and Ministry of Health. In 1982, the Sudan Medical Council asked him to carry out a study and report on postgraduate medical qualifications and their equivalence. The report of this six-month study became the foundation for the Specialist Register Ordinance in 1985. In addition, on request of SMC and with permission of the British General Medical Council, he translated the (Good Medical Practice) booklet in 2011, and together with Professor Mohamed Osman Abdel Malik, he rewrote and edited the Guide for Medical Ethics in 2014.

In 1984, the Sudan Medical Association and Ministry of Health asked him to study the (Teaching Hospital Organization and Management in Sudan). This study, which took six months with the help of the Institute of Administrative Sciences, laid down the foundation for the (Teaching Hospitals Organization and Management Ordinance), which was approved and put to action in September 1985, and the (High Council for Teaching Hospitals Ordinance in) implemented in 1986. Ahmad Al Safi drafted both ordinances, had them revised by Ministry of Justice, had them signed by Minister of Health and head of State.

In the years 1989-2004, he occupied key roles in the medical services in ARAMCO Khafji Joint Operations (KJO) and Arabian Oil Company in Saudi Arabia. During that period, he contributed significantly to the promotion of health care management in the northeastern region of the Kingdom. In 1999, he has been the key person for ARAMCO Due Diligence Mission, and the year after Chairperson of KJO Healthcare Quality Improvement Programme.

Sudan Medical Heritage Foundation

In 2005, he founded the Brochure-Ar.doc Sudan Medical Heritage Foundation (SMHF) as a not-for-profit, non-governmental organization registered with the Registrar General of the Cultural and Scientific Groups of the Ministry of Culture. At the same time, he also founded the Health Heritage Studies Centre, which was registered as a charitable company under the 1925 Sudan's Companies Act. Both organizations are dedicated to health systems research, development, and conservation of the Sudanese health care heritage and resources.

The main objective of Brochure-En.doc SMHF is to stimulate and encourage high quality scholarship, research, training and documentation in all aspects of the Sudanese health care delivery system & health heritage.

Maharat

In 2005, Ahmad Al Safi established Maharat for Medical Training and Consultation as a non-governmental, comprehensive multi-disciplinary, professional development and continuing education and training centre based in Khartoum, Sudan. Maharat provides training for all sectors of the population in almost all medical specialties and basic and advanced skills. This is done through organizing nationally accredited and regionally recognized training courses run by Sudanese instructors. Maharat is certified by the National Council for Training, and Maharat Consultancy is registered in the Organizing Council for Consultancy Firms. Currently, over 30 training packages are running.

Ahmad Al Safi History library

SMHF contains a unique library on the history of medicine maintained in SMHF and available to readers. The library contains an almost complete set of the writings of the early travellers, explorers and historians, health related articles in Sudan Notes and Records, a full set of Wellcome Tropical Medicine Research Laboratories Reports, classic Islamic and Arabic medical books, a wealth of literature on medicinal, aromatic and poisonous plants, dissertations on traditional and history of medicine, a wide collection of publications on female genital mutilation, sections on alternative medicine, medical anthropology, medical sociology and folklore.

Sudan Medical Heritage Foundation Prize

SMHF is to announce this prize (tentatively December 2014) to encourage young researchers to carry out studies in Sudan’s health heritage and history of medicine.

Sudan Health Trilogy

In 2009, he launched under the SMHF an on-going research and documentation project called the Sudan Health Trilogy including:

  1. Biographical Dictionary of Health Care Professionals in Sudan in twentieth century. This dictionary is envisaged to be a ‘Who’s Who’ of Sudanese health care professionals (medical doctors, pharmacists, dentists and bio-scientists), and expatriate staff, namely Britons who have served in health care institutions or contributed to health and medicine in service and research in Sudan in the first 75 years of the 20th century. Each biographical entry will describe an individual as faithfully and accurately as available data permits.
  2. Pioneers of Sudanese Medicine: This series will profile the individuals whose achievements were seminal to the evolution of the field and whose work has contributed significantly to the establishment and development of the medical profession in Sudan. These men and women have ventured into the medical field and started new specialties, researched the field, or made new discoveries or techniques. They collectively set respectable traditions and established a firm foundation for health care delivery, research, teaching and training. They have taught and trained several generations, and more importantly, mentored and provided guidance and encouragement to the young and aspiring generations. The pioneers in mind are without exception, meticulous clinicians, imaginative and illustrious teachers, and hard-working researchers. In their exemplary lives, they maintained unimpeachable professional integrity, upheld strict medical ethics, and set models of admirable behaviour. He published several books under this series including:
  • Abdel Rahim Mohamed Ahmed, his life and work (2014)
  • Ahmed Abdel Aziz Yacoub, his life and work (2014)
  • Aspects of the History of Pharmacy in Sudan by Abdel Hamid Ibrahim Sulaiman (Ahmad Al Safi: Editor and Publisher) (2014)
  • A Bibliography of Biomedical Literature in Sudan: A compilation of medical literature on Sudan produced during the 20th century by Sudanese scholars and expatriate staff.

Sudan Editors

Ahmad Al Safi has been Editor-in-Chief, Al-Hakeem Medical Students Journal, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum (1968–70), Editor-in-Chief, Sudan Medical Journal the official organ of the Sudan Medical Association and Sudan’s Doctor Union (1982–92), and associate, assistant or advisory editor for several refereed academic journals including Bulletin of Sudanese Studies, Institute of African and Asian Studies, University of Khartoum, Sudan (1986-), Social Science and Medicine, Aberdeen, UK (1990–96), Buhuth in the National Council for Research, Khartoum (1986–88).

In 2005, he launched, under the umbrella of SMHF, a service called Editors.doc Sudan Editors (SE) the aim of which is to improve Sudanese academic writing tools. He believes that this is achievable if we engage in professionalism and craftsmanship. SE is shadow editing Khartoum Medical Journal, the official organ of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, which is now in its 6th volume.

Academic career

In 2004, he joined Khartoum College of Medical Sciences as Professor of Anesthesiology. He established safe anaesthetics departments in Bashayer and Ban Gadid Hospitals, and introduced and implemented new methods in teaching and training college students (medical, pharmacy, laboratory, physiotherapy and dentistry) on basic clinical skills, and made basic life support mandatory for undergraduates.

Impact

The impact of the work of Ahmad Al Safi on the medical profession in the field he was interested in is evident. Few examples illustrate this:

  • Students and graduates of medicine and social sciences are studying medical folklore, medical anthropology and joining studies for postgraduate degrees more than ever.
  • The Sudan Academy of Science is enrolling the second batch of candidates for MSc and PhDs in Medical Anthropology.
  • Ahfad University for Women is establishing a department of Medical Anthropology in the Faculty of Medicine for the first time in Sudan.
  • Medical schools and specialist medical societies are talking more about the history of their own specialties and that of medicine at large.
  • Medical schools are considering continuous professional development more seriously, and basic life support, advanced life support for adults and children, Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics are becoming mandatory in hospital practice.
  • Since Maharat was established, at least 13 private training centres were certified and were competing to provide better training courses. Maharat trained and certified more than a hundred instructors. They are available to help in the overall national training programme.
  • Sudan Medics in the United Kingdom initiated in 2013 the Sudan MedicsPedia and established a viable and sustainable forum hosting the documentation of the life and legacy of bio-medical health care providers that was proposed and initiated by the SMHF in the Trilogy project in 2008.
  • The African International University had serious thoughts of establishing an Institute of Alternative Medicine.
  • The Sudan Medical Council has defied all biomedical traditions by establishing Traditional Medicine/Complementary and Alternative Medicine Standing Directorate and gave it the mandate to oversee this field. This Directorate is carrying out a national survey of traditional medicine, and the Ministry of Health, Khartoum State accepted to carry out the pilot survey in all localities of the State. Partnerships with other states will complete the national survey later.

Interests and hobbies

Like many aspiring young men, who were brought up in Bakht El Ruda educational system in its heyday in the 1950s, young Ahmad Al Safi left no art genre untried; calligraphy, drawing, painting, and music. Zein Mohamed El Mahi in Dueim, and Hafiz Abbas in Medani taught him art. Abdel Fattah Alla Jabo gave him and several currently notable physicians lessons on the ABCs of musicology. Mohamed Ismail Badi (Zugal) taught him the trumpet.

In 1966, the Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum announced a competition for designing an emblem for the faculty. Artists from the College of Graphic Arts, medical students, and lecturers responded. Ahmad Al Safi won that competition and was awarded £50. The evaluation panel included Professors Mansour Ali Haseeb, Anis Mohamed Ali El Shami, H.V. Morgan, and Dr. Abdel Halim Mohamed. It was Prof. Morgan suggested the logo "Honesty and Humility" that was engraved at the bottom of the crest. The emblem he designed is in use up to date. These artistic endeavors and hobbies have polished his taste and improved his appreciation of the beauties of life.

Links and Contact

Ahmad Al Safi can be reached on twitter, YouTube, Sitefinder, blog, facebook, Academia, and LinkedIn. All his books and a full resume are stored in Dropbox public folder for easy access and free downloading.

Publications

Conference papers

  1. Anaesthesia in the Sudan: Reflections on the Present and the Future. 18th Conference of the Sudan Association of Surgeons; 1981 Mar 19; Khartoum.
  2. Cost of Anesthetic Delivery in the Sudan. Conference of the Sudan Association of Surgeons; 1986; Wad Medani.
  3. Temperature Changes Related to Anaesthesia viz. Malignant Hyperthermia: A prospective checklist. International Symposium on Work in a Hot Environment and Heat Related Disorders; 1988 Jan 27; Khartoum
  4. Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Mothers. Safe Motherhood National Symposium; 1988 Mar 27; Khartoum.
  5. Traditional Medicine and its Role in Health Promotion in the Sudan. Ahmad Abd al-Rahim Nasr, Editor. Folklore and Development in the Sudan. Khartoum: Institute of African and Asian Studies; 1985: 241-261. (Sudan Library Series 13).

Note: [Paper read in the First International Symposium on Folklore and Nation Development, 2-5 February 1981].

  1. -- and M. Hag Ali. Appropriate Traditional Technology in Health. Ahfad College 75 Years Anniversary; 25/2/1982. Omdurman.
  2. -- and Hawa Mohammed Salih. Manpower Development in Traditional Medicine: Sudan Experience in Training TBAs. WHO/EMRO Intercountry Meeting on Traditional Medicine; 5–10 March 1983; Khartoum
  3. Glimpses of some pioneers of healthcare services in the Sudan: a plea for documentation. Guest Lecture for the Sudanese Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, February 2006.
  4. Rules and Regulations of Deliberation. Practical Democracy Workshop organized by Sudan Studies Centre and Fredrish Ebert Foundation. Teeba Press Conference Room, Khartoum: 11 December 2006.

Anaesthesia

  1. -- Anaesthesia in the Sudan: Reflections on the Present and the Future. 18th Conference of the Sudan Association of Surgeons. ; 1981 Mar 19; Khartoum.
  2. -- Cost of Anaesthetic Delivery in Sudan. Conference of the Sudan Association of Surgeons; 1986; Wad Medani.
  3. -- Temperature Changes Related to Anaesthesia viz. Malignant Hyperthermia: A prospective checklist. International Symposium on Work in a Hot Environment and Heat Related Disorders; 1988 Jan 27; Khartoum
  4. -- Training of Anaesthesia Medical Assistants: The Sudan's Experience. Sudan Medical Journal. 1981; 17 [In Arabic].
  5. -- Recovery Room Techniques [Xerox].
  6. Department of Anaesthesia Manual (2005). Khartoum College of Medical Sciences, Sudan.
  7. Bashayer Safe Anaesthesia Refresher Course for Anaesthetists and Technicians. Sudan Society of Anaesthesiologists Third Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Conference, 16–17 November 2005.

Hospital Management

  1. -- Hospital Organization and Management in the Sudan. [Two volumes in Arabic]. Khartoum: Sudan Medical Association; 1984.
  2. – Medical Services Department (MSD), ARAMCO Hospital, Khafji Evaluation of Contract No. HT727 HP96-Operation and Management of New Hospital in phase 3: MSD Agenda for a better service, 7 November 1998.
  3. -- AOC Hospital in 3 years: Operation and Management, February 2000.

The Medical Profession

  1. -- Medical Education Committee [Solicited Report]. Postgraduate Medical Qualifications: Recognition and Equivalence. Khartoum: Sudan Medical Council; Aug. 1982.
  2. Good Medical Practice (Arabic translation into Arabic of GMC GMP. 2011.

Health

  1. -- & Hawa Mohammed Salih. Manpower Development in Traditional Medicine: Sudan Experience in Training TBAs. WHO/EMRO Intercountry Meeting on Traditional Medicine; 1983 Mar 5; Khartoum.
  2. -- Can We Face National Disasters? Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1987 Mar 4; In Arabic.
  3. -- Civil Defense الدفاع المدني. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 14/4/ 87; [In Arabic].
  4. -- Health Care in Sudan. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 13/10/85, part 5[In Arabic].
  5. -- Health Care in Sudan. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1985 May 11; part 6[In Arabic].
  6. -- Health Care in Sudan. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1985 June 10; part 1[In Arabic].
  7. -- Health Care in Sudan. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1985 Jul. 10; part 2[In Arabic].
  8. -- Health Care in Sudan. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1985 Aug. 10; part 3 [In Arabic].
  9. -- Health Care in Sudan. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1985 Sep 10; part 4 [In Arabic].
  10. -- Reflections on Health Matters. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1982 Feb. 17; part 1 [In Arabic].
  11. -- Reflections on Health Matters. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1982 Feb. 28; part 2 [In Arabic].
  12. -- Reflections on Health Matters. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1982 Aug. 3; part 3 [In Arabic].
  13. -- Role of Ambulance Services (Excerpts). Al- Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1987 Mar 5; [In Arabic].
  14. -- The Year of Cartoon Shanty Towns. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1987 Mar 31; [In Arabic].
  15. Medical Mistakes (1): Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 2005 May 28; [In Arabic].
  16. Medical Mistakes (2): Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 2005 May 30; [In Arabic].
  17. Medical Mistakes (3): Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 2005 May 31; [In Arabic].
  18. Dr. Muhammad Hamad Satti (Obiturary): Al-Khartoum Daily Newspaper. 2005 March 30; [In Arabic].

Civic Society

  1. -- Councils and Committees. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 14/7/87; part 1 [In Arabic].
  2. -- Codes of Conduct and Deliberations in Meetings. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 16/7/87; part 2 [In Arabic].
  3. -- Conduct of Business at Meetings. Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1987 Jul. 17; part 3 [In Arabic].
  4. -- How are Motions and Resolutions Treated? Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1987 Jul. 18; part 4 [In Arabic].
  5. -- How are Decisions Made? Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1987 Jul. 19; part 5 [In Arabic].

Traditional Medicine

  1. Abdullah O. El Tom; & -- . Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Pregnant Women and Children. Khartoum: Traditional Medicine Research Institute; 1987 June: 71 pages.
  2. A Broad Plan for Development of a Regional Programmes on the Use of Medicinal Plants at the Primary Health Care Level [Working Paper]. For: WHO Inter-Country Scientific Working Group Meeting; 1984 Apr. 20; Kuwait.
  3. The External Influences on Traditional Medical Practices in the Sudan. The Twenty-fourth Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, Indiana University. Bloomington, Indiana, 21-24, October 1981. African Studies Association Papers. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University.
  4. Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Mothers. Safe Motherhood National Symposium; 1988 Mar 27; Khartoum.
  5. An Introduction to the Study of Traditional Medicine in the Sudan [Arabic]. Bulletin of Sudanese Studies. 1981; 6(2): 27-45.
  6. The Magico-Religious Rituals Associated with Pregnancy in the Sudan. Al Hakeem Medical Students Journal. 1969; 7(3): 256-60.
  7. Ahmad Al-Safi [and others]. A Manual of Female Circumcision. Khartoum: Traditional Medicine Research Institute; [Arabic].
  8. Native Medicine in the Sudan: Sources, Concepts and Methods. Khartoum: Sudan Research Unit, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum; 1970 Sep.

Note: Salamabi Prize Competition Series No 1, 74 pp., Xerox.

  1. Ahmad Al-Safi, Director, Traditional Medicine Research Institute and WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine. Traditional Medicine Medium-Term Programmes (1984–89) in the Sudan. African Healing Strategies Symposium; 1984 Mar 7; University of Florida, USA
  2. Traditional Medicine and Justifications for Research [Editorial]. Interview by: Imam M. Imam. Al Sahafa Daily Newspaper. Khartoum; 1982 Mar 24.
  3. Traditional Medicine Research Institute Information Booklet. [In Arabic and English]. Khartoum: National Council for Research; 1983.
  4. Traditional Medicine and its Role in Health Promotion in the Sudan. Ahmad Abd al-Rahim Nasr, Editor. Folklore and Development in the Sudan. Khartoum: Institute of African and Asian Studies; 1985: 241-261. (Sudan Library Series 13).

Note: [Paper read in the First International Symposium on Folklore and Nation Development, 2–5 February 1981].

  1. Tumbura Revisited. The International Symposium on the Spiritual Dimension of Traditional African Medicine; 1988 Jan 11; Khartoum
  2. Al Hajj Hamed M. Kheir; Ahmed Osman Siraj; Idris Salim Al Hasan; -- Female Circumcision: A Strategy for Eradication. In: Atif A. Saghayroun [and others], Editors. Population and Development in the Sudan: The Quest for a National Policy. Khartoum: Sudan National Population Committee; c1988; Proceedings of the Third National Population Committee, 10-14 October 1987, Khartoum: 101-109.
  3. Ahmad Al-Safi [and others] (Director, Traditional Medicine Research Institute, and WHO Collaborating Centre, Khartoum). Selection of Medicinal Plants for Use at Primary Health Care Level [Working Paper]. For: WHO Inter-Country Scientific Working Group Meeting; 1985 Apr. 20; Kuwait.
  4. Lewis, IM, Ahmad Al-Safi, and Sayyid Hurreiz (eds.). Women’s Medicine: the zar-bori cult in Africa and beyond; International African Seminars, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh; 1991: 300 pages.

History of Medicine

  1. Tigani al-Mahi (7 April 1911 – 9 January 1970). Al Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1983 Jan 12.
  2. Tigani al-Mahi: The Father of African Psychiatry. Introduction, In: Ahmad Al-Safi; Taha Baasher, Editors. Tigani El Mahi: Selected Essays. Ist. Ed. Khartoum: Khartoum University Press; 1984: 7-15. 233 Pages.
  3. -- & Taha Baasher, Editors. Tigani al-Mahi: Selected Essays. Ist. Ed. Khartoum: Khartoum University Press; 1981; University of Khartoum, Silver Jubilee-1956-1981. 187 pages.
  4. -- & Taha Baasher, Editors.التجاني الماحي: مقالات مختارة . Ist. ed. Khartoum: Khartoum University Press; 1984; University of Khartoum, 233 pages.
  5. -- & Tigani Al-Mahi. Mythology and Science: Some Aspects of the History of Malaria. Al Hakeem Medical Students Journal. 1968; 7(2): 213-215.
  6. Henry Solomon Wellcome in the Sudan (1853-1936). Al-Ayyam Daily Newspaper. 1987 Mar 31([In Arabic].
  7. Ahmad Al-Safi; Abu Bakr MA Bakkar. The Medical Library, University of Khartoum as a Focal Point Library for Health Sciences. In: Report on the Working Group Meeting on the Study of Functions and Activities of National Focal Point Libraries, Kuwait 1–4 April 1984 ed.; Kuwait: World Health Organization; 1985. 84-87.
  8. A Bibliography of Spirit Possession Cult in the Sudan (computer database).
  9. A Bibliography of Female Genital Cutting in the Sudan: let us work together. Khartoum College of Medical Sciences, 21 December 2005.
  10. A Bibliography of Traditional Medicine in the Sudan (computer database).
  11. Tigani al-Mahi and his Library [Arabic]. Bulletin of Sudanese Studies. 1981; 6(2): 138-40.
  12. An Introduction to Two Medical Bibliographies. Al Sahafa Daily Newspaper. 1974 Mar 19; [Arabic].
  13. A Glossary of Sudanese Medical Vernacular (computer database).
  14. A Sudanese Materia Medica (computer database) in www.sudan-health.com.

Videos

  1. Maharat Medical Training and Consultancy (15 minutes film) 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VmNfuTwgqWE&feature=player_embedded#t=5s

Compact Discs

For those who prefer to read on the small screen, all Ahmad Al Safi published work was included in on CD titled (Sudane Health Heritage) in 2014,

Miscellaneous Writings

  1. Ahmad Al-Safi, translator. African Music with Special Reference to the Azande [Italian]. Father F. Giorgetti, Author. Khartoum Journal. 1970 Feb.; 56-62.
  2. (Editorial) Al-Hakeem Medical Journal. 1968; 7(1): 1-3.
  3. (Editorial) Al-Hakeem Medical Journal. 1968; 7(2): 103-4.
  4. (Editorial) Al-Hakeem Medical Journal. 1969; 7(3): 216-17.
  5. (Editorial) Sudan Medical Journal. 1981; 17.
  6. (Edit) Bread, Hashish and a Moon. Poem by Nizar Gabbani, translated by Tigani Al Mahi, with an introduction by Gamal Mohammed Ahmed. Al Hikma Journal (UK), October 2006.

Medical Anthropology

  1. Prima Faciae for Establishing Medical Anthropology in Sudan. Sudan Medical Journal. Leading Article. Vol. 2 No. 46, 2010. Pages 56–64.

Blog articles

http://www.sudan-health.blogspot.com

  1. Jack Christopherson
  2. Taha Ahmed Baasher
  3. HV Morgan
  4. Ali Wad Ghiyama
  5. Tigani El Mahi, Open Letter to Vice-Chancellor, University of Khartoum
  6. Daoud Mustafa Khalid
  7. Sudan Health Trilogy
  8. Maharat Medical Training Centre
  9. Parilamentary Procedure, July 2008
  10. Sudan National Museum of Health, August 2008
  11. Sudan Editors, August 2008
  12. Sudan Health Trilogy, October 2008
  13. Abdel Hamid Bayoumi, October 2008
  14. Abdalla Omer Abu Shamma, October 2008
  15. Ahmed Mohamed Hashim Baghdadi, October 2008
  16. Abdel Hamied Ibrahim Sulaiman, October 2008
  17. Traditional Sudanese Medicine, November 2008
  18. Ahmed Mohamed El Hassan, November 2008
  19. Sudan Health Trilogy Seminar, April 2009
  20. Mohamed Hammad Satti, December 2009
  21. El Hadi Ahmed El Shaikh, April 2010

Books

  1. Ahmad Al-Safi; Taha Baasher, Editors. Tigani al-Mahi: Selected Essays. Ist. ed. Khartoum: Khartoum University Press; 1981; University of Khartoum, Silver Jubilee-1956-1981. 187 pages.
  2. Ahmad Al-Safi; Taha Baasher, Editors.التجاني الماحي: مقالات مختارة . Ist. ed. Khartoum:
  3. -- Native Medicine in the Sudan: Sources, Concepts and Methods. Khartoum: Sudan Research Unit, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum; 1970 Sep. Salamabi Prize Competition Series No 1, 74 pp.
  4. Lewis, IM, Ahmad Al-Safi, and Sayyid Hurreiz (eds.). Women’s Medicine: the zar-bori cult in Africa and beyond; International African Seminars, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh; 1991: 300 pages.
  5. -- Rules and Regulations of Deliberative Assemblies (المرشد إلى قواعد وإجراءات الهيئات التداولية) Rota print, Cairo, Egypt. 1999: 610 page. [In Arabic].
  6. Rules and Regulations of Modern Organizations (المرشد إلى قواعد وإجراءات التنظيمات الحديثة). Second Edition [In Arabic]. Azza Press. Cairo: 2006: 540 pages (Arabic).
  7. Traditional Sudanese Medicine. Azza Press. Cairo: 2006: 742 pages (English).
  8. الزار والطمبرة في السودان (2008)
  9. Abdel Hamid Ibrahim Suleiman, his life and work. Sudan Currency Printing Press, Khartoum, 2008: 100 pages.
  10. Ahmed Mohamed El Hassan, his life and work. Sudan Currency Printing Press, Khartoum, 2008: 120 pages.
  11. Daoud Mustafa Khalid, his life and work (2009)
  12. El Hadi Ahmed El Sheikh, his life and work (2010)
  13. Mohamed Hamad Satti, his life and work (2011)

Notable Dentists

Pioneers of Sudanese medicine are individuals whose achievements have been seminal to the evolution of the field and whose work has contributed significantly to the establishment and development of the medical profession. Or they have ventured into the bio-medical field before others, or started new specialties.

  • Ahmed Abdel Mageed
  • Ahmed El Bella
  • Ahmed Hassan Shehata
  • Kamal Abbas

Notable Midwives

  • Aziza Barsi
  • Batul Mohamed Eisa
  • Gundiya Saleh Yassin

Notable Nurses

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Notable Pharmacists

  • Abdalla Omer El Khawad
  • Abdel Rahman El Rashid
  • Ahmed Mohamed El Amin Hamid
  • Ibrahim Gasim Mokhayar
  • Sami Ahmed Khalid
  • Yahiya Mohamed El Khair

Notable Biomedical Scientists

  • Abdel Hamid Ibrahim Sulaiman
  • Hashim Warsama Ghalib
  • Muntasir El Tayib Ibrahim
  • Mutamad Ahmed Amin
  • Suad Mohamed Sulaiman

First Basic Science Teachers in Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum=

  • Makram Girgis
  • Ali Khogali
  • Mohamed Hamad Satti
  • Mansour Ali Haseeb===

Notable Technicians

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Schools of Medicine & Health Sciences

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Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum

Faculty of Medicine, Gezira University

Research Institutions

Endemic Diseases Research Institute

Tropical Medicine Research Institute

Ahmed Mohamed El Hassan Tropical Medicine Research Institute

Traditional Medicine Research Institute (WHO Collaborating Centre)

Medicinal and Aromatic Herbs Research Institute

Sudan Medical Heritage Foundation

The Mycetoma Research Centre

Biomedical Gallery (Artifacts, photos, plates, figures, videos)

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Reports and Letters of Historic Value

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Memorabilia (medals, certificates, group photos, etc.)

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Postgraduate Dissertations

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Talented physicians

By Professor Ahmad Al Safi Serious minds take everything in life seriously, hobbies and pastimes included. They take these leisurely activities as source of enjoyment and fun and they invariably excel in their pursuit. In time, many medical doctors have developed those hobbies to second specializations and careers.

On historical writings

The book of note that was written by Sudanese on the history of Sudanese medicine and medical research was that of Prof. Ahmed Bayoumi.

Ahmed Bayoumi’s The History of Sudan Health Services was a revised version of his doctoral thesis (University of Khartoum, 1974). The primary aim of this book was to trace health services in the Sudan through their historical development emphasizing the social, economic and administrative factors. The book no doubt filled a gap in the history of the field of health services and research in the Sudan and proved to be invaluable to health care providers, researchers and students. The book has been reprinted in 2002 in two volumes: volume one: Health Care System and volume two: Disease Epidemiology.

Apart from this work and to an extent that of Prof. Haseeb mentioned above, no other academic books were written on the subject and practically none on the lives and work of the pioneers. Several manuals and monographs on different fields of medicine were published.

On researching traditional medicine

Prof. Ahmad Al Safi book Traditional Sudanese Medicine, a primer for researchers, health care providers, and students (2007) is a wide-ranging 730-page account of traditional Sudanese medicine. It contains a comprehensive 2500-reference General Bibliography and a 600-item Sudanese Materia Medica. In 1970, Khartoum University Press published for Prof. Ahmad Al Safi his book Native Medicine in the Sudan: sources, concepts and methods, which was the first book to be written in English on that subject.

On scientific writings

Scientific monographs and popular writings on professional matters and other fields written by Sudanese medical doctors are many (scientific articles are excluded from this article). They include the works of MY Sukkar, Hafiz El Shazali, Salih Yassin, Musa Abdalla Hamid, Beshir Hamad, Mansour Ali Haseeb, Mohamed Osman Abdel Malik, Sayyid Daoud Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed El Hassan, Mamoun Mohamed Ali Hummaida, Ahmad Al Safi, Zein Abbas Amara, Kamal Mekki El Manna, Tahir Fadl, Shawgi Hassan El Masri, Omer Mohamed Bilail, Ahmed Hassan Fahal, Ali Mohamed Ahmed El Awad, Mohamed Saied Zarroug, Tarig Ismail Hummaida, El Sheikh Mahgoub, Tigani El Mahi, Ahmed Abdel Aziz Yagoub, Mohamed Hassan Gabir, Mustafa El-Seed, Daoud Iskander, as examples.

On sports

Many excelled in sports. Prof. Abdel Hamid Ibrahim had been a member of the GMC football team in 1947 and captain in 1950, as well as a member of the El-Neel football team. Dr Imam Doleib (Public Health specialist) played for the first teams of both El-Hilal and El-Mirriekh clubs. Prof. Nasr El Din Ahmed Mahmoud (Physiologist) was the goal keeper of El-Hilal football club in the early sixties of the last century. Abdalla El Hag Musa (Surgeon) and Mohsin Mohamed Hussain (Neurosurgeon) were both excellent basketball players when they were young.

On culture

The several personal gifts of the late Prof. Tigani El Mahi could hardly be categorized as hobbies. He was a serious bibliophile, collector of rare manuscripts, maps, and letters of historical value. His personal library has been proverbial. He was a famous Egyptologist and a world authority in hieroglyphics. He was also interested in music and was alleged to have played the lute. I could not verify this piece of information, but I could confirm that he studied musicology as seriously as he studied other disciplines in life. When he found out that I had a TV programme on music in 1966 and I was practicing on the trumpet, he gave me a mandolin as a gift, which I presume was his. He also gave me Scholes: The Oxford Companion to Music (1955), Cecil Gray: The History of Music (1928), Gustav E. Reese: Music in the Renaissance (1954) and a valuable book compiled and translated into English by Baheega Sidky Rasheed titled Egyptian Folk Songs (1958) including several original musical scores.

In the early 1960s, Prof. Ahmad Al Safi and the late Mrs. Awatif Osman Sherfi presented a TV Music Programme with the aim of educating the public, documenting Sudanese music, and profiling Sudanese musicians. This programme was presented when TV transmission was live in black and white, and before the foundation of the Institute of Music and Drama. The programme, which ran through several episodes, was directed and produced by the late TV veteran, Mr. Faroug Sulaiman.

On music

When active musicians among medical doctors are mentioned, Mr. Ali Nour El Galiel (Cardiac Surgeon), immediately comes to mind. Dr Habib Abdalla (the pioneer Sudanese Radiologist) played the piano and had a large collection of classical music, which he passed on together with the love of music to his family, namely Dr Saad Habib. Dr Labib Abdalla played the violin. Earlier still, Mohamed Adam Adham (graduated from Kitchner School of Medicine in 1939) was a violinist and composer. Dr Adham was one of the few doctors who studied music. His violin pieces the Adhamiyat were popular in Sudan Broadcasting Service play-list in its early days. Dr Adham was the first president-elect of the Sudan Singers’ Syndicate in the 1940s. He was nominated to that post by singers Ahmed El Mustafa and Hassan Sulaiman.

Earlier still, Dr Mahmoud Hamdi (graduated from Kitchner School of Medicine in 1929) played the violin, mandolin and lute and composed music for songs that came after the Hagieba era. He played music in some of those songs but was not noted as a practicing musician.

Few people know that Dr Zaki Mustafa (Gynaecologist) was a talented saxophonist and Dr Magboul Mohamed Ali Magboul (Anaesthetist) an excellent trumpet player when they were young. Both were the products of the Sudanese secondary schools in their glorious days.

On fine arts

To see a glimpse of the artistic talent of Dr Al Hadi Babiker (Psychiatrist), have a look at the portrait of the late Prof. Tigani El Mahi currently on display in the Basic Skills Laboratory in Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, which he drew when he was a medical student.

In 1966, the Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum announced a competition for designing an emblem for the faculty. Artists from the College of Graphic Arts, medical students, and lecturers responded. Ahmad Al Safi won that competition and was awarded £50. The evaluation panel included Professors Mansour Ali Haseeb, Anis Mohamed Ali El Shami, H.V. Morgan, and Dr. Abdel Halim Mohamed. It was Prof. Morgan suggested the logo "Honesty and Humility" that was engraved at the bottom of the crest. The emblem he designed is in use up to date indicating its worth.

On poetry

Poets among Sudanese doctors were many. The list includes Dr Ali Arbab (1929 graduate) who in addition wrote poetry in English, Mahmoud Hamdi (1929 graduate), Dr Abdel Halim Mohamed, Prof. Mansour Ali Haseeb, Dr Zein El Abdeen Ibrahim, Prof. Haddad Omar Karoam, Dr Mohamed Osman Giritley (also played the lute), Dr Mohamed El Hassan Abu Bakr (Physician), Dr Imam Doleib, Dr Ahmed Shadoul (Paediatrician), Dr Hasabou Suleiman (Psychiatrist), Dr El Zein Abbas Amara, Prof. Moutaz Omer Bakhiet (Neurologist), Prof. Mustafa Abdalla (Paediatrician), Dr Hussain Yagoub (Internist), Dr Omar Mahmoud Khalid (Internist), and Ahmed Badi (Wad Badi).

On literary writing

The list of writers includes Dr. Ibrahim Anis (1929 graduate), Dr Abdalla Omer Abu Shamma (Public Health Consultant), was the first Sudanese story writer. Mansour Ali Haseeb (Bacteriologist), was writer and translator of Harold McMichael articles on the coming of the Arabs into Sudan. Musa Abdallah Hamid (Surgeon) is a prolific writer, translator, historian and biographer. Dr Abdel Halim Mohamed (Physician) was a writer and literary critic. Prof. Ahmad Al Safi book titled A Manual of Rules and Procedure of Modern Organizations, Cairo, (1ST Edition 1999: 600 pages, 2nd Edition 2007: 530 pages) is an authority manual in parliamentary procedure in Arabic. This book is recognized by critics as the only book in Arabic in the Sudan and Arabic-speaking countries. The book is written with the purpose of empowering citizens whether organized or to be organized, to achieve professional and personal goals through efficient and effective systematic deliberations.

On social engagements

Medical doctors wherever they worked have always been recognized as respectable figures in their communities, and were entrusted with the leadership of their social and community institutions. At a time in Sudan’s history, almost all major municipal councils were lead by medical doctors.

Abdel Halim Mohamed, for example, was noted to have been president or chairperson for at least twelve notable institutions including the Sudan Football Association, basketball association, horse racing, Olympic Committee, Khartoum Civil Hospital, Khartoum University Council, Khartoum Municipal Council, Doctors’ Union, and, of course, he was member and rotating president of the Sudan Supreme Council of State.

Medical doctors were instrumental in founding literary and cultural clubs and discussion groups in the early days of struggle against the condominium rule. Those clubs were found where ever doctors worked. Medical doctors also contributed significantly in the formulation of the Graduate Conference the predecessor of political parties in Sudan.

On journalism

The Radio and TV broadcasters were many. They start with the late Abu Obaida El Magzoub and end by Dr. Omar Mahmoud Khalid and Prof. Mamoun M. A. Homaida.

Dr Ibrahim Anis (1904-1961) of the second batch to graduate from Kitchner School of Medicine was instrumental in establishing professional journalism in the country. The advisory group they made for Ismail Al Atabani was helpful to Soat Al Sudan and Al Rai Al Aam. Abdel Halim Mohamed had been a literary critic. Dr Mohamed Adam Adham created and edited Africa Magazine and Al Ghalam newspaper in the 1940s.

On politics

Politicians are too many to recount. Indeed, the role played by medical doctors in politics is not in the political posts they held, but by influencing the political scene. This is a rich and interesting chapter. Dr Ibrahim Anis (1929 graduate of KSM) was the first Ambassador of the Sudan in Washington. However, the politicians worthy of note are those who held the rotational post of Supreme Members of State, namely Mohamed El Mubarak El Fadil Shaddad, Abdel Halim Mohamed, and Tigani El Mahi. A post they rightly deserved due to undisputed high reputation and credibility in society.

On bibliographies

Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb dedicated his book A Monograph on Biomedical Research in the Sudan (1970) to the NCR for the benefit of young research workers. The monograph has been a 1500-entry bibliography of biomedical literature with a concise and highly informative introduction.

Professor Ahmad Al Safi A Bibliography of Biomedical Literature in the Sudan (1900-2000) is currently 6000-entry long and work is still going on. This is a compilation of medical literature on the Sudan by Sudanese scholars and expatriate staff produced during the 20th century. It includes in addition to published material, grey literature i.e., technical reports, white papers, drafts, departmental manuals, conference papers and proceedings, relevant articles in newspapers, raw data, memoranda, project summaries, trip reports, working and discussion papers, unofficial government documents, studies, market surveys, pamphlets, brochures, and newsletters.

Philanthropists

Henry Solomon Wellcome

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Mohamed Hashim Baghdadi

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Britons in Sudan Medical Service (1900-1965)

  • Anderson, RG
  • Archibald, Sir Robert G
  • Atkey, OFH
  • Balfour, Sir Andrew
  • Bartholomew, F
  • Bates, JD
  • Beam, William
  • Bloss, JFE
  • Bousfield, Leonard
  • Butler, H
  • Chalmers, Sir Albert J
  • Christopherson, JB
  • Cloudsley-Thompson, JL
  • Corkill, N L
  • Crispin, ES
  • Crockett, D
  • Crowfoot, Molly
  • Cruickshank, A
  • Culwick, CM
  • Cummins, AB
  • Cummins, SL
  • Currie, Sir James
  • D’Arcy, Patrick
  • Daly, G
  • Horgan, Eric S
  • Hovell, JS
  • Husband, Mr
  • Kendall, Miss EM
  • King, H H
  • Kirk, Robert
  • Lewis, DJ
  • Lynch, JB
  • MacGowan, WAL
  • Mackenzie, C
  • Maurice, GK
  • Mayne, FS
  • McGowen, Prof
  • McKelvie, AR
  • Morgan, HV
  • Morris, EWT
  • Nicholls, M F
  • O'Conner, Mr
  • O'Shaughnessy, LF
  • Pridie, Sir Eric Denholm
  • Squires, HC
  • Taylor, Julian
  • Theobald, FV
  • Verzin, JA
  • Waterfield, NE
  • Wellcome, Sir Henry S
  • Wenyon, CM
  • Wolff, Miss Gertrude L
  • Wolff, Miss Mabel E
  • Woodruff, AW

Traditional Sudanese medicine

Beliefs

Supreme beings

Supernatural beings

Evil Eye

Magic

Witchcraft

Sorcery

Natural phenomena

Practitioners

Religious healers

Witchdoctors

Kujurs

Bonesetters

Herbalists

Shallaga

Midwives

Zar Shaikha

Tumbura shaikhs

Divinatory methods

Mandal

Raml-sand divination

Wada (cowrie shell)

Dream interpretation

Numerology

Awfag

Jaffar Asghar

Jaffar Akbar

Zayirga

Religious practices

Baraka

Karama

Mihaya

Rugia

Azima

Shifaa

Magical practices

Zar

Magic

Witchcraft

Sorcery

Evil Eye

Surgical practices

Caesarian Section

Female genital cutting

Male circumcision

Adal

Tas-heem

Uvulectomy

Keloid-formed scars

Harmful practices

Female genital cutting

Shulukh (Facial scarring)

Taboos

Preferential baby care

Baby feeding and weaning

General practices

Rituals

Symbols

Treatment techniques

Recipe forms

Muscle relaxants

Poisons

Toxins

Laxative and purgatives

Aromatic

Emmenagogues

Diuretics

Astringent

Lactogenic

Emetic

Culinary

Pharmaceutical forms

Suppositories

Enemas

Incense

Nose & ear wash

Eye lotions & drops

Lozenges

Powders

Emollients

Surgical Instruments

Lazim

Samandia

Murwad

Risha

Makhri

Ishfa

Ibra

Sakin (knife)

Healing centres & places

Maseeds

Atara

Sanctuaries

Prevention

Amulets

Roots

Variolation

Isolation (Kurbaba, kujra, & kurfa)

Clothes

Dwellings

Nuba Patens

Women health

Conception

Fertility & infertility

Virility, femininity & sexuality

Gestation

Contraception

Abortion

Midwifery

Scented massage

Scented smoke bath

Child health

Baby feeding and weaning

Teething

Birth anomalies

Monstrosities

Mental stimulation

Khalwa

Ahaji

Nursery rhymes

Quizzes

Food

Types

Preparation

Preservation

Menu choice

Taboos

Beverages

Types

Preparation

Preservation

Choice

Water

Sources

Procurement

Preservation

Purification

The medical profession

Organization

Societies

Teaching & Training

Schools

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