- This article was considered for deletion at Wikipedia on February 17 2015. This is a backup of Wikipedia:Whale. All of its AfDs can be found at Wikipedia:Special:PrefixIndex/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Whale, the first at Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Whale.
Template:About Template:Pp-semiTemplate:Pp-move-indef Template:Taxobox Whale (origin Old English hwæl from Proto-Germanic *hwalaz) is the common name for various marine mammals of the order Cetacea. The term whale sometimes refers to all cetaceans, but more often it excludes dolphins and porpoises, which belong to the suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales). This suborder includes the sperm whale, killer whale, pilot whale, and beluga whale. The other cetacean suborder, Mysticeti (baleen whales), comprises filter feeders who eat small organisms caught by straining seawater through a comblike structure found in the mouth called baleen. This suborder includes the blue whale, the humpback whale, the bowhead whale and the minke whale. All cetaceans have forelimbs modified as fins, a tail with horizontal flukes, and nasal openings (blowholes) on top of the head.
Whales range in size from the blue whale, the largest animal known to have ever existed, at 30 m and 180 t, to pygmy species such as the pygmy sperm whale at 3.5 m. Whales inhabit all the world's oceans and number in the millions, with annual population growth rate estimates for various species ranging from 3% to 13%. Whales are long-lived, humpback whales living for up to 77 years, while bowhead whales may live for more than a century.
Human hunting of whales from the seventeenth century until 1986 radically reduced the populations of some whale species.
- 1 Taxonomy
- 2 Evolution
- 3 Anatomy
- 4 Life history and behavior
- 5 Ecology
- 6 Interaction with humans
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Cetaceans are divided into two suborders:
- The largest suborder, Mysticeti (baleen whales), is characterized by the presence of baleen, a sieve-like structure in the upper jaw made of keratin, which it uses to filter plankton from the water.
- Odontoceti (toothed whales) bear sharp teeth for hunting. Odontoceti includes dolphins and porpoises. If they were not considered to be whales, this would mean that the informal grouping 'whale' is not a clade.
All cetaceans, including whales, dolphins, and porpoises, are descendants of land-dwelling mammals of the artiodactyl order (even-toed ungulates). Both are related to the Indohyus, an extinct semi-aquatic deer-like ungulate, from which they split approximately 54 million years ago. These primitive cetaceans first took to the sea approximately 50 million years ago and became fully aquatic by 5–10 million years later. Their features became adapted for living in the marine environment. Major anatomical changes include streamlining of the body, the migration of the nasal openings toward the top of the cranium, the shrinking and eventual disappearance of the hind limbs, the modification of the forelimbs into flippers, and the growth of flukes on the tail.
As with all mammals, whales breathe air, are warm-blooded, nurse their young with milk from mammary glands, and have body hair. Beneath the skin lies a layer of fat called blubber, which stores energy and insulates the body. Whales have a spinal column, a vestigial pelvic bone, and a four-chambered heart. Typically, the neck vertebrae are fused, an adaptation trading flexibility for stability during swimming.
Whales breathe via blowholes; baleen whales have two and toothed whales have one. These are located on the top of the head, allowing the animal to remain almost completely submerged while breathing. Breathing involves expelling stale air (which is warm and moist), as well as some mucus and excess water from the blowhole, forming an upward, steamy spout, followed by inhaling fresh air into the lungs. Spout shapes differ among species, which facilitates identification.
The body shape is fusiform and the modified forelimbs, or fins, are paddle-shaped. The end of the tail is composed of two flukes, which propel the animal by vertical movement, as opposed to the horizontal movement of a fish tail. Although whales do not possess fully developed hind limbs, some (such as sperm whales and baleen whales) possess discrete rudimentary appendages, which may contain feet and digits. Most species have a dorsal fin.
Toothed whales, such as the sperm whale, possess teeth with cementum cells overlying dentine cells. Unlike human teeth, which are composed mostly of enamel on the portion of the tooth outside of the gum, whale teeth have cementum outside the gum. Only in larger whales, where the cementum is worn away on the tip of the tooth, does enamel show.
Instead of teeth, baleen whales have a row of baleen plates on the upper side of their jaws that resemble the teeth of a comb.
The whale ear has specific adaptations to the marine environment. In humans, the middle ear works as an impedance equalizer between the outside air's low impedance and the cochlear fluid's high impedance. In aquatic mammals, such as whales, however, there is no great difference between the outer and inner environments. Instead of sound passing through the outer ear to the middle ear, whales receive sound through the throat, from which it passes through a low-impedance fat-filled cavity to the inner ear. The whale ear is acoustically isolated from the skull by air-filled sinus pockets, which allow for greater directional hearing underwater.
Life history and behavior
The female usually delivers a single calf, which is birthed tail-first to minimize the risk of drowning. Whale cows nurse by squirting milk into the mouths of their young. This milk is so rich in fat that it has the consistency of toothpaste. In many species, nursing continues for more than a year and is associated with a strong bond between mother and calf. Reproductive maturity typically occurs at seven to ten years. This mode of reproduction produces few offspring, but increases the survival probability of each one.
Whales are known to teach, learn, cooperate, scheme, and even grieve. The neocortex of many species of whale is home to elongated spindle neurons that, prior to 2007, were known only in hominids. In humans these cells are involved in social conduct, emotions, judgment, and theory of mind. Whale spindle neurons are found in areas of the brain that are homologous to where they are found in humans, suggesting that they perform a similar function.
Unlike most animals, whales are conscious breathers. All mammals sleep, but whales cannot afford to become unconscious for long because they may drown. While knowledge of sleep in wild cetaceans is limited, toothed cetaceans in captivity have been recorded to sleep with one side of their brain at a time, ostensibly so that they may swim, breathe consciously, avoid both predators and social contact during their period of rest. It is thought that only one hemisphere of the whale's brain sleeps at a time, so that they rest, but are never completely asleep.
A 2008 study found that wild sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) sleep in vertical postures just under the surface in passive shallow 'drift-dives', generally during the day, during which whales do not respond to passing vessels unless they are in contact, leading to the suggestion that whales possibly sleep during such dives.
Many whales exhibit behaviors that expose large parts of their bodies to the air, such as breaching and tail slapping.
Sounding is a term used for whales diving. Typically it is only used for longer dives. Before sounding, whales typically stay close to the surface for a series of short, shallow dives while building their oxygen reserves. They then make a sounding dive.
Whale lifespans vary among species and are not well characterized. Whaling left few older individuals to observe directly. R.M. Nowak of Johns Hopkins University estimated that humpback whales may live as long as 77 years. In 2007, a nineteenth-century lance fragment was found in a bowhead whale off Alaska, which suggests the individual could be between 115 and 130 years old. Aspartic acid racemization in the whale eye, combined with a harpoon fragment, indicated an age of 211 years for another male, which, if true, would make bowheads the longest-lived extant mammal species. The accuracy of this age determination method has been questioned because racemization does not correlate well with other dating methods.
Template:Listen Some species, such as the humpback whale, communicate using melodic sounds, known as whale song. These sounds may be extremely loud, depending on the species. Sperm whales only have been heard making clicks, while toothed whales (Odontoceti) use echolocation that may generate approximately 20,000 watts of sound (+73 dBm or +43 dBw) and be heard for many miles. Whale vocalization is likely to serve many purposes, including echolocation, mating, and identification.
Captive whales occasionally have been known to mimic human speech. Scientists have suggested this indicates a strong desire on behalf of the whales to communicate with humans, as whales have a very different vocal mechanism, so producing human speech likely takes considerable effort.
Whales are considered as "marine ecosystem engineers" for the following reasons:
- Whales are major consumers of fish and oceanic invertebrates.
- Whales act as reservoirs of nutrients, such as iron and nitrogen, and they recycle them both horizontally and vertically in the water column.
- Whale detritus provides energy and habitat for deep sea organisms.
Whales generally are classed as predators. Their food ranges from microscopic plankton to very large animals.
Baleen whales, such as humpbacks and blues, mainly eat krill when feeding in the higher latitudes (such as the Southern Ocean). They take in enormous amounts of seawater that they expel through their baleen plates; the krill in the seawater are retained on the plates and then swallowed. Whales do not drink seawater. They extract water indirectly from their food by metabolizing fat.
A 2010 study considered whales to be a positive influence to the productivity of ocean fisheries, in what has been termed a "whale pump." Whales carry nutrients such as nitrogen from the depths back to the surface. This functions as an upward biological pump, reversing an earlier presumption that whales accelerate the loss of nutrients to the bottom. This nitrogen input in the Gulf of Maine is "more than the input of all rivers combined" emptying into the gulf, some 23,000 metric tons each year. Whales defecate at the oceans surface and this excrement is important for fisheries because it is rich in iron and nitrogen. The whale feces are liquid and instead of sinking, they stay at the surface where phytoplankton feed off it.
Upon death, whale carcasses fall to the deep ocean and being massive, with body weights of the range 30 to, provide a substantial habitat for marine creatures. Evidence of whale falls in present day and fossil records shows that deep sea whale falls support a rich assemblage of creatures, with a global diversity of 407 species as per Smith & Baco (2003), comparable to other neritic biodiversity hotspots, such as cold seeps and hydrothermal vents.
Deterioration of whale carcasses happens though a series of three stages. Initially, moving organisms such as sharks and hagfish, scavenge the soft tissues at a rapid rate over a period of months, and as long as two years. This is followed by the colonisation of bones and surrounding sediments (which contain organic matter) by enrichment opportunists, such as crustaceans and polychaetes, throughout a period of years. Finally, sulfophilic bacteria reduce the bones releasing hydrogen sulfide enabling the growth of chemoautotrophic organisms, which in turn, support other organisms such as mussels, clams, limpets, and sea snails. This stage may last for decades and supports a rich assemblage of species, averaging 185 species per site as per Smith & Baco (2003).
Interaction with humans
Some species of large whales are listed as endangered by multinational organizations, such as CITES, as well as governments and advocacy groups. This status is due primarily to the impact of whaling. Whales have been hunted commercially since the seventeenth century for whale oil, meat, baleen, and ambergris (a perfume ingredient from the intestine of sperm whales). More than two million whales were taken during the twentieth century, and by the middle of that century, many populations were severely depleted.
The International Whaling Commission banned commercial whaling in 1986. The ban is not absolute, however, and some whaling continues under the auspices of scientific research (sometimes not proved) or aboriginal rights. Current whaling nations are Norway, Iceland, and Japan as well as the aboriginal communities of Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada.
Belugas and orcas have been kept in captivity since 1861 and 1961, respectively, for public display in a few locations. They are popular due to their intelligence, trainability, striking appearance, playfulness in captivity, and size. Belugas have also been kept captive for naval research in the US and Russia.
Most current captives were caught in the wild, since captive breeding has had limited success. There is controversy over captivity, with limited enrichment activities and tank sizes, though defenders say easy access for research and public viewing are beneficial. The whales have far larger family groups and ranges in the wild than in captivity.
An estimated 13 million people went whale watching globally in 2008, in all oceans except the Arctic. There are numerous rules and codes of conduct to minimize harassment of the whales. Iceland, Japan and Norway have both whaling and whale watching industries. Whale watching lobbyists are concerned that the most inquisitive whales, which approach boats very closely and provide much of the entertainment on whale-watching trips, will be the first to be taken if whaling is done in the same areas.
Several species of small whales are caught as bycatch while fishing for other species. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific tuna fishery, thousands of dolphins drowned in purse-seine nets, until preventive measures were introduced. Gear and deployment modifications, and eco-labelling (dolphin-safe or dolphin-friendly brands of tuna), have contributed to a reduction in dolphin mortality by tuna vessels.
Environmentalists speculate that advanced naval sonar endangers some cetaceans, including whales. In 2003, British and Spanish scientists suggested in Nature that the effects of sonar trigger whale beachings and they point to signs that such whales have experienced decompression sickness. Responses in Nature the following year discounted the explanation.
Mass beachings occur in many species, mostly beaked whales that use echolocation for deep diving. The frequency and size of beachings around the world, recorded throughout the last thousand years in religious tracts, and more recently in scientific surveys, have been used to estimate the population of various whale species by assuming that the proportion of the total whale population beaching in any one year is constant. Beached whales can give other clues about population conditions, especially health problems. For example, bleeding around ears, internal lesions, and nitrogen bubbles in organ tissue suggest decompression sickness.
Following public concern, the U.S. Defense department was ordered by the 9th Circuit Court to strictly limit use of its Low Frequency Active Sonar during peacetime. Attempts by the UK-based Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society to obtain a public inquiry into the possible dangers of the Royal Navy's equivalent (the "2087" sonar launched in December 2004) failed as of 2008. The European Parliament has requested that EU members refrain from using the powerful sonar system until an environmental impact study has been carried out.[no citations needed here]
The 1851 American novel, Moby-Dick by Herman Melville concerns a vexed captain's hunt for a gigantic white whale. Rudyard Kipling's 1902 Just So Stories includes the tale of "How the Whale got his Throat". The film Whale Rider directed by Niki Caro has a Maori girl ride a whale in her quest to be a suitable heir to the chiefship. An enormous whale called Monstro is the final antagonist featured in Walt Disney's 1940 animated film Pinocchio.
Whales were little understood for most of human history as little of their lives could be seen from the surface of the ocean. Many cultures, even those that have hunted them, hold whales in awe and feature them in their mythologies. In China, Yu-kiang, a whale with the hands and feet of a human was said to rule the ocean. In the Tyrol region of Austria, it was said that if a sunbeam were to fall on a girl entering puberty, she would be carried away in the belly of a whale. Paikea, the youngest and favourite son of the chief Uenuku from the island of Mangaia (Cook Islands), was said by the Kati Kuri people of Kaikoura to have traveled from the Pacific Islands on the back of a whale many centuries before. The whale features in Inuit creation myths. When 'Big Raven', a deity in human form, found a stranded whale, he was told by the Great Spirit where to find special mushrooms that would give him the strength to drag the whale back to the sea and thus, return order to the world. The Tlingit people of northern Canada said that the Orcas were created when the hunter Natsihlane carved eight fish from yellow cedar, sang his most powerful spirit song, and commanded the fish to leap into the water. In an Icelandic legend a man threw a stone at a fin whale and hit the blowhole, causing the whale to burst. The man was told not to go to sea for twenty years, but during the nineteenth year he went fishing and a whale came and killed him. In East African legend, King Sulemani asked God that he might permit him to feed all the beings on earth. A whale came and ate until there was no corn left and then told Sulemani that he still was hungry and that there were 70,000 more in his tribe. Sulemani then prayed to God for forgiveness and thanked the creature for teaching him a lesson in humility.
Some cultures associate divinity with whales, such as among Ghanaians and Vietnamese, who occasionally hold funerals for beached whales, a throwback to Vietnam's ancient sea-based Austro-Asiatic culture.
Template:Anchor The Bible mentions whales in Genesis 1:21, Job 7:12, Ezekiel and 32:2. The "sea monsters" in Lamentations 4:3 have been taken by some commentators to refer to marine mammals, in particular whales, although most modern versions use the word "jackals" instead. The story of Jonah being swallowed by a "big Fish" is told both in the Qur'an and in the Bible. The Old Testament contains the Book of Jonah and in the New Testament, Jesus mentions this story in Matthew 12:40.
And God Created Great Whales, written in 1970 by American composer Alan Hovhaness, is a work for orchestra and whale songs, including the recorded sounds of humpback, bowhead, and killer whales. The song "Il n'y a plus rien", from French singer-songwriter Léo Ferré's eponymous album (1973), is an example of biomusic that begins and ends with recorded whale songs mixed with a symphonic orchestra and his voice.
- 52-hertz whale
- Cetacean stranding
- Cetacean Conservation Center
- Cetacean intelligence
- List of cetaceans
- List of cetaceans by population
- List of extinct cetaceans
- Vocal learning
- Whale fall
- Whale meat
- Whale watching
- Whale feces
- Brown, Lesley, ed. (2007). Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. II (Sixth ed.). Oxford: Oxford University press. p. 3611.
- "What is the biggest animal ever to exist on Earth?". How Stuff Works. http://science.howstuffworks.com/question687.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-29.
- "Whale Population Estimates". International Whaling Commission. March 2010. http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/estimate.htm#table. Retrieved March 2010.
- Anon (25 January 2005). "Scientists find missing link between the whale and its closest relative, the hippo". PhysOrg.com. PhysOrg.com. http://www.physorg.com/news2806.html. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
- Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy. "Whales Descended From Tiny Deer-like Ancestors". ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071220220241.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
- Dawkins, Richard (2004). The Ancestor's Tale, A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-00583-8.
- "How whales learned to swim". BBC News. 8 May 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1974869.stm. Retrieved 2006-08-20.
- "Whales". http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/whales/. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- "Beluga Whale". Yellowmagpie.com. 2012-06-27. http://yellowmagpie.com/beluga-whale/. Retrieved 2013-08-12.
- "About Whales". Whalesalive.org.au. 2009-06-26. http://www.whalesalive.org.au/aboutwhales.html. Retrieved 2013-08-12.
- "Whales Don’t Spray Water Out of Their Blowholes". Gizmodo. Gawker Media. http://gizmodo.com/whales-don-t-spray-water-out-of-their-blowholes-1445483468.
- "Whales". Whaletimes.org. http://www.whaletimes.org/whales.htm. Retrieved 2013-08-12.
- Amazing Facts
-  
- "Common Characteristics of Whale Teeth". http://www.antiquescrimshaw.org. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "How is that whale listening?". http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-02/iop-hit020108.php. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- Nummela, Sirpa.; Thewissen, J.G.M; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, Taseer; Kumar, Kishor (2007). "Sound transmission in archaic and modern whales: Anatomical adaptations for underwater hearing". The Anatomical Record 290 (6): 716–733. Template:Citation error. PMID 17516434.
- Template:Cite episode
- Template:Cite episode
- Siebert, Charles (8 July 2009). "Watching Whales Watching Us". New York Times Magazine. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/12/magazine/12whales-t.html?pagewanted=all.
- Watson, K.K.; Jones, T.K.; Allman, J.M. (2006). "Dendritic architecture of the Von Economo neurons". Neuroscience 141 (3): 1107–1112. Template:Citation error. PMID 16797136.
- Allman, John M.; Watson, Karli K.; Tetreault, Nicole A.; Hakeem, Atiya Y. (2005). "Intuition and autism: a possible role for Von Economo neurons". Trends Cogn Sci 9 (8): 367–373. Template:Citation error. PMID 16002323.
- Hof, Patrick R.; Van Der Gucht, Estel (2007). "Structure of the cerebral cortex of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Balaenopteridae)". The Anatomical Record 290 (1): 1–31. Template:Citation error. PMID 17441195.
- Anon. "Do whales and dolphins sleep?". How Stuff Works. Discovery Communications. http://animals.howstuffworks.com/mammals/question643.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- Template:Cite doi
- Anon (2005). "Humpback Whale". Animal Infor. Animal Info. http://www.animalinfo.org/species/cetacean/meganova.htm#Maximum_age. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- Conroy, Erin (June 2007). "Netted whale hit by lance a century ago". Associated Press. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19195624/. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- "Bowhead Whales May Be the World's Oldest Mammals". 15 February 2008. http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF15/1529.html. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- George, J.C.; Bada, Jeffrey; Zeh, Judith; Scott, Laura; Brown, Stephen E.; O'Hara, Todd; Suydam, Robert (1999). "Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) via aspartic acid racemization". Can. J. Zool. 77 (4): 571–580. Template:Citation error.
- Brignole, Edward; McDowell, Julie. "Amino Acid Racemization". Today's chemist at work. American Chemical Society. http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/journals/tcaw/10/i02/html/02brignole.html. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- dBm – dBw Watts conversion chart, Radio-Electronics.com
- "Cetacean Curriculum – A teacher’s guide to introducing and using whales, dolphins, & porpoises in the classroom" (PDF). American Cetacean Society. 28 November 2004. http://acsonline.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/ACS-Cetacean-Curriculum.pdf. Retrieved 20 December 2013. "Sound production in cetaceans is a complex phenomenon not fully understood by scientists."
- Nick Collins (2012-10-22). "Whale learns to mimic human speech". London: The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/9625687/Whale-learns-to-mimic-human-speech.html. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- Roman, Joe ; Estes, James A.; Morissette, Lyne; Smith, Craig ; Costa, Daniel; McCarthy, James; Nation, J.B.; Nicol, Stephen; Pershing, Andrew & Smetacek, Victor (2014). "Whales as marine ecosystem engineers". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment (Ecological Society of America). Template:Citation error. http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/130220. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "Whale poop pumps up ocean health". ScienceDaily. October 12, 2010. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101012101255.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
- Roman J, McCarthy JJ (2010). Roopnarine, Peter. ed. "The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin". PLoS ONE 5 (10): e13255. Template:Citation error.
- "Whale poo important for ocean ecosystems". 26 May 2014. http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/news/2014/05/whale-poo-important-for-ocean-ecosystems. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- Smith, Craig R. & Baco, Amy R. (2003). "Ecology of Whale Falls at the Deep-Sea Floor". Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review (Taylor & Francis) 41: 311–354. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/oceanography/faculty/csmith/Files/Smith%20and%20Baco%202003.pdf. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Japan Whaling Assoc. -History of Whaling. Whaling.jp. Retrieved on 2011-11-18.
- Desonie, Dana (2008). Polar Regions: Human Impacts. Infobase Publishing. p. 154. ISBN 0-8160-6218-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=7dJ4eYkOWIoC&pg=PA154.
- Anon. "Revised Management Scheme Information on the background and progress of the Revised Management Scheme (RMS)". International Whaling Commission. http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/rms.htm. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
- Whaling on trial: Vindication!. Greenpeace.org (23 December 2010). Retrieved on 2011-11-18.
- "The Whales, New York Tribune, August 9, 1861". New York Tribune. 9 August 1861. http://chnm.gmu.edu/lostmuseum/lm/190/. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- "Killer Whale Netted in Newport Harbor". Independent-Press-Telegram Newspaper of Long Beach, California / Bob Geivet. November 19, 1961. http://newspaperarchive.com/independent-press-telegram/1961-11-19/?tag=killer+whale+wanda&rtserp=tags/?plo=killer-whale-wanda/. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "'Newport Specimen' November, 1961 / Behavioral, Antatomical and Pathological Data on the 'Newport Specimen'". Marineland of the Pacific Historical Society. http://www.marinelandofthepacific.org/animalcollection/killerwhales.html. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "Beluga Whales in Captivity" (PDF). Special Report on Captivity 2006. Canadian Marine Environment Protection Society. 2006. http://webpages.charter.net/hrynyshyn/pdfs/Beluga_Report_web2006.pdf. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Tank Worlds" Orca Home. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- "Beluga Whales". Mystic Aquarium. http://www.mysticaquarium.org/animals-and-exhibits/species-of-the-month/731-beluga-whales. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "Beluga Whales Training". GeorgiaAquarium. 2008-03-04. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E0WR6cXMC2g. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- Bonner, W.N.. Whales. Poole, England: Abe Books. pp. 17, 23–24. ISBN 0713708875. http://www.abebooks.co.uk/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=2015817848&searchurl=isbn%3D0713708875.
- "We played music for belugas". SMAD-Sea Mammals Are Delightful. 2014-11-12. http://j.smad.info. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "Mariachi Band Serenades Beluga Whale". Huffington Post. 2011-08-03. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/03/mariachi-band-plays-for-beluga-whale_n_917178.html. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- Beland, Pierre (1996). Beluga: A Farewell to Whales (1 ed.). The Lyons Press. p. 224. ISBN 1-55821-398-8.
- "Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)Facts – Distribution – In the Zoo". WAZA : World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. http://www.waza.org/en/zoo/visit-the-zoo/aquatic-mammals-1254385523/delphinapterus-leucas. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Raja, Tasneem (November–December 2014). "SeaWorld Says It Has to Keep Orcas in Captivity to Save Them". Mother Jones. http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/12/seaworld-killer-whale-orca-science-blackfish. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Species of the Month, Juno". Mystic Aquarium. http://www.mysticaquarium.org/animals-and-exhibits/species-of-the-month/1002-speices-of-the-month-juno. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- Brennan, Deborah Sullivan (May 11, 2014). "Should SeaWorld stop breeding orcas?". San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2014/may/11/seaworld-kalia-killer-whales-breeding/2/. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "SeaWorld: The Truth Is in Our Parks and People An Open Letter from SeaWorld’s Animal Advocates". SeaWorld. 2014. http://seaworld.com/en/truth/letter/. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Illustrated Encyclopaedia of North American Mammals: A Comprehensive Guide to Mammals of North America. MobileReference. 2009. ISBN 9781605012797.
- O’Connor, Simon, Economists at Large (2009). "Whale Watching Worldwide". International Fund for Animal Welfare. pp. 23–24. http://www.ifaw.org/sites/default/files/whale_watching_worldwide.pdf. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- UCLA Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. "Beluga Whale Watching". http://www.chem.ucla.edu/~alice/explorations/churchill/whale.htm. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA (January 2004). "Marine Wildlife Viewing Guidelines". http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/education/viewing_wildlife.pdf. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
- Björgvinsson, Ásbjörn et al. (2002). Whale watching in Iceland. ISBN 9979761555.
- "The Tuna-Dolphin Issue". http://swfsc.noaa.gov/textblock.aspx?Division=PRD&ParentMenuId=228&id=1408.
- Kirby, Alex (8 October 2003). "Sonar may cause Whale deaths". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3173942.stm. Retrieved 2006-09-14.
- Piantadosi CA, Thalmann ED (15 April 2004). "Pathology: whales, sonar and decompression sickness". Nature 428 (6894): 716–718. Template:Citation error. PMID 15085881.
- Kipling, Rudyard. "How the Whale got his Throat". http://www.online-literature.com/poe/171/. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- French, Philip; Bradshaw, Peter (2003). "Whale Rider". (two reviews). The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/film/movie/96150/whale.rider. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Bird, Jonathan. "Sperm Wales: The deep rivers of the ocean". The Wonders of the Seas. Ocean Research Group. http://www.oceanicresearch.org/education/wonders/spermwhales.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- Siebert, Charles (2011). NRDC The Secret World of Whales. illustrated by Molly Baker (illustrated ed.). Chronicle Books. pp. 15–16. ISBN 9781452105741. http://books.google.com/books?id=ootMXA5VSWwC&pg=PA15#v=onepage&q=Inuit%20Raven%20stranded%20whale&f=false.
- Sir James George Frazer (1913). "Chapter II. The Seclusion of Girls at Puberty". The Golden Bough: Balder the beautiful. The fire-festivals of Europe and the doctrine of the external soul (3rd ed.). Macmillan. p. 72. http://books.google.com/books?id=4kHXAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA72#v=onepage&q=%22belly%20of%20a%22%20whale&f=false. Retrieved 21 December 2013. (see also Seclusion of girls at puberty)
- Anon. "Whales". Tinirau education resource. http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/exhibitions/whales/EducationResource.aspx?irn=198. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- Heimlich, Sara; Boran, James (2001). Killer Whales. Voyageur Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0896585454. http://books.google.com/books?id=lQ9RUAQgEiIC&pg=PA7#v=onepage&q=Tlingit&f=false.
- Anon. "Whale Mythology from around the World". The Creative Continuum. worldtrans.org. http://www.worldtrans.org/creators/whale/myths0.html. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- "Whale funeral draws 1000 mourners in Vietnam". Sydney Morning Herald. AFP. 14 April 2003. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/04/13/1050172476288.html. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Thousand gather for whale's funeral in Vietnam". The Independent. Associated Press (London). 23 February 2010. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/thousand-gather-for-whales-funeral-in-vietnam-1907716.html. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Viegas, Jennifer. "Thousands Mourn Dead Whale in Vietnam". Discovery News. http://news.discovery.com/animals/thousands-mourn-dead-whale-in-vietnam.html. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Funeral for a Whale held at Apam". Ghana News Agency. GhanaWeb. http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=87737. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Lamentations 4:3 multiple versions and commentaries page
- Template:Cite quran
- "Jonah 1-4 New International Version". Bible Gateway. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=jonah+1-4. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- And God Created Great Whales (1970) for Orchestra and Whale Songs Artist direct (Retrieved 10 October 2007)
- Carwardine, M. (2000). Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7513-2781-6. .
- Williams, Heathcote (1988). Whale Nation. New York: Harmony Books. ISBN 0-517-56932-9.
- Whale Evolution
- Oldest whale fossil confirms amphibious origins
- World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) – information on whales, dolphins, and porpoises
kbd:Джейхэр bn:তিমি bs:Kit ca:Balena cy:Morfil de:Wale el:Φάλαινα gd:Muc-mhara hak:Kîn-ǹg xal:Тул hi:व्हेल io:Baleno iu:ᐊᕐᕕᒃ jv:Iwak lodan ht:Balèn ln:Mondɛ́lɛ́ (nyama) mk:Кит ml:തിമിംഗലം mi:Ika moana mr:देवमासा ms:Paus (mamalia) mn:Халим my:ငါးဝန် nah:Huēyimichin ps:نهنګ sah:Хаалым балык nso:Leruarua cu:Китъ sh:Kit su:Lauk Paus chr:ᎤᏔᎾ ᎠᏣᏗ ur:حوت