Criticism of Pakistan Armed Forces

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This article was considered for deletion at Wikipedia on January 23 2020. This is a backup of Wikipedia:Criticism_of_Pakistan_Armed_Forces. All of its AfDs can be found at Wikipedia:Special:PrefixIndex/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Criticism_of_Pakistan_Armed_Forces, the first at Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Criticism_of_Pakistan_Armed_Forces. Purge

In Pakistan, the military is considered powerful and is part of what is known as The Establishment. They control the state through a backdoor and part of deep state.

Modus operandi: Reinforcing deep-state dominance

Control over politics: Selected PMs, coups and military dictators

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The Establishment in Pakistan, which has ruled Pakistan through direct military dictatorship as well as through control over the powerless civilian governments, is responsible for its strategic policy of state sponsorship of terrorism by Pakistan.[1][2][3] FATF, USA, EU, India and many other intergovernmental organisations and nations have described Pakistan as the state sponsor of terrorism, and several former and serving Prime Ministers as well as the top army general have admitted to this fact.[4][5]

Control over economy: Military owned Pakistan's largest business conglomerations

The Establishment's runs Pakistan's largest business conglomeration with more than 50 business entities worth over US$20 billion; owned through Army Welfare Trust, Bahria Foundation, Fauji Foundation and Shaheen Foundation; runs Pakistan's largest business empire ranging from petrol pumps to huge industrial plants, banks, bakeries, schools and universities, hosiery factories, milk dairies, stud farms, and cement plants, as well as 8 jewels in their crown Defence Housing Authority townships on prime lands across Pakistan in which awards military personnel farm lands and housing plots.[6]

Control over government policy: Political Islam driven

The Establishment has control over the foreign,[7][8][9] and domestic policy of Islamisation of Pakistan.[10][11][12]

According to the historian Professor Mubarak Ali, textbook "reform" in Pakistan began with the introduction of Pakistan Studies and Islamic studies by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in 1971 into the national curriculum as a compulsory subject and the military dictator Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, under a general drive towards Islamization, started the process of historical revisionism in earnest and exploited this initiative. 'The Pakistani establishment taught their children right from the beginning that this state was built on the basis of religion – that's why they don't have tolerance for other religions and want to wipe-out all of them.'[13]

Implementation of policies

Core principles/values of the Establishment are the policy of treating India as an arch-rival and existential threat, the Kashmir obsession, Islamisation of Pakistan, Punjab as the heartland/core of Pakistan, strategic use of non-state militants and other Islamic states as Pakistan’s natural allies.Template:Sfn[14]

Policy of homogenization of Pakistan

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During the rule of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq a "program of Islamization" of the country including the textbooks was started to ingrain school kids with Islamised fundamentals.[15] [16] According to the Sustainable Development Policy Institute, since the 1970s Pakistan's school textbooks have systematically inculcated hatred towards India and Hindus through historical revisionism..[17] These school books played a key role in spreading hatred against non-Muslims, particularly against Hindus and distorted the history.[18] Professor Marwat blamed General Zia for “sowing seeds of discord in society on religious and ethnic lines by stuffing school curricula with material that promoted hatred now manifested in the shape of extremism, intolerance, militancy, sectarianism, dogmatism and fanaticism ... after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 countless lessons and chapters were introduced that spread hatred among the students and portrayed India as the biggest enemy of the Muslims. That stuff should be done away with."[19] According to Tufts University professor Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr, Indophobia in Pakistan increased with the ascendancy of the militant Islamist Jamaat-e-Islami under Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi.[20] Indophobia, together with Anti-Hinduism and racist ideologies, such as the martial race theory, were the driving factors behind the re-writing of school textbooks in Pakistan (in both "secular" schools and Islamic madrassahs) in order to promote a biased and revisionist historiography of the Indian subcontinent that promulgated Indophobic and anti-Hindu prejudices. These narratives are combined with Islamist propaganda in the extensive revising of Pakistan's history. By propagating concepts such as jihad, the inferiority of non-Muslims, India’s perceived ingrained enmity with Pakistan, etc., the textbook board publications used by all government schools promote an obscurantist mindset.[21]

Suppression of nationalist movements

Forced disappearances and targeted extra-judicial killings

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The Establishment is responsible for the thousands of kidnapping and disappearances, a fact acknowledged by the Pakistani authorities.[22] and described as epidemic by Human Rights Watch (HRW),[23] forced appearances, extrajudicial killings and targeted killings of its own citizens especially against the civilian nationalists of non-Punjabi nationalities such as Baloch,[24] Sindhi,[25][26][27][28][29] Pashtun,[30][31][32] through direct involvement of military and ISI as well as also often using Islamist militants to undertake these activities.[33][34][35][36][37][38] In July 2011, the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan issued a report on illegal disappearances in Balochistan which identified ISI and Frontier Corps as the perpetrators.[39] The Establishment in Pakistan is responsible for the ongoing forced disappearance in Pakistan, a form of kidnapping, torturing and extra-judicial killing its own citizens without any judicial due process. After the US invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, forced disappearance in Pakistan began during the rule of military dictator General Pervez Musharraf (1999 to 2008).[40] After Musharraf resigned in August 2008, he was charged with various human rights violations.[41] During Musharraf's tenure, many people were forcibly taken away by government agencies.[41][42][43]

Policy of Islamisation of Pakistan

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Shariazation of Pakistan as "primary" policy of Pakistan,the "primary" policy,[11][12] was initiated and implemented by the government of military dictator General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, the ruler of Pakistan from 1977 until his death in 1988, who is "the person most responsible for turning Pakistan into a global center for political Islam".[10]

Despite the partition of India, and resulting creation of Pakistan based on the concept of separate islamic nation for domination of muslims,[44][45] this composite multiculturalism is integral to the present society of India.[46] India is officially a secular nation, a concept legalised in the constitution of India.[46] Contrastingly, constitution of Pakistan has Islam as its state religion,[47] teaching of quran and islamiyat is compulsary,[48][49] only muslims can become Prime Minister or President of Pakistan and non-muslims are not given equal rights,[50] Ahmadiyya muslims having equal constitutional rights in India[51][52] are legally persecuted in Pakistan and constitutionally banned from calling themselves Muslims.[53]

Constitutional and institutionalised persecution of minorities

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The Establishment also engages in the institutionalised persecution of minorities in Pakistan, specially Ahmadiyya, Shias and Hazara after the Islamization of Pakistan by the military dictator General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq who took over the power through military coup. Pakistan is known for widespread discrimination against religious minorities, with attacks against Christians, Hindus, Ahmadiyya, Shia, Sufi and Sikh communities being widespread. These attacks are usually blamed on religious extremists but certain laws in the Pakistan Criminal Code and government inaction have only caused these attacks to surge higher.[54][55] Sunni militant groups operate with impunity across Pakistan, as law enforcement officials (The Establishment) either turn a blind eye or appear helpless to prevent widespread attacks against religious minorities.[55] The rise of The Establishment in Pakistan-backed Taliban in Pakistan has been an influential and increasing factor in the persecution of and discrimination against religious minorities in Pakistan, such as Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, and other minorities.[56]

Policy of obsession with Kashmir: Bleed India with a Thousand Cuts

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Bleed India with a Thousand Cuts is a military doctrine followed by Pakistani Establishment against India.[57][58][59] It consists of waging covert war against India using insurgents at multiple locations.[60]

According to scholar Aparna Pande, this view was put forward in various studies by the Pakistani military, particularly in its Staff College, Quetta.[61] Peter Chalk and Christine Fair cite the former director of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) explicating the strategy.[62] This doctrine was first attempted to flame the Punjab insurgency and then Kashmir insurgency using India's western border with Pakistan.[63][64]

In a 1965 speech to the UN Security Council, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto declared a thousand-year war against India.Template:Sfn[65] Pakistani Army Chief General Zia-ul-Haq gave form to Bhutto's "thousand years war" with the 'bleeding India through a thousand cuts' doctrine using covert and low-intensity warfare with militancy and infiltration.[66][64][63]

Policy of state-sponsorship of terrorism

Ajmal Kasab, a Pakistani[67][68] member of Pakistan-based[69] globally banned terrorist organization[70] by the United States,[71][72] Lashkar-e-Taiba, which operates several terrorist training camps in Pakistan-administered Kashmir,[73] launched 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks[74][75] killing 72 people.[76]

Allegations: By multilateral organisations and other nations

The U.S. Country Reports on Terrorism describes Pakistan as a "Terrorist safe haven" where terrorists are able to organise, plan, raise funds, communicate, recruit, train, transit, and operate in relative security because of inadequate governance capacity, political will, or both.[2][77] Pakistan's tribal region along its border with Afghanistan has been described as a safe haven for terrorists by western media and the United States Defense Secretary.[4][1][78] In 2019, US issued series of official statements asking Pakistan to immediately end support and safe haven to all terrorist groups.[79] A report by Saban Center for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution states that Pakistan was "the world's most active sponsor of terrorist groups... aiding these groups that pose a direct threat to the United States. Pakistan's active participation has caused thousands of deaths in the region; all these years Pakistan has been supportive to several terrorist groups despite several stern warnings from the international community."[80] Pakistani government's top leaders and Pakistan Army's top leaders are often seen in public sharing stage with the UN and US designated terrorists.[81]

Evidence: Confessions of The Establishment's

In July 2019, reigning Prime Minister of Pakistan Imran Khan on his official visit to the United States admitted the presence of 30000-40000 armed terrorists in the country and that the previous governments were hiding this truth particularly from the US in the past.[3] In 2018, former Pakistani prime minister Nawaz Sharif admitted that the Pakistani government played a role in the 2008 Mumbai attack.[82] Former Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf, a military dictator who took over the power by military coup, conceded that his forces trained militant groups to fight India in Indian-administered Kashmir.[5] He confessed that the government ″turned a blind eye″ because it wanted to force India to enter into negotiations, as well as raise the issue internationally.[5] He also said Pakistani spies in the Inter-Services Intelligence directorate (ISI) cultivated the Taliban after 2001 because Karzai's government was dominated by non-Pashtuns, who are the country's largest ethnic group, and by officials who were thought to favour India.[83]

In popular media

The criticism in media include Ayesha Siddiqa's Military Inc. about Pakistani military's economic activities and consequences;[84] several books by Husain Haqqani including "Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military" and "Magnificent Delusions: Pakistan, the United States, and an Epic History of Misunderstanding"';.[85][86][87] Ayesha Jalal's "Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia", "The state of martial rule: the origins of Pakistan's political economy of defence" and " The struggle for Pakistan: a Muslim homeland and global politics";[88][89] Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri's "The Intellectual and Ideological Basis of the Establishment of Pakistan";[90] Christophe Jaffrelot's "Pakistan Paradox: Instability and Resilience";[91] Government of Pakistan's "The Establishment Manual".[92]

A Mighty Heart movie details journalist Daniel Pearl's kidnap and murder.[93] Among numerous bollywood movies are J. P. Dutta's Border and LOC Kargil.[94][95][96][97]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "A safe haven for terrorists". Economist. 12 April 2007. http://www.economist.com/node/9005270. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Chapter 5: Terrorist Safe Havens (Update to 7120 Report)". United States Department of State. 2015. https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2015/257522.htm. Retrieved 23 February 2017. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "30,000-40,000 terrorists still present in Pak: Imran Khan" (in en). https://www.rediff.com/news/report/forty-terror-groups-operated-in-pakistan-imran-khan/20190724.htm. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Leon Panetta: U.S. "reaching the limits of our patience" with Pakistan terror safe havens". 7 June 2012. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503543_162-57448784-503543/leon-panetta-u-s-reaching-the-limits-of-our-patience-with-pakistan-terror-safe-havens/. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "SPIEGEL Interview with Pervez Musharraf: 'Pakistan is Always Seen as the Rogue' – SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel Online (Spiegel.de). 4 October 2010. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/spiegel-interview-with-pervez-musharraf-pakistan-is-always-seen-as-the-rogue-a-721110.html. Retrieved 11 November 2012. 
  6. Inside Pakistan’s biggest business conglomerate: the Pakistani military, qz.com, Lt. General Kamal, 21 DavarNovember 2017.
  7. Javid, Hassan (23 November 2014). "COVER STORY: The Army & Democracy: Military Politics in Pakistan" (in en). DAWN.COM. Dawn Newspapers (Dawn Newspapers). Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170816152146/https://www.dawn.com/news/1146181. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named epak6
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named epak7
  10. 10.0 10.1 Ḥaqqānī, Husain (2005). Pakistan: between mosque and military. Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-87003-214-1. https://books.google.com/?id=nYppZ_dEjdIC&pg=PA132&dq=zia+ul-haq+most+noted#v=onepage&q=zia%20ul-haq%20most%20noted&f=false. Retrieved 23 May 2010. "Zia ul-Haq is often identified as the person most responsible for turning Pakistan into a global center for political Islam. Undoubtedly, Zia went farthest in defining Pakistan as an Islamic state, and he nurtured the jihadist ideology ..." 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Haqqani, Hussain (2005). Pakistan:Between Mosque and Military; §From Islamic Republic to Islamic State. United States: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (July 2005). p. 148. ISBN 978-0-87003-214-1. https://books.google.com/?id=nYppZ_dEjdIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Pakistan:Between+Mosque+and+Military#v=onepage&q&f=true. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Jones, Owen Bennett (2002). Pakistan : eye of the storm. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 16–7. ISBN 978-0300101478. https://books.google.com/?id=t8iYEgPYG_EC&pg=PA16&dq=%22eye+of+the+storm%22+islam+centrepiece#v=onepage&q=%22eye%20of%20the%20storm%22%20islam%20centrepiece&f=false. "... Zia made Islam the centrepiece of his administration." 
  13. The threat of Pakistan's revisionist texts, The Guardian, 18 May 2009
  14. Baloch, Qadar Bakhsh (2006). "[Book Review The Idea of Pakistan"]. The Dialogue: 136–137. ISSN 1819-6470. https://repository.globethics.net/handle/20.500.12424/187745. 
  15. Haqqani, Hussain (10 March 2010). Pakistan:between mosque and the military. ISBN 9780870032851. https://books.google.com/?id=nYppZ_dEjdIC&lpg=PA149&dq=reforming%20textbooks%20pakistan&pg=PA149#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 9 April 2011. 
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  19. Yusufzai, Ashfaq (27 July 2010). "Curricula to be cleansed of hatred". Dawn. http://archives.dawn.com/archives/136078. Retrieved 10 April 2011. 
  20. Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr, The Vanguard of the Islamic Revolution: The Jama`at-i Islami of Pakistan (University of California Press, 1994) p121-122
  21. Curriculum of hatred, Dawn (newspaper), 20 May 2009
  22. "The Fight To Find The Disappeared In Restive Balochistan". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 10 December 2018. https://gandhara.rferl.org/a/pakistan-the-fight-to-find-the-disappeared-in-restive-balochistan/29648415.html. 
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  26. Baehr, Peter R. (2 July 1994). Human Rights in Developing Countries - Yearbook 1994. Springer. pp. 291–305. ISBN 9789065448453. https://readersonline.info/25550720-human-rights-in-developing-countries-yearbook-by-peter-r-baehr.html. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
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  29. "Sindh University authorities use law enforcement agencies for disappearances of students". Asian Human Rights Commission. http://www.humanrights.asia/news/urgent-appeals/AHRC-UAC-203-2011. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
  30. Gannon, Kathy (28 April 2018). "Pashtun rights group accuses Pakistan army of abuses". Associated Press. https://apnews.com/9e469749b9e94086af1b2cf07103acff. "A Pakistani human rights group that has accused the military of widespread abuses as it battles Islamist militants in Pakistan’s rugged border region with neighboring Afghanistan has emerged as a force among the country’s Pashtun minority, drawing tens of thousands to rallies to protest what it contends is a campaign of intimidation that includes extrajudicial killings and thousands of disappearances and detentions." 
  31. Gannon, Kathy (28 April 2018). "Pashtun rights group accuses Pakistan army of abuses". Star Tribune. http://www.startribune.com/pashtun-rights-group-accuses-pakistan-army-of-abuses/481137261/. Retrieved 17 February 2019. 
  32. Khan, Omer Farooq (5 June 2018). "10 Pashtun protesters killed in Pakistan, activists blame military - Times of India". The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/pakistan/10-pashtun-protesters-massacred-by-pro-govt-terrorists-in-pakistan/articleshow/64452074.cms. Retrieved 17 February 2019. 
  33. Akbar, Malik Siraj (19 July 2018). with various human rights violations. "In Balochistan, Dying Hopes for Peace". https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/19/opinion/pakistan-elections-balochistan-islamic-state.html with various human rights violations.. Retrieved 25 September 2019. "Increasing attacks by the Islamic State in Balochistan are connected to Pakistan’s failed strategy of encouraging and using Islamist militants to crush Baloch rebels and separatists." 
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  53. Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation retrieved 4 September 2013
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  57. Gates, Scott, Kaushik Roy (2016). Unconventional Warfare in South Asia: Shadow Warriors and Counterinsurgency. Routledge. pp. Chapter 4. ISBN 978-1-317-00540-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=nMSXCwAAQBAJ&lpg=PT133&vq=%22Pakistan's%20policy%20of%22&dq=bleed%20india%20through%20thousand%20cuts%20kargil%20war&pg=PT134#v=snippet&q=%22thousand%20cuts%22&f=false. 
  58. Sitaraman, Srini (2012), "South Asia: Conflict, Hegemony, and Power Balancing", in Kristen P. Williams; Steven E. Lobell; Neal G. Jesse, Beyond Great Powers and Hegemons: Why Secondary States Support, Follow, or Challenge, Stanford University Press, p. 181, ISBN 978-0-8047-8110-7, https://books.google.com/books?id=gQl7mPWnHlAC&pg=PA181 : 'manipulating ethnosectarian conflict and domestic challenges to power across the borders to weaken Indian security through a tactic described by several analysts as "bleed India through a thousand cuts"'
  59. Template:Harvnb: 'The Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) led attack on Bombay (Mumbai) in November 2008 was emblematic of this new strategy designed to bleed India with a "war of a thousand cuts".'
  60. Sirrs, Owen L. (2016). Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate: Covert Action and Internal Operations. Routledge. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-317-19609-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=_S-TDAAAQBAJ&lpg=PA167&dq=bhindranwale%20ISI&pg=PA167#v=onepage&q=bhindranwale%20ISI&f=false. Retrieved 7 November 2018. 
  61. Template:Harvnb: Pande cites, as an example, Col. Javed Hassan, India: A Study in Profile, Quetta: Services Book Club. A Study conducted for the Faculty of Research and Doctrinal Studies, Command and Staff College (1990)
  62. Chalk, Peter; Fair, C. Christine (December 2002), "Lashkar-e-Tayyiba leads the Kashmiri insurgency", Jane's Intelligence Review 14 (10), http://www.christinefair.net/pubs/CFair_Janes_LET.pdf : 'In the words of Hamid Gul, the former director general of the ISI: "We have gained a lot because of our offensive in Kashmir. This is a psychological and political offensive that is designed to make India bleed through a thousand cuts."'
  63. 63.0 63.1 Dogra, Wg Cdr C Deepak (2015). Pakistan: Caught in the Whirlwind. Lancer Publishers LLC. ISBN 978-1-940988-22-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=3zooCwAAQBAJ&lpg=PT273&dq=pakistan%20%22thousand%20cuts%22&pg=PT273#v=onepage&q=pakistan%20%22thousand%20cuts%22&f=false. Retrieved 14 November 2018. 
  64. 64.0 64.1 Maninder Dabas (3 October 2016). "Here Are Major Long Term War Doctrines Adopted By India And Pakistan Over The Years". Indiatimes. https://www.indiatimes.com/news/india/with-tensions-soaring-high-once-again-here-are-major-war-doctrines-exercised-by-india-pakistan-over-the-years-262273.html. Retrieved 7 November 2018. 
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