List of countries and capitals with currency and language

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This article was considered for deletion at Wikipedia on October 19 2015. This is a backup of Wikipedia:List_of_countries_and_capitals_with_currency_and_language. All of its AfDs can be found at Wikipedia:Special:PrefixIndex/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/List_of_countries_and_capitals_with_currency_and_language, the first at Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/List_of_countries_and_capitals_with_currency_and_language. Purge

This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories of the world by continent, displayed with their respective national flags and capitals, and including their respective currencies and native languages.

This list divides the world using the seven-continent model, with islands grouped into adjacent continents. The continents are:

In other models, Asia and Europe can be combined as Eurasia, while North and South America can be combined as the Americas (for a detailed description of how the world is divided into continents, including different models, see here).

There are sovereign states and dependent territories that can be considered to belong to more than one continent, according to geographical, political, or historical criteria.

Africa

Template:Infobox Continent

Template:Main Template:Further For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here.

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.2 million km² (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers six percent of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4 percent of the total land area.[1] With 1.0 billion people (as of 2009, see table), it accounts for about 15% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagoes. It has 54 fully recognized sovereign states ("countries"), 10 territories and two de facto states with limited recognition.[2]

Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago – including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago.[3] Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.[4] The African expected economic growth rate is at about 5.0% for 2010 and 5.5% in 2011.[5]

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
Template:Flagicon Algeria Algiers Dinar Arabic
Template:Flagicon Angola Luanda Kwanza Portuguese
Template:Flagicon Benin Porto-Novo (official)
Cotonou (seat of government)
CFA franc French
Template:Flagicon Botswana Gaborone Pula English
Setswana
Template:Flagicon Burkina Faso Ouagadougou CFA franc French
Template:Flagicon Burundi Bujumbura Burundian franc Kirundi
French
Template:Flagicon Cameroon Yaoundé CFA franc French
English
Template:Flagicon Cape Verde Praia Cape Verdean escudo Portuguese
Template:Flagicon Central African Republic Bangui CFA franc French
Sango
Template:Flagicon Chad N'Djamena CFA franc French
Arabic
Template:Flagicon Comoros Moroni Comorian franc Comorian
Arabic
French
Template:Flagicon Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) Brazzaville CFA franc French
Template:Flagicon Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Yamoussoukro (official)
Abidjan (seat of government)
CFA franc French
Template:Flagicon Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) Kinshasa Congolese franc French
Template:Flagicon Djibouti Djibouti Djiboutian franc French
Arabic
Template:Flagicon Egypt Cairo Egyptian pound Arabic
Template:Flagicon Equatorial Guinea Malabo CFA Franc Spanish
French
Portuguese
Template:Flagicon Eritrea Asmara Nakfa Tigrinya
Arabic
English
Template:Flagicon Ethiopia Addis Ababa Birr Amharic
Template:Flagicon Gabon Libreville CFA franc French
Template:Flagicon Gambia Banjul Gambian dalasi English
Template:Flagicon Ghana Accra Ghana cedi English
Template:Flagicon Guinea Conakry Guinean franc French
Template:Flagicon Guinea-Bissau Bissau CFA franc Portuguese
Template:Flagicon Kenya Nairobi Kenyan shilling Swahili
English
Template:Flagicon Lesotho Maseru Lesotho loti English
Sesotho
Template:Flagicon Liberia Monrovia Liberian dollar English
Template:Flagicon Libya Tripoli Dinar Arabic
Template:Flagicon Madagascar Antananarivo Malagasy ariary Malagasy
French
Template:Flagicon Malawi Lilongwe Kwacha English
Chichewa
Template:Flagicon Mali Bamako CFA franc French
Template:Flagicon Mauritania Nouakchott Ouguiya Arabic
Template:Flagicon Mauritius Port Louis Mauritian rupee Mauritian Creole
French
English
Template:Flagicon Mayotte Mamoudzou
Overseas department of France
Euro French
Template:Flagicon Morocco Rabat Moroccan dirham Arabic
Berber
Template:Flagicon Mozambique Maputo Mozambican metical Portuguese
Template:Flagicon Namibia Windhoek Namibian dollar English
Template:Flagicon Niger Niamey CFA franc French
Template:Flagicon Nigeria Abuja Naira English
Template:Flagicon Réunion Saint-Denis
Overseas department of France
Euro French
Template:Flagicon Rwanda Kigali Rwandan franc Kinyarwanda
English
French
Template:Flagicon Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Jamestown (Saint Helena)
Georgetown (Ascension Island)
Edinburgh of the Seven Seas (Tristan da Cunha)
Saint Helena pound
Pound sterling
English
Template:Flagicon Sao Tome and Principe São Tomé Dobra Portuguese
Template:Flagicon Senegal Dakar CFA franc French
Template:Flagicon Seychelles Victoria Seychellois rupee Seychellois Creole
French
English
Template:Flagicon Sierra Leone Freetown Leone English
Template:Flagicon Somalia Mogadishu Somali shilling Somali
Arabic
Template:Flagicon Somaliland Hargeisa Somaliland shilling Somali
Arabic
Template:Flagicon South Africa Pretoria (administrative/executive)
Cape Town (legislative)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
South African rand Afrikaans
English
Southern Ndebele
Northern Sotho
Southern Sotho
Swazi
Tsonga
Tswana
Venda
Xhosa
Zulu
Template:Flagicon South Sudan Juba South Sudanese pound English
Template:Flagicon Sudan Khartoum Sudanese pound Arabic
English
Template:Flagicon Swaziland Mbabane (administrative)
Lobamba (royal and legislative)
Lilangeni English
Swati
Template:Flagicon Tanzania Dodoma (official)
Dar es Salaam (seat of government)
Tanzanian shilling Swahili
English
Template:Flagicon Togo Lomé CFA franc French
Template:Flagicon Tunisia Tunis Tunisian dinar Arabic
Template:Flagicon Uganda Kampala Ugandan shilling Swahili
English

Luganda

None Western Sahara None Disputed territory between Template:Flag and the Template:Flag Moroccan dirham
Algerian dinar
Mauritanian ouguiya
See respective claimants
Template:Flagicon Zambia Lusaka Zambian kwacha English
Template:Flagicon Zimbabwe Harare US dollar| English
Shona
Sindebele

Asia

Template:Infobox Continent

Template:Main

Template:Further For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here.

Asia (Template:IPAc-en or Template:IPAc-en) is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area (or 30% of its land area) and with approximately 4.3 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population. During the 20th century Asia's population nearly quadrupled.[6]

Asia is defined as comprising the eastwards four-fifths of Eurasia. It is located to the east of the Suez Canal, the Ural river, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma-Manych Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas.[7][8] It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean.

Given its size and diversity, Asia – a toponym dating back to classical antiquity – "is more a cultural concept" incorporating diverse regions and peoples than a homogeneous physical entity.[9] Asia differs very widely among and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems.

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
Template:Flagicon Afghanistan Kabul Afghani Pashto
Dari (Persian)
Template:Flagicon Akrotiri and Dhekelia Episkopi Cantonment Euro English
Greek
Template:Flagicon Armenia Yerevan Dram Armenian
Template:Flagicon Azerbaijan Template:Cref2 Baku Manat Azerbaijani
Template:Flagicon Bahrain Manama Bahraini dinar Arabic
Template:Flagicon Bangladesh Dhaka Taka Bengali
Template:Flagicon Bhutan Thimphu Bhutanese ngultrum Dzongkha
Template:Flagicon British Indian Ocean Territory Diego Garcia
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
US dollar
UK pound
English
Template:Flagicon Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei dollar Bahasa Melayu
Template:Flagicon Cambodia Phnom Penh Riel Khmer
Template:Flagicon China Beijing Renminbi (yuan) Standard Chinese
Template:Flagicon Christmas Island Flying Fish Cove
External territory of Australia
Australian dollar English
Template:Flagicon Cocos (Keeling) Islands West Island
External territory of Australia
Australian dollar English
Tagalog
Template:Flagicon Cyprus Template:Cref2 Nicosia Euro Greek
Turkish
Template:Flagicon East Timor (Timor-Leste) Dili US Dollar Portuguese
Tetum
Template:Flagicon Georgia Template:Cref2 Tbilisi Lari Georgian
Template:Flagicon Hong Kong Special administrative region of China/Victoria Hong Kong dollar English
Cantonese
Template:Flagicon India New Delhi Indian rupee Hindi+18 Official Languages
English
Template:Flagicon Indonesia Jakarta Rupiah Indonesian
Template:Flagicon Iran Tehran Rial Persian
Template:Flagicon Iraq Baghdad Iraqi dinar Kurdish
Arabic
Template:Flagicon Israel Jerusalem (seat of government, proclaimed capital) New Shekel Hebrew
Arabic
Template:Flagicon Japan Tokyo Yen Japanese
Template:Flagicon Jordan Amman Jordanian dinar Arabic
Template:Flagicon Kazakhstan Astana Tenge Kazakh
Russian
Template:Flagicon Kurdistan Erbil Dinar Kurdish
Template:Flagicon Kuwait Kuwait City Kuwaiti dinar Arabic
Template:Flagicon Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Som Kyrgyz
Russian
Template:Flagicon Laos Vientiane Kip Lao
Template:Flagicon Lebanon Beirut Lebanese pound Arabic
Template:Flagicon Macau Special administrative region of China/Macau Macanese pataca Portuguese
Cantonese
Template:Flagicon Malaysia Kuala Lumpur (official)
Putrajaya (seat of government)
Ringgit Malaysian
Template:Flagicon Maldives Malé Maldivian rufiyaa Dhivehi
Template:Flagicon Mongolia Ulaanbaatar Tögrög Mongolian
Template:Flagicon Myanmar (Burma) Naypyidaw Kyat Burmese
Template:Flagicon Nagorno-Karabakh Stepanakert
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nations as de jure part of Azerbaijan
Armenian dram Armenian
Template:Flagicon Nepal Kathmandu Nepalese rupee Nepali
Template:Flagicon Northern Cyprus Nicosia
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nation as de jure part of Cyprus
Turkish lira Turkish
Template:Flagicon North Korea Pyongyang North Korean won Korean
Template:Flagicon Oman Muscat Rial Arabic
Template:Flagicon Pakistan Islamabad Pakistani Rupee English
Urdu
Template:Flagicon Palestine Ramallah (West Bank seat of government)
Gaza (Gaza Strip seat of government)
East Jerusalem (capital)
State of Palestine (flag displayed) proclaimed on territory
Israeli Shekel Arabic
Template:Flagicon Philippines Manila Philippine Peso Filipino
English
Template:Flagicon Qatar Doha Riyal Arabic
Template:Flagicon Saudi Arabia Riyadh Saudi riyal Arabic
Template:Flagicon Singapore Singapore Singapore dollar English
Chinese
Malay
Tamil
Template:Flagicon South Korea Seoul South Korean won Korean
Template:Flagicon Sri Lanka Sri Jayawardenepura-Kotte Sri Lankan rupee Sinhala
Tamil
Template:Flagicon Syria Damascus Syrian pound Arabic
Template:Flagicon Taiwan Taipei
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nations as part of China.
New Taiwan dollar Standard Chinese
Template:Flagicon Tajikistan Dushanbe Somoni Tajik
Template:Flagicon Thailand Bangkok Baht Thai
Template:Flagicon Turkey Template:Cref2 Ankara Turkish lira Turkish
Template:Flagicon Turkmenistan Ashgabat Turkmen new manat Turkmen
Template:Flagicon United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi UAE dirham Arabic
Template:Flagicon Uzbekistan Tashkent Uzbekistan som (O'zbekiston so'mi) Uzbek
Template:Flagicon Vietnam Hanoi đồng Vietnamese
Template:Flagicon Yemen Sana'a Yemeni rial Arabic
Notes

Template:Cnote2 Begin Template:Cnote2 Template:Cnote2 End

Europe

Template:Infobox Continent

Template:Main

Template:Further For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here.

Europe (Template:IPAc-en Template:Respell or Template:IPAc-en Template:Respell[10]) is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting the Black and Aegean Seas.[11] Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Black Sea and connected waterways to the southeast. Yet the borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are somewhat arbitrary, as the primarily physiographic term "continent" can incorporate cultural and political elements.

Europe is the world's second-smallest continent by surface area, covering about 10,180,000 km2 or 2% of the Earth's surface and about 6.8% of its land area. Of Europe's approximately 50 states, Russia is by far the largest by both area and population, taking up 40% of the continent (although the country has territory in both Europe and Asia), while the Vatican City is the smallest. Europe is the third-most populous continent after Asia and Africa, with a population of 733 million or about 11% of the world's population.[12]

Europe, in particular Ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western culture.[13] It played a predominant role in global affairs from the 15th century onwards, especially after the beginning of colonialism. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, and large portions of Asia. In 1900, Europe's share of the world's population was 25%.[14] Both World Wars were largely focused upon Europe, greatly contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the United States and Soviet Union took prominence.[15] During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east. European integration led to the formation of the Council of Europe and the European Union in Western Europe, both of which have been expanding eastward since the revolutions of 1989 and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
Template:Flagicon Åland Islands Mariehamn
Autonomous region of Finland (recognized by international treaty)
Euro Swedish
Template:Flagicon Albania Tirana Lek Albanian
Template:Flagicon Andorra Andorra la Vella Euro Catalan
Template:Flagicon Austria Vienna Euro German
Template:Flagicon Belarus Minsk Belarusian ruble Belarusian
Russian
Template:Flagicon Belgium Brussels Euro Dutch
French
German
Template:Flagicon Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Convertible mark Bosnian
Croatian
Serbian
Template:Flagicon Bulgaria Sofia Lev Bulgarian
Template:Flagicon Croatia Zagreb Kuna Croatian
Template:Flagicon Czech Republic Prague Czech koruna Czech
Template:Flagicon Denmark Copenhagen Danish kroneTemplate:Efn Danish
Template:Flagicon Estonia Tallinn Euro Estonian
Template:Flagicon Faroe Islands Tórshavn
Self-governing territory of the Danish Realm
Faroese króna Faroese
Danish
Template:Flagicon Finland Helsinki Euro Finnish
Swedish
Template:Flagicon France Paris Euro
CFP franc
French
Template:Flagicon Germany Berlin Euro German
Template:Flagicon Gibraltar Gibraltar
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Gibraltar pound English
Template:Flagicon Greece Athens Euro Greek
Template:Flagicon Guernsey Saint Peter Port
British Crown dependency
Pound sterling English
French
Template:Flagicon Hungary Budapest Forint Hungarian
Template:Flagicon Iceland Reykjavík Icelandic króna Icelandic
Template:Flagicon Ireland Dublin Euro English

Irish

Template:Flagicon Isle of Man Douglas
British Crown dependency
Pound sterling English
Manx
Template:Flagicon Italy Rome Euro Italian
Template:Flagicon Jersey Saint Helier
British Crown dependency
Pound sterling English
French
Template:Flagicon Kosovo Pristina
De facto sovereign state recognized by over 80 UN member states
A United Nations mandate in Serbian territory was put in place starting in 1999.
Euro Albanian
Serbian
Template:Flagicon Latvia Riga Euro Latvian
Template:Flagicon Liechtenstein Vaduz Swiss franc German
Template:Flagicon Lithuania Vilnius Euro Lithuanian
Template:Flagicon Luxembourg Luxembourg Euro Luxembourgish
French
German
Template:Flagicon FYROM Skopje Macedonian denar Macedonian
Template:Flagicon Malta Valletta Euro Maltese
English
Template:Flagicon Moldova Chişinău Moldovan leu Romanian
Template:Flagicon Monaco Monaco Euro French
Template:Flagicon Montenegro Podgorica Euro Montenegrin
Template:Flagicon Netherlands Amsterdam Euro
US dollar
NA guilder
Aruban florin
Dutch
Template:Flagicon Norway Oslo Norwegian krone Norwegian
Bokmål
Nynorsk
Template:Flagicon Poland Warsaw Złoty Polish
Template:Flagicon Portugal Lisbon Euro Portuguese
Template:Flagicon Romania Bucharest Romanian leu Romanian
Template:Flagicon Russia Moscow Russian ruble Russian
27 others co-official
Template:Flagicon San Marino San Marino Euro Italian
Template:Flagicon Serbia Belgrade Serbian dinar Serbian
Template:Flagicon Slovakia Bratislava Euro Slovak
Template:Flagicon Slovenia Ljubljana Euro Slovene
Template:Flagicon Spain Madrid Euro Spanish
Catalan
Galician
Basque
Template:Flagicon Svalbard Longyearbyen
Special territory of Norway (recognized by international treaty)
Norwegian krone Norwegian
Template:Flagicon Sweden Stockholm Swedish krona Swedish
Template:Flagicon Switzerland Bern Swiss franc German
French
Italian
Romansh
Template:Flagicon Transnistria Tiraspol
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nations as de jure part of Moldova
Transnistrian ruble Russian
Moldovan
Ukrainian
Template:Flagicon Ukraine Kiev Ukrainian hryvnia Ukrainian
Template:Flagicon United Kingdom London Pound sterling English
Template:Flagicon Vatican City Vatican City Euro Italian
Notes

Template:Cnote2 Begin Template:Cnote2 Template:Cnote2 End

North America

Template:Infobox Continent

Template:Main

Template:Further For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here.

North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[16] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.

North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 4.8% of the planet's surface or about 16.5% of its land area. As of July 2008, its population was estimated at nearly 529 million people across 23 independent states. North America is the third-largest continent in area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth in population after Asia, Africa, and Europe.

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
Template:Flagicon Anguilla The Valley
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
East Caribbean Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Antigua and Barbuda St. John's East Caribbean Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Aruba Oranjestad
Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Aruban florin Papiamento
Dutch
Template:Flagicon Bahamas Nassau Bahamian Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Barbados Bridgetown Barbadian Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Belize Belmopan Belize Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Bermuda Hamilton
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Bermudian Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Bonaire Kralendijk
Special municipality of the Netherlands
United States Dollar Dutch
Template:Flagicon British Virgin Islands Road Town
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
United States Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Canada Ottawa Canadian Dollar French
English
Template:Flagicon Cayman Islands George Town
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Cayman Islands Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Clipperton Island uninhabited
Overseas territory of France
Euro French
Template:Flagicon Costa Rica San José Costa Rican colon Spanish
Template:Flagicon Cuba Havana Cuban peso Spanish
Template:Flagicon Curaçao Willemstad
Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands Antillean guilder Papiamento
Dutch
Template:Flagicon Dominica Roseau East Caribbean Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Dominican peso Spanish
Template:Flagicon El Salvador San Salvador United States Dollar Spanish
Template:Flagicon Greenland Nuuk
Self-governing territory of the Danish Realm
Danish Krone Greenlandic
Template:Flagicon Grenada St. George's East Caribbean Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Guadeloupe Basse-Terre
Overseas department of France
Euro French
Template:Flagicon Guatemala Guatemala City Guatemalan quetzal Spanish
Template:Flagicon Haiti Port-au-Prince Haitian gourde French
Template:Flagicon Honduras Tegucigalpa Honduran lempira Spanish
Template:Flagicon Jamaica Kingston Jamaican Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Martinique Fort-de-France
Overseas department of France
Euro French
Template:Flagicon Mexico Mexico City Mexican peso Spanish
Template:Flagicon Montserrat Plymouth (official)
Brades (seat of government)
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
East Caribbean Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Navassa Island -
Insular area of the United States of America
United States Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Nicaragua Managua Nicaraguan cordoba Spanish
Template:Flagicon Panama Panama City United States Dollar
Panamanian balboa
Spanish
Template:Flagicon Puerto Rico San Juan
Insular area of the United States of America
United States Dollar English
Spanish
Template:Flagicon Saba The Bottom
Special municipality of the Netherlands
United States Dollar
Template:Flagicon Saint Barthélemy Gustavia
Overseas collectivity of France
Euro French
Template:Flagicon Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre East Caribbean Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Saint Lucia Castries East Caribbean Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Saint Martin Marigot
Overseas collectivity of France
Euro French
Template:Flagicon Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierre
Overseas collectivity of France
Euro French
Template:Flagicon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown East Caribbean Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Sint Eustatius Oranjestad
Special municipality of the Netherlands
United States Dollar
Template:Flagicon Sint Maarten Philipsburg
Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands Antillean guilder
Template:Flagicon Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago Dollar English
Template:Flagicon Turks and Caicos Islands Cockburn Town
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
United States Dollar English
Template:Flagicon United States Washington, D.C. United States Dollar English
Template:Flagicon United States Virgin Islands Charlotte Amalie
Insular area of the United States of America
United States Dollar English

South America

Template:Infobox Continent

Template:Main

Template:Further For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here.

South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.[17][18]

It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. It is formed by twelve sovereign states - Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela - the French Guiana, which is an overseas region of France, and the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Netherlands may also be considered part of South America, as well as Trinidad and Tobago. The South American states that border the Caribbean Sea – Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana – are also known as Caribbean South America.

South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi). Its population as of 2005 has been estimated at more than 371,090,000. South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). The word America was coined in 1507 by cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann, after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to suggest that the lands newly discovered by Europeans were not India, but a New World unknown to Europeans.

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
Template:Flagicon Argentina Buenos Aires Peso Spanish
Template:Flagicon Bolivia Sucre (official)
La Paz (seat of government)
Boliviano Spanish
Quechua
Aymara
Template:Flagicon Brazil Brasília Real Portuguese
Template:Flagicon Chile Santiago Peso Spanish
Template:Flagicon Colombia Bogotá Peso Spanish
Template:Flagicon Ecuador Quito United States dollar Spanish
Template:Flagicon Falkland Islands Stanley
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Falkland Islands pound English
Template:Flagicon French Guiana Cayenne
Overseas department of France
Euro French
Template:Flagicon Guyana Georgetown Guyanese dollar English
Template:Flagicon Paraguay Asunción Guaraní Spanish
Guaraní
Template:Flagicon Peru Lima Nuevo sol Spanish
Template:Flagicon Suriname Paramaribo Surinamese dollar Dutch
Template:Flagicon Uruguay Montevideo Uruguayan peso Spanish
Template:Flagicon Venezuela Caracas Bolívar fuerte Spanish

Oceania

Template:Infobox Continent

Template:Main

Template:Further

For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here.

Oceania (Template:IPAc-en or Template:IPAc-en;[19] Template:IPAc-en)[20] is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.[21] Opinions of what constitutes Oceania range from the coral atolls and volcanic islands of the South Pacific (ethnologically divided into the subregions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia)[22] to the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Maritime Southeast Asia.The term is sometimes used more specifically to denote a continent comprising Australia and proximate islands,[23][24][25][26] or biogeographically as a synonym for either the Australasian ecozone (Wallacea and Australasia) or the Pacific ecozone (Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia apart either from New Zealand[27] or from mainland New Guinea).[28]

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
Template:Flagicon American Samoa Pago Pago
Insular area of the United States of America
United States dollar English
Samoan
Template:Flagicon Ashmore and Cartier Islands
External territory of Australia
Template:Flagicon Australia Canberra Australian dollar NoneTemplate:Efn
Template:Flagicon Baker Island Insular area of the United States of America
Template:Flagicon Cook Islands Avarua
Self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand
New Zealand dollar
Cook Islands dollar
English
Cook Islands Māori
Template:Flagicon Coral Sea Islands External territory of Australia
Template:Flagicon Fiji Suva Fijian dollar
Template:Flagicon French Polynesia Papeete
Overseas collectivity of France
CFP Franc French
Template:Flagicon Guam Hagåtña Insular area of the United States of America
Template:Flagicon Howland Island Insular area of the United States of America
Template:Flagicon Jarvis Island Insular area of the United States of America
Template:Flagicon Johnston Atoll Insular area of the United States of America
Template:Flagicon Kingman Reef Insular area of the United States of America
Template:Flagicon Kiribati Tarawa
Template:Flagicon Marshall Islands Majuro
Template:Flagicon Micronesia Palikir
Template:Flagicon Midway Atoll Insular area of the United States of America
Template:Flagicon Nauru Yaren (seat of government)
Template:Flagicon New Caledonia Nouméa
Sui generis collectivity (special collectivity) of France
CFP Franc French
Template:Flagicon New Zealand Wellington New Zealand Dollar Maori
New Zealand Sign
English
Template:Flagicon Niue Alofi Self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand
Template:Flagicon Norfolk Island Kingston Self-governing territory of Australia
Template:Flagicon Northern Mariana Islands Saipan Insular area of the United States of America
Template:Flagicon Palau Ngerulmud
Template:Flagicon Palmyra Atoll Insular area of the United States of America
Template:Flagicon Papua New Guinea Port Moresby
Template:Flagicon Pitcairn Islands Adamstown Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Template:Flagicon Samoa Apia
Template:Flagicon Solomon Islands Honiara
Template:Flagicon Tokelau Nukunonu (main settlement, although each atoll has its own administrative centre) Dependent territory of New Zealand
Template:Flagicon Tonga [[Nukuʻalofa|NukuTemplate:Okinaalofa]]
Template:Flagicon Tuvalu Funafuti
Template:Flagicon Vanuatu Port Vila Vanuatu vatu Bislama
French
English
Template:Flagicon Wake Island
Insular area of the United States of America
United States dollar
Template:Flagicon Wallis and Futuna Mata-Utu
Overseas collectivity of France
CFP Franc French

Antarctica

Template:Infobox Continent

Template:Main Template:Further

Antarctica (Template:IPAc-en or Template:IPAc-en)Template:Efn is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole. It is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14.0 million km2 (5.4 million sq mi), it is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1 mi in thickness.

Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents.[29] Antarctica is considered a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 inches) along the coast and far less inland.[30] The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89 °C (−129 °F). There are no permanent human residents, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent. Only cold-adapted organisms survive there, including many types of algae, animals (for example mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades), bacteria, fungi, plants, and protista. Vegetation where it occurs is tundra.

Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, the first confirmed sighting of the continent is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1820 by the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny. The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of resources, and isolation. The Antarctic Treaty was signed in 1959 by 12 countries; to date, 49 countries have signed the treaty. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations.

Antarctica is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, which defines it as all land and ice shelves south of 60°S, and has no government and belongs to no country. However, the following territorial claims in Antarctica have been made:

Moreover, the following dependent territories are situated in the wider Antarctic Region:

Flag Name Capital Currency Official Language
Template:Flagicon Bouvet Island
Dependent territory of Norway
Template:Flagicon French Southern Territories Alfred Faure (Crozet Islands)
Port-aux-Français (Kerguelen Islands)
Martin-de-Viviès (Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands)
Overseas territory of France
Euro French
Template:Flagicon Heard Island and McDonald Islands
External territory of Australia
Template:Flagicon South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands King Edward Point
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Pound sterling English

See also

Notes

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References

  1. Sayre, April Pulley. (1999) Africa, Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-7613-1367-2.
  2. See List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa.
  3. Homo sapiens: University of Utah News Release: Feb. 16, 2005Template:Dead link
  4. Visual Geography. "Africa. General info". http://www.visualgeography.com/continents/africa.html. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  5. IMF WEO Oct. 2010. Retrieved 2010 October 15.
  6. "Like herrings in a barrel". The Economist (The Economist online, The Economist Group) (Millennium issue: Population). 23 December 1999. http://www.economist.com/diversions/millennium/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=346605. .
  7. Template:Cite encyclopedia
  8. National Geographic Atlas of the World (7th ed.). Washington, DC: National Geographic. 1999. ISBN 978-0-7922-7528-2.  "Europe" (pp. 68–9); "Asia" (pp. 90–1): "A commonly accepted division between Asia and Europe is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles."
  9. "Asia". AccessScience. McGraw-Hill. http://accessscience.com/abstract.aspx?id=054800&referURL=http%3a%2f%2faccessscience.com%2fcontent.aspx%3fid%3d054800. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  10. OED Online gives the pronunciation of "Europe" as: Brit. Template:IPA, Template:IPA, U.S. Template:IPA, Template:IPA.
  11. National Geographic Atlas of the World (7th ed.). Washington, DC: National Geographic. 1999. ISBN 0-7922-7528-4.  "Europe" (pp. 68–9); "Asia" (pp. 90–1): "A commonly accepted division between Asia and Europe ... is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles."
  12. "Global: UN Migrants, Population". Migration News. January 2010 Volume 17 Number 1.
  13. Template:Harvnb
  14. World Population Growth, 1950–2050. Population Reference Bureau.
  15. National Geographic, 534.
  16. "North America". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/418612/North-America. 
  17. South AmericaTemplate:Dead link. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2001–6. New York, Columbia University Press": "fourth largest continent ..., the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere."
  18. "LANIC country page". Lanic.utexas.edu. http://lanic.utexas.edu/subject/countries/. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  19. Pronunciation: The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X — p.1282 "Oceania /ˌəʊsɪˈɑːnɪə, -ʃɪ-/".
  20. "Oceania". Dictionary.com. Random House, Inc.. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/oceania. 
  21. For a history of the term, see Douglas & Ballard (2008) Foreign bodies: Oceania and the science of race 1750–1940
  22. "Oceania"Template:Dead link. 2005. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press.
  23. Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, United Nations Statistics Division. Revised August 28, 2007. Accessed on line October 11, 2007.
  24. The Atlas of Canada. Revised Date Modified: August 17, 2004. Accessed on line January 31, 2011.
  25. "Encarta Mexico "Oceanía"". Mx.encarta.msn.com. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. http://www.webcitation.org/query?id=1257053672622272. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  26. Lewis, Martin W.; Kären E. Wigen (1997). The Myth of Continents: a Critique of Metageography. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-520-20742-4, ISBN 0-520-20743-2. "Interestingly enough, the answer [from a scholar who sought to calculate the number of continents] conformed almost precisely to the conventional list: North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Oceania (Australia plus New Zealand), Africa, and Antarctica." 
  27. Udvardy. 1975. A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world
  28. Steadman. 2006. Extinction & biogeography of tropical Pacific birds
  29. National Satellite, Data, and Information Service. "National Geophysical Data Center". Government of the United States. Archived from the original on 13 June 2006. http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/2minrelief.html. Retrieved 9 June 2006. 
  30. Joyce, C. Alan (18 January 2007). "The World at a Glance: Surprising Facts". The World Almanac. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. http://www.worldalmanac.com/blog/2007/01/the_world_at_a_glance_surprisi.html. Retrieved 7 February 2009. 

External links

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