Difference between revisions of "Milkshaking"

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[[File:2019-01-29 13 32 38 A McDonald's chocolate milkshake with whipped cream on top in Chantilly, Fairfax County, Virginia.jpg|thumb|right|A [[milkshake]] served in a disposable container]]
 
[[File:2019-01-29 13 32 38 A McDonald's chocolate milkshake with whipped cream on top in Chantilly, Fairfax County, Virginia.jpg|thumb|right|A [[milkshake]] served in a disposable container]]
  
'''Milkshaking''' is the use of [[milkshake]]s and other drinks as a means of political protest in a manner similar to [[egging]] or [[pieing]]. The target of a milkshaking is splashed or splattered with a milkshake that is [[Projectile|thrown]] from a cup or bottle.<ref name="Atlantic">{{cite news |last=Serhan |first=Yasmeen |date=20 May 2019 |title=Why Protesters Keep Hurling Milkshakes at British Politicians |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2019/05/milkshaking-britain-political-trend-right-wing/589876/ |work=[[The Atlantic]] |accessdate=20 May 2019}}</ref><ref name="Washington">{{cite news |last=Hassan |first=Jennifer |date=20 May 2019 |title=What is 'milkshaking?' Ask the Brits hurling drinks at right-wing candidates. |url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2019/05/20/what-is-milkshaking-ask-brits-hurling-drinks-right-wing-candidates/ |work=[[The Washington Post]] |accessdate=20 May 2019}}</ref> The trend gained popularity in the [[United Kingdom]] in May 2019 during the [[2019 European Parliament election in the United Kingdom|European Parliament election]] and was used against [[Right-wing politics|right-wing]] and [[Far-right politics|far-right]] political candidates, such as [[Tommy Robinson (activist)|Tommy Robinson]], [[Nigel Farage]] and [[Carl Benjamin]], as well as other members of the [[UK Independence Party]] (UKIP) and the [[Brexit Party]].<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/may/18/police-ask-mcdonalds-to-halt-milkshake-sales-during-farage-rally |title=Police ask McDonald's to halt milkshake sales during Farage rally |author=<!--Not stated--> |date=18 May 2019 |work=The Guardian|access-date=20 May 2019 |quote=}}</ref><ref name="Independent">{{cite news |last=Dadlton |first=Jane |date=19 May 2019 |title=Carl Benjamin: Milkshake thrown at Ukip candidate for fourth time this week |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/carl-benjamin-milkshake-salisbury-ukip-a8920846.html |work=The Independent |accessdate=20 May 2019}}</ref>
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'''Milkshaking''' is the act of throwing [[milkshake]]s and other drinks at targets as a means of political protest in a manner similar to [[egging]] or [[pieing]]. The target of a milkshaking is splashed or splattered with a milkshake that is [[Projectile|thrown]] from a cup or bottle.<ref name="Atlantic">{{cite news |last=Serhan |first=Yasmeen |date=20 May 2019 |title=Why Protesters Keep Hurling Milkshakes at British Politicians |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2019/05/milkshaking-britain-political-trend-right-wing/589876/ |work=[[The Atlantic]] |accessdate=20 May 2019}}</ref><ref name="Washington">{{cite news |last=Hassan |first=Jennifer |date=20 May 2019 |title=What is 'milkshaking?' Ask the Brits hurling drinks at right-wing candidates. |url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2019/05/20/what-is-milkshaking-ask-brits-hurling-drinks-right-wing-candidates/ |work=[[The Washington Post]] |accessdate=20 May 2019}}</ref> The trend gained popularity in the [[United Kingdom]] in May 2019 during the [[2019 European Parliament election in the United Kingdom|European Parliament election]] and was used against [[Right-wing politics|right-wing]] and [[Far-right politics|far-right]] political candidates, such as [[Tommy Robinson (activist)|Tommy Robinson]], [[Nigel Farage]] and [[Carl Benjamin]], as well as other members of the [[UK Independence Party]] (UKIP) and the [[Brexit Party]].<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/may/18/police-ask-mcdonalds-to-halt-milkshake-sales-during-farage-rally |title=Police ask McDonald's to halt milkshake sales during Farage rally |author=<!--Not stated--> |date=18 May 2019 |work=The Guardian|access-date=20 May 2019 |quote=}}</ref><ref name="Independent">{{cite news |last=Dadlton |first=Jane |date=19 May 2019 |title=Carl Benjamin: Milkshake thrown at Ukip candidate for fourth time this week |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/carl-benjamin-milkshake-salisbury-ukip-a8920846.html |work=The Independent |accessdate=20 May 2019}}</ref>
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==

Revision as of 06:30, 14 July 2019

This article was considered for deletion at Wikipedia on July 4 2019. This is a backup of Wikipedia:Milkshaking. All of its AfDs can be found at Wikipedia:Special:PrefixIndex/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Milkshaking, the first at Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Milkshaking. Purge

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A milkshake served in a disposable container

Milkshaking is the act of throwing milkshakes and other drinks at targets as a means of political protest in a manner similar to egging or pieing. The target of a milkshaking is splashed or splattered with a milkshake that is thrown from a cup or bottle.[1][2] The trend gained popularity in the United Kingdom in May 2019 during the European Parliament election and was used against right-wing and far-right political candidates, such as Tommy Robinson, Nigel Farage and Carl Benjamin, as well as other members of the UK Independence Party (UKIP) and the Brexit Party.[3][4]

History

The practice and its use in targeting right-wing politicians is believed to have gained popularity following the egging of far-right Islamophobic politician Fraser Anning in Australia by a teenager in March 2019, which was met with a violent response from Anning and his entourage.[2] Robinson was the first major figure to be "milkshaked", having one thrown as a projectile in Bury on 1 May and another thrown the following day in Warrington while campaigning.[5] Robinson responded to the second incident by punching the milkshake thrower, who said he'd thrown the dessert in response to harassment from Robinson and his supporters. Since the event, the thrower claims to have received death threats on social media.[6] Carl Benjamin, a UKIP candidate, was milkshaked four times while campaigning in Salisbury, Truro, and Totnes.[4]

Brexit Party leader Nigel Farage was hit by a Five Guys milkshake in Newcastle upon Tyne on 20 May by a 32-year-old Brexit opponent[7] who was arrested by police for common assault.[8] He later blamed the rise of milkshaking on "radicalised Remainers" and said that it disrupted campaigning.[9] A spoof JustGiving campaign was set up to crowdfund the purchase of a new suit for Farage following the milkshaking, while instead donating its proceeds to a cancer charity.[10] A few days later, Farage was reportedly trapped on his campaign bus after arriving in Kent to speak to supporters, as a group of people holding milkshakes watched nearby.[11] In June 2019, Farage's milkshaker pleaded guilty to common assault and criminally damaging Farage's microphone, and was given 150 hours of unpaid work and ordered to pay Template:Currency.[12] An online fundraiser raised more than £650 to cover this cost, within hours of sentencing.[12]

A McDonald's restaurant in Edinburgh was asked by local police to stop selling the drink during Nigel Farage's campaign visit in May 2019.[13] Burger King responded on Twitter by advertising its milkshakes in Scotland, which was criticised by users for allegedly inciting violence.[2] The act in general was criticised by several political commentators, including former Prime Minister Tony Blair, for being a gateway to political violence, while others argued it was harmless protesting.[1][14][15][16]

On the day of the European election, an 81-year-old army veteran wearing a Brexit Party rosette claimed to have had a milkshake thrown at him by another man, sharing a photo of himself covered in a pink liquid.[17] Theories spread on Twitter arguing that the attack had been faked by the man himself, using what looked more like yoghurt.[18] Anti-Brexit campaigner Alastair Campbell questioned the story as having been shared "without any evidence of the actual act", noting from experience that perpetrators usually filmed themselves. The Brexit Party criticised Campbell for assuming bad faith.[18]

In anticipation of U.S. President Donald Trump's state visit to the United Kingdom in June 2019, the group "Milkshakes Against Racism" organised a gathering at Trafalgar Square to greet him with milkshakes as a symbol of protest.[19] A pro-Trump supporter was struck in the face by a milkshake during protests on 4 June.[20]

U.S. Congressman Matt Gaetz was reported to have been the first U.S. politician to be milkshaked, at a town hall event in Pensacola, Florida, but the drink was later described as an unidentified "red liquid" by police.[21]

Andy Ngo, a journalist for Quillette, was beaten and sprayed with silly string by members of Antifa in Portland, Oregon on 30 June 2019, before also having a milkshake thrown at him. Portland police initially tweeted that they had received reports of a milkshake containing quick-drying cement,[22][23][24] which was widely transmitted although no proof of these claims was presented and the claim has been generally treated as a hoax.[25][26][27] The Portland Police Bureau later said that the tweet had been made after an officer had observed a cement-like powder on at least one milkshake cup. This claim was investigated by Willamette Week, which found that police had no physical evidence of any such thing occurring, and that no journalist had published any photo evidence or witness reports of such an activity.[28]

In Carrick-on-Shannon on 3 July 2019 Rowan Croft, a far-right YouTuber, was doused with milkshake during an anti-migrant livestream.[29]

Analysis and ethics

The wave of milkshaking incidents in 2019 prompted discussion in the media regarding the reasons for it being adopted as a protest tactic and whether or not it was ethically justifiable. Philosopher Benjamin Franks suggested that the use of particular foodstuffs in political protest had historically been a practical matter, noting that whilst "nowadays, carrying raw eggs to a nationalist meeting would require some backstory to justify it if challenged by the police", until recently carrying a milkshake would not have aroused the same suspicion. He also argued that milkshaking "is clearly effective in making the victim feel uncomfortable and look ridiculous". Ivan Gololobov, a politics academic at the University of Bath, highlighted the importance of "online follow-up" to modern protest politics, observing that milkshaking someone who was attempting to portray themselves as a serious and credible political figure was an effective way of undercutting their image.[30] Writing for Vice, Jazmine Sleman suggested that milkshaking was a form of dilemma action which created "a lose-lose situation for the opposition... because there's no good way to respond to a milkshaking".[31] The New RepublicTemplate:'s Matt Ford asserted that milkshaking was effective against far right leaders due to its potential for humiliating them: "nothing animates the far right or shapes its worldview quite so much as the desire to humiliate others—and the fear of being humiliated themselves".[32]

Raheem Kassam, editor-in-chief of the conservative website Human Events and former advisor to Farage, claimed that "big global businesses are now moving into the territory of actively encouraging political violence towards conservatives", citing Burger King's tweet.[33] Writing for the Washington Examiner, Madeline Fry argued that "lobbing food at your opponents doesn't delegitimize them", and that the tactic made people using it look "juvenile".[34]

Regarding the milkshaking of Farage, Liberal Democrat Tim Farron tweeted that "Violence and intimidation are wrong no matter who they're aimed at. On top of that, it just makes the man a martyr, it's playing into his hands".[32] Writing for The Independent, Kate Townshend said that whilst she was opposed to far right politics, "on the one hand, nobody should have to walk around in fear of having things thrown at them, but on the other, a temporarily milky face is also just not a satisfying redress".[35] Josh Marshall wrote for Talking Points Memo that whilst he understood why the tactic had caught on, he disagreed with the practice, partly because he "wouldn't find it funny at all" if far right protestors milkshaked or pied liberal politicians, but also because "we place a great deal of societal importance on creating a line between words and physical autonomy... It's an impulse we shouldn’t set aside simply because we find someone loathsome".[36] Ricky Gervais tweeted that whilst he was pro-Remain, he was opposed to throwing items at people he disagreed with: "that would mean I had run out of good arguments. It would also mean I deserve a smack in the mouth".[37] Brendan Cox, the widower of the murdered Labour MP Jo Cox, said that whilst he opposed Farage's politics, he believed that throwing objects at political opponents "normalises violence and intimidation and we should consistently stand against it".[38]

Some observers took issue with the characterisation of milkshaking as an act of violence. Writing for the New Statesman, Jonn Elledge argued that "it is far less violent than, say, promising to 'pick up a rifle' if Brexit is not delivered", as Farage had done in 2017, and that "the idea that throwing a milkshake is violence, but that inciting hate against minority groups isn’t, is responsible for a decent-sized chunk of all the world’s political problems".[39] Alexander Blanchard, a researcher at Queen Mary University of London, argued that milkshaking did not constitute violence, as "by nearly all accounts, political violence entails intentionally inflicting harm", whereas according to those involved in milkshaking, they at most aimed to humiliate their targets. He also highlighted the history of using "small and harmless projectiles" like eggs to being a sense of theatricality to political campaigning in Britain, holding that acts of milkshaking did not exceed this level of controversy.[40] Dan Kaszeta, a London-based security consultant who previously worked for the White House Military Office and the United States Secret Service, took issue with Sam Harris' claim that milkshakings were "mock assassinations": "Acts of political protest happen. Acts of political violence happen. There is some overlap between the two. But throwing a milkshake, while fundamentally inappropriate, uncivil, and possibly criminal... isn't the same thing as throwing a brick or shooting a rifle".[16] Similarly, after Robinson was milkshaked, Conservative MP Johnny Mercer stated that "this is not political violence... It is a milkshake".[41] Muntadhar al-Zaidi, the journalist who threw his shoes at U.S. President George W. Bush, said, "Not many people are prepared to be jailed or tortured or face consequences for those types of actions" but did not consider milkshaking violent.[42]

See also

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References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Serhan, Yasmeen (20 May 2019). "Why Protesters Keep Hurling Milkshakes at British Politicians". The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2019/05/milkshaking-britain-political-trend-right-wing/589876/. Retrieved 20 May 2019. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Hassan, Jennifer (20 May 2019). "What is 'milkshaking?' Ask the Brits hurling drinks at right-wing candidates.". The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2019/05/20/what-is-milkshaking-ask-brits-hurling-drinks-right-wing-candidates/. Retrieved 20 May 2019. 
  3. "Police ask McDonald's to halt milkshake sales during Farage rally". The Guardian. 18 May 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/may/18/police-ask-mcdonalds-to-halt-milkshake-sales-during-farage-rally. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Dadlton, Jane (19 May 2019). "Carl Benjamin: Milkshake thrown at Ukip candidate for fourth time this week". The Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/carl-benjamin-milkshake-salisbury-ukip-a8920846.html. Retrieved 20 May 2019. 
  5. Parveen, Nazia (2 May 2019). "Tommy Robinson doused in milkshake for the second time in two days". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/may/02/tommy-robinson-doused-in-milkshake-for-second-time-in-two-days. Retrieved 20 May 2019. 
  6. Iqbal, Nosheen (5 May 2019). "'I'm getting death threats,' says man who threw milkshake on Tommy Robinson". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/may/05/death-threats-man-threw-milkshake-over-tommy-robinson. Retrieved 20 May 2019. 
  7. Magra, Iliana (21 May 2019). "Why Are Milkshakes Being Thrown at Right-Wing Politicians Like Nigel Farage?". https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/21/world/europe/milkshake-nigel-farage.html. Retrieved 30 June 2019. 
  8. "Nigel Farage hit by milkshake during Newcastle walkabout". BBC News. 20 May 2019. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-tyne-48339711. Retrieved 20 May 2019. 
  9. Yorke, Harry; Maidment, Jack (20 May 2019). "Brexit latest news: Nigel Farage warns 'radicalised Remainers' are making campaigning 'impossible' after being hit by milkshake". The Telegraph. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/politics/2019/05/20/brexit-latest-news-matt-hancock-warns-mps-have-one-last-chance/. Retrieved 20 May 2019. 
  10. Doughty, Sophie (20 May 2019). "Fundraising page to buy Nigel Farage a new suit after milkshake incident in Newcastle". Evening Chronicle. https://www.chroniclelive.co.uk/news/north-east-news/fundraising-page-buy-nigel-farage-16305167. Retrieved 20 May 2019. 
  11. Walker, Amy (22 May 2019). "Nigel Farage shelters on campaign bus to avoid milkshake attack". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/may/22/nigel-farage-shelters-on-campaign-bus-to-avoid-milkshake-attack. Retrieved 22 May 2019. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Halliday, Josh (18 June 2019). "Nigel Farage milkshake attacker ordered to pay Brexiter's suit-cleaning bill". https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/jun/18/nigel-farage-milkshake-attacker-pleads-guilty-to-common-assault. Retrieved 30 June 2019. 
  13. Picheta, Rob (19 May 2019). "Police stop McDonald's from selling milkshakes near Nigel Farage rally". CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2019/05/18/uk/mcdonalds-nigel-farage-milkshakes-scli-gbr-intl/index.html. Retrieved 20 May 2019. 
  14. Chakrabortty, Aditya (21 May 2019). "This Milkshake Spring isn't political violence – it's political theatre". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/may/21/far-right-milkshake-nigel-farage-tommy-robinson. Retrieved 22 May 2019. 
  15. Magra, Iliana (21 May 2019). "Why Are Milkshakes Being Thrown at Right-Wing Politicians Like Nigel Farage?". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/21/world/europe/milkshake-nigel-farage.html. Retrieved 23 May 2019. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Kaszeta, Dan (27 May 2019). "Sometimes a Milkshake Is Just a Milkshake". The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/05/milkshake-thrown-nigel-farage-nothing-new/590317/. Retrieved 28 May 2019. 
  17. Sawer, Patrick (23 May 2019). "Army veteran 'attacked' with milkshake outside polling station for wearing a Brexit rosette". The Daily Telegraph. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/05/23/army-veteran-attacked-milkshake-outside-polling-station-wearing/. Retrieved 24 May 2019. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Sharman, Jon (24 May 2019). "Brexit Party condemns claims milkshake attack on army veteran was faked". The Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/brexit-party-milkshake-picture-fake-yoghurt-army-veteran-don-macnaughton-a8929626.html. Retrieved 25 May 2019. 
  19. Dalton, Jane (1 June 2019). "'Milkshakes against Trump' and giant cardboard wall to greet US president in one of UK's biggest-ever demonstrations". The Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/trump-uk-visit-protest-rally-london-coach-whitehall-portsmouth-queen-milkshake-a8935721.html. Retrieved 1 June 2019. 
  20. "Trump fan hit with milkshake during protests". Sky News. 4 June 2019. https://news.sky.com/video/trump-fan-hit-with-milkshake-during-protests-11734966. Retrieved 6 June 2019. 
  21. O'Neil, Luke (3 June 2019). "Republican congressman hit by flying drink – but it wasn't quite a 'milkshaking'". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jun/03/matt-gaetz-milkshaked-republican-florida. Retrieved 5 June 2019. 
  22. Wilson, Jason (30 June 2019). "Portland police clash with protesters and make 'cement milkshake' claim". https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jun/30/portland-police-cement-milkshake-leftwing-rightwing-protests. Retrieved 30 June 2019. 
  23. "Antifa attack blogger Andy Ngo amid violence at Portland Proud Boys protest" (in en). 30 June 2019. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/antifa-attack-portland-andy-ngo-portland-proud-boys-alt-right-a8981331.html. Retrieved 30 June 2019. 
  24. Rambaran, Vandana (29 June 2019). "Antifa-Proud Boys confrontation in Portland turns violent; conservative writer injured". https://www.foxnews.com/us/antifa-conservative-protests-turn-violent-as-demonstrators-throw-milkshakes-of-quick-dry-cement-at-police-and-onlookers. Retrieved 30 June 2019. 
  25. Zielinski, Alex (2019-07-01). "Portland Police Offer No Proof That Protesters Had Milkshakes with "Quick-Dry Cement"". https://www.portlandmercury.com/blogtown/2019/06/30/26731412/portland-police-offer-no-proof-that-protesters-had-milkshakes-with-quick-dry-cement. Retrieved 2019-07-01. 
  26. Goforth, Claire (2019-07-01). "Portland milkshake dealer denies adding concrete to drinks to harm Proud Boys". https://www.dailydot.com/layer8/concrete-milkshake-hoax-portland-antifa/. Retrieved 2019-07-01. 
  27. Did Milkshakes Thrown in Portland Protests Contain Cement?. Snopes, July 3, 2019
  28. Shepherd, Katie (2 July 2019). "Portland Police Made a Dubious Claim About Protesters’ Milkshakes on Twitter. What’s the Evidence?". Willamette Week. https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2019/07/02/portland-police-made-a-dubious-claim-about-protesters-milkshakes-on-twitter-whats-the-evidence/. Retrieved 3 July 2019. 
  29. Wall, Bryan. "A far-right YouTuber gets milkshaked during a livestream tirade against refugees". https://www.thecanary.co/trending/2019/07/06/a-far-right-youtuber-gets-milkshaked-during-a-livestream-tirade-against-refugees/. Retrieved 6 July 2019. 
  30. Chakelian, Anoosh (16 May 2019). ""Lactose Against Intolerance!" How milkshake became a tool of protest". https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/uk/2019/05/lactose-against-intolerance-how-milkshake-became-tool-protest. 
  31. Sleman, Jazmine (21 May 2019). "Dry Cleaners Explain How to Make a Milkshake Literally Destroy Your Clothes". https://www.vice.com/en_uk/article/mb83wp/milkshake-meme-ukip-farage-eu-elections. 
  32. 32.0 32.1 Ford, Matt (21 May 2019). "Why Milkshaking Works". https://newrepublic.com/article/153959/milkshaking-nigel-farage-effective. 
  33. Kassam, Raheem (18 May 2019). "Today a Milkshake, Tomorrow A Brick: Corporate-Backed Political Violence Is Here". https://humanevents.com/2019/05/18/today-a-milkshake-tomorrow-a-brick-corporate-backed-political-violence-is-here. 
  34. Fry, Madeline (3 June 2019). "Milkshaking and the Trump baby blimp: The rise of juvenile, self-satisfied protest". https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/milkshaking-and-the-trump-baby-blimp-the-rise-of-juvenile-self-satisfied-protest. 
  35. Townshend, Kate (21 May 2019). "I can't stand Nigel Farage – but even I wouldn't throw a milkshake at him". https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/nigel-farage-milkshake-newcastle-brexit-party-assault-tommy-robinson-a8923366.html. 
  36. Marshall, Josh (3 June 2019). "A Few Thoughts About Milkshaking". https://talkingpointsmemo.com/edblog/a-few-thoughts-about-milkshaking. 
  37. Dugmore, Oli. "Ricky Gervais says people milkshaking politicians 'deserve a smack in the mouth'". https://www.joe.co.uk/entertainment/ricky-gervais-nigel-farage-milkshake-232743. 
  38. Hinsliff, Gaby (23 May 2019). "Gaby Hinsliff: Why 'milkshaking' might not be so funny after all". https://graziadaily.co.uk/life/in-the-news/gaby-hinsliff-nigel-farage-brexit-milkshake/. 
  39. Elledge, Jonn (21 May 2019). "No, throwing milkshake at someone is not an act of political violence". https://www.newstatesman.com/2019/05/no-throwing-milkshake-someone-not-act-political-violence. 
  40. Blanchard, Alexander (24 May 2019). "Is throwing a milkshake an act of political violence? What political theory tells us". https://theconversation.com/is-throwing-a-milkshake-an-act-of-political-violence-what-political-theory-tells-us-117627. 
  41. McGee, Luke (22 May 2019). "Right-wing British politicians are having milkshakes thrown over them. Here's why". CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2019/05/21/uk/milkshake-analysis-mcgee-intl-gbr/index.html. 
  42. Schatz, Bryan (21 June 2019). "The Iraqi journalist who threw his shoes at George W. Bush has thoughts about milkshaking". https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2019/06/the-iraqi-journalist-who-threw-his-shoes-at-george-w-bush-has-thoughts-about-milkshaking/. Retrieved 30 June 2019.