Difference between revisions of "T-7 (rocket)"

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[[File:Zhongguo Diyimei Zixing Sheji Zhizaode Shiyan Tankong Huojian T-7M Fashechang Yizhi.jpg|thumb|Monument for the T-7M sounding rocket in Laogang, [[Pudong]], Shanghai, the site of its successful launch in 1960]]
 
[[File:Zhongguo Diyimei Zixing Sheji Zhizaode Shiyan Tankong Huojian T-7M Fashechang Yizhi.jpg|thumb|Monument for the T-7M sounding rocket in Laogang, [[Pudong]], Shanghai, the site of its successful launch in 1960]]
The '''T-7''' was China's first [[sounding rocket]]. The first successful launch of a test rocket, dubbed the T-7M, took place on 19 February 1960 in [[Nanhui]], [[Shanghai]]. It was designed by [[Wang Xiji]] and his team at the Shanghai Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. 24 T-7 rockets were launched between 1960 and 1965. It was retired after a final launch in 1969.
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The '''T-7''' was China's first [[sounding rocket]]. A test rocket, dubbed the T-7M, was first successfully launched on 19 February 1960 in [[Nanhui]], [[Shanghai]], and a full-scale rocket was launched on 13 September 1960. [[Wang Xiji]] of the Shanghai Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering was the chief designer. 24 T-7 rockets were launched between 1960 and 1965, and it was retired after a final launch in 1969.
  
 
==Specifications==
 
==Specifications==
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The institute had very few experienced scientists. Other than Wang and Yang, there were only two visiting professors, [[Bian Yingui]] (卞荫贵) and [[Li Minhua]].<ref name=":1" /> The rest of the institute consisted of a few hundred university students with an average age of 21. Even Wang and Yang had little knowledge about rockets and had to learn on the fly.<ref name=":1" /><ref name=":2">{{Cite web|url=http://www.china.com.cn/chinese/TEC-c/42406.htm|title=“两弹一星”功勋奖章获得者航天技术专家王希季|last=|first=|date=2001-04-04|website=People's Daily Overseas Edition|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2019-05-30}}</ref>
 
The institute had very few experienced scientists. Other than Wang and Yang, there were only two visiting professors, [[Bian Yingui]] (卞荫贵) and [[Li Minhua]].<ref name=":1" /> The rest of the institute consisted of a few hundred university students with an average age of 21. Even Wang and Yang had little knowledge about rockets and had to learn on the fly.<ref name=":1" /><ref name=":2">{{Cite web|url=http://www.china.com.cn/chinese/TEC-c/42406.htm|title=“两弹一星”功勋奖章获得者航天技术专家王希季|last=|first=|date=2001-04-04|website=People's Daily Overseas Edition|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2019-05-30}}</ref>
  
The development team worked with severe shortages of technical experience, funds, and equipment.<ref name=":1" /><ref name=":2" /> They often worked in hunger as China was in the midst of the [[Great Chinese Famine|Great Famine]].<ref name=":1" /> They performed calculations manually as the team did not have a computer, and a single [[ballistics]] calculation could take more than forty days.<ref name=":1" /> The launch site, located at {{ill|Laogang|zh|老港镇}} in [[Nanhui County]] outside [[Shanghai]],<ref name=":1" /><ref name=":2" /> consisted of a sandbag bunker and a power generator. The rocket was fuelled using [[Bicycle pump|bicycle pumps]]. People at the launch bunker communicated with the tracking sites by relayed shouting or [[hand signals]].<ref name="Astronautix" /><ref name=":1" />
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The development team worked with severe shortages of technical experience, funds, and equipment.<ref name=":1" /><ref name=":2" /> They often worked in hunger as China was in the midst of the [[Great Chinese Famine|Great Famine]].<ref name=":1" /> They performed calculations using hand-cranked [[mechanical computers]] as the team did not have an electronic computer, and a single [[ballistics]] calculation could take more than forty days.<ref name=":1" /> The launch site, located at {{ill|Laogang|zh|老港镇}} in [[Nanhui County]] outside [[Shanghai]],<ref name=":1" /><ref name=":2" /> consisted of a sandbag bunker and a power generator. People at the launch bunker communicated with the tracking sites by relayed shouting or [[hand signals]],<ref name="Astronautix" /><ref name=":1" /> and the rocket was fuelled using a [[bicycle pump]].<ref name="Astronautix" /><ref name="Harvey2004">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XaqK7LOVsc0C&pg=PA30|title=China's Space Program - From Conception to Manned Spaceflight|last=Harvey|first=Brian|date=2004|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-1-85233-566-3|pages=29–30}}</ref>
  
 
After a failed first launch in January 1960, the second launch on 19 February 1960 was successful. This small-scale test rocket, dubbed the T7-M, was China's first [[sounding rocket]], and it reached an altitude of {{convert|8.0|km}}.<ref name="sohu" /> This success, achieved by a group of young engineers without the help of Soviet experts, impressed [[Mao Zedong]] himself.<ref name="Astronautix" />
 
After a failed first launch in January 1960, the second launch on 19 February 1960 was successful. This small-scale test rocket, dubbed the T7-M, was China's first [[sounding rocket]], and it reached an altitude of {{convert|8.0|km}}.<ref name="sohu" /> This success, achieved by a group of young engineers without the help of Soviet experts, impressed [[Mao Zedong]] himself.<ref name="Astronautix" />

Revision as of 06:37, 20 June 2019

This article was considered for deletion at Wikipedia on June 13 2019. This is a backup of Wikipedia:T-7_(rocket). All of its AfDs can be found at Wikipedia:Special:PrefixIndex/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/T-7_(rocket). Purge
Monument for the T-7M sounding rocket in Laogang, Pudong, Shanghai, the site of its successful launch in 1960

The T-7 was China's first sounding rocket. A test rocket, dubbed the T-7M, was first successfully launched on 19 February 1960 in Nanhui, Shanghai, and a full-scale rocket was launched on 13 September 1960. Wang Xiji of the Shanghai Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering was the chief designer. 24 T-7 rockets were launched between 1960 and 1965, and it was retired after a final launch in 1969.

Specifications

The T-7 was designed to carry a payload of 25 kg to an altitude of 58 km. It had a length of 8 m, a launch weight of 1138 kg and a diameter of 45 cm.[1][2]

History

In 1958, China started its satellite program and tasked the Shanghai Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering with the development of rockets for satellite launches. Wang Xiji, a professor of the Department of Engineering Mechanics at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, was appointed the chief engineer in charge of the rocket development, and Template:Ill was appointed deputy director of the institute in charge of the overall program including the launch site.[3]

The institute had very few experienced scientists. Other than Wang and Yang, there were only two visiting professors, Bian Yingui (卞荫贵) and Li Minhua.[3] The rest of the institute consisted of a few hundred university students with an average age of 21. Even Wang and Yang had little knowledge about rockets and had to learn on the fly.[3][4]

The development team worked with severe shortages of technical experience, funds, and equipment.[3][4] They often worked in hunger as China was in the midst of the Great Famine.[3] They performed calculations using hand-cranked mechanical computers as the team did not have an electronic computer, and a single ballistics calculation could take more than forty days.[3] The launch site, located at Template:Ill in Nanhui County outside Shanghai,[3][4] consisted of a sandbag bunker and a power generator. People at the launch bunker communicated with the tracking sites by relayed shouting or hand signals,[1][3] and the rocket was fuelled using a bicycle pump.[1][5]

After a failed first launch in January 1960, the second launch on 19 February 1960 was successful. This small-scale test rocket, dubbed the T7-M, was China's first sounding rocket, and it reached an altitude of 8.0 km.[2] This success, achieved by a group of young engineers without the help of Soviet experts, impressed Mao Zedong himself.[1]

In March 1960, a launch site was built in Guangde County, Anhui for the full-scale T-7, which was successfully launched on 13 September 1960.[1] After several further test launches, including a few failures, the rocket reached the design altitude of 58 km on 23 November 1961.[2] Its designed payload was 25 kg.[1]

24 T-7 rockets were launched in total from 1960 to 1965, including nine carrying meteorological payloads. The rocket was retired after a final launch in 1969.[1]

Aftermath

The experience gained from developing the T-7 contributed greatly to the development of the Long March 1, the rocket that launched China's first satellite. After their success with T-7, Wang Xiji and his team were transferred to Beijing and Wang was appointed the chief designer of the Long March 1. He again cooperated with Yang Nansheng, and the Long March 1 successfully launched the Dong Fang Hong I satellite in 1970.[3]

References