10x Genomics

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This article was considered for deletion at Wikipedia on February 22 2018. This is a backup of Wikipedia:10x_Genomics. All of its AfDs can be found at Wikipedia:Special:PrefixIndex/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/10x_Genomics, the first at Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/10x_Genomics. Purge


10x Genomics, Inc. is an American company incorporated in 2012 that develops and manufactures integrated systems for whole genome sequencing, exome sequencing and single cell transcriptomics. Its headquarters are located in Pleasanton, California.[1]


10x Genomics was founded in 2012 by Serge Saxonov, Ben Hindson and Kevin Ness, who previously worked at Quantalife. The company raised $110 million in equity through two rounds of investment in 2015 and 2016.[2][3] 10x Genomics made its public début at the JP Morgan Healthcare Conference in San Francisco in 2015. In November 2016, 10x Genomics was identified as one of the key players in the next generation sequencing (NGS) global market.[4]


The 10x platform uses a method based on emulsion PCR in order to produce Linked-Reads or single-cell data.[5][6] The 10x Chromium System utilizes "GemCode" technology for massively-parallel partitioning of high molecular weight DNA fragments (HMW-gDNA) or of whole single-cells into micelles, along with an adapter molecule and a barcode sequence. Within each micelle the gel bead dissolves, delivering reagents that barcode smaller fragments of genomic DNA or single-cell derived messenger RNA within the micelle. Each of the smaller fragments retain the barcode sequence which is used to identify its parent micelle, which map to the genomic HMW-gDNA molecule or to the single cell transcriptome from which they are originally derived. After amplification, the emulsion is broken and the fragments are pooled, where it undergoes a standard library preparation. After DNA sequencing, there are different analytical pipelines for genome and single-cell transcriptome analysis. In the case of genomic DNA, the reads are aligned and linked to form a series of fragments covering around 50kb, called a Linked-Read.

The GemCode technology is similar to the Long Fragment Read (LFR) technology of Complete Genomics and is also similar to the synthetic long-read (SLR) technology offered by Illumina.[7] In contrast to Illumina's SLR platform, the GemCode approach does not yield full coverage of each input HMW-gDNA molecule. Instead, the Linked-Reads from a single micelle are dispersed across the original HMW-fDNA molecule; however, improved read coverage arises through the process being applied to very large numbers of uniquely identifiable micelles.[5]

10X's GemCode technology has been used in a number of studies for genome haplotyping,[8] structural variant analysis[9] and de novo human genome assembly.[10][11]

In 2017, a study building a single-cell RNA-seq platform using the GemCode technology demonstrated the ability of the system to characterize the transcriptome of 250,000 single cells.[11][12]


The original 10x Genomics sequencing platform, the GemCode, was officially launched in February 2015.[13] In February 2016, 10x Genomics announced the launch of its successor, the Chromium.[14]


  1. "10X Genomics, Inc.: Private Company Information - Bloomberg". https://www.bloomberg.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapid=223288117. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  2. Timmerman, Luke. "Stealthy 10X Genomics Raises $55.5M To Beef Up DNA Sequencing". https://www.forbes.com/sites/luketimmerman/2015/01/12/stealthy-10x-genomics-raises-55-5m-to-beef-up-dna-sequencing/#5c289eb65868. Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  3. "10X Genomics | crunchbase". https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/10x-genomics#/entity. Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  4. "Next Generation Sequencing Global market - Forecast to 2022 - Key Players are 10X Genomics, Biomerieux & Danaher Corporation - Research and Markets | Business Wire". http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20161108005553/en/Generation-Sequencing-Global-market---Forecast-2022. Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Goodwin, Sara; McPherson, John D.; McCombie, W. Richard (17 May 2016). "Coming of age: ten years of next-generation sequencing technologies". Nature Reviews Genetics 17 (6): 333–351. Template:Citation error. PMID 27184599. 
  6. "10X Genomics Announces a High-Throughput Platform for Synthetic Long Reads". http://www.bio-itworld.com/2015/1/14/10x-genomics-announces-high-throughput-platform-synthetic-long-reads.html. Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  7. Jiao, Wen-Biao; Schneeberger, Korbinian (April 2017). "The impact of third generation genomic technologies on plant genome assembly". Current Opinion in Plant Biology 36: 64–70. Template:Citation error. 
  8. Zheng, Grace X Y; Lau, Billy T; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Jarosz, Mirna; Bell, John M; Hindson, Christopher M et al. (1 February 2016). "Haplotyping germline and cancer genomes with high-throughput linked-read sequencing". Nature Biotechnology 34 (3): 303–311. Template:Citation error. 
  9. Narasimhan, V. M.; Hunt, K. A.; Mason, D.; Baker, C. L.; Karczewski, K. J.; Barnes, M. R. et al. (3 March 2016). "Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents". Science 352 (6284): 474–477. Template:Citation error. 
  10. Mostovoy, Yulia; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Lam, Jessica; Lam, Ernest T; Hastie, Alex R; Marks, Patrick et al. (9 May 2016). "A hybrid approach for de novo human genome sequence assembly and phasing". Nature Methods 13 (7): 587–590. Template:Citation error. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Zheng, Grace X. Y.; Terry, Jessica M.; Belgrader, Phillip; Ryvkin, Paul; Bent, Zachary W.; Wilson, Ryan et al. (16 January 2017). "Massively parallel digital transcriptional profiling of single cells". Nature Communications 8: 14049. Template:Citation error. 
  12. Edwards, Miguel (18 January 2017). "Illumina, Bio-Rad, and 10X Genomics look to take advantage of the market that Fluidigm built - DeciBio". https://www.decibio.com/2017/01/18/illumina-bio-rad-and-10x-genomics-look-to-take-advantage-of-the-market-that-fluidigm-built/. Retrieved 21 February 2018. 
  13. "10X Genomics at AGBT". http://www.bio-itworld.com/2015/2/25/10x-genomics-agbt.html. Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  14. "10X Genomics Reveals Upgraded Platform with New Features for Single-Cell RNA Sequencing". http://www.bio-itworld.com/2016/2/11/10x-genomics-reveals-upgraded-platform-new-features-single-cell-rna-sequencing.html. Retrieved 9 November 2016. 

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