Additive state decomposition

From a home for articles deleted from Wikipedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article was considered for deletion at Wikipedia on May 12 2016. This is a backup of Wikipedia:Additive_state_decomposition. All of its AfDs can be found at Wikipedia:Special:PrefixIndex/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Additive_state_decomposition, the first at Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Additive_state_decomposition. Purge

Wikipedia editors had multiple issues with this page:

Template:Context Template:Technical oooh, orphan

This article needs additional references for verification. Please help[0] improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material will not be challenged and removed. (March 2015)
The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's general notability guideline. But, that doesn't mean someone has to… establish notability by citing reliable secondary sources that are independent of the topic and provide significant coverage of it beyond its mere trivial mention. (May 2015)

Template:Third-party Template:More footnotes Additive state decomposition occurs when a system is decomposed into two or more subsystems with the same dimension as that of the original system. A commonly-used decomposition in the control field is to decompose a system into two or more lower-order subsystems, called lower-order subsystem decomposition here. In contrast, additive state decomposition is to decompose a system into two or more subsystems with the same dimension as that of the original system.

Taking a system Template:Math for example, it is decomposed into two subsystems: Template:Math and Template:Math, where Template:Math and Template:Math, respectively. The lower-order subsystem decomposition satisfies

<math>n = n_{p} + n_{s}\text{ and } P = P_{p} \oplus P_{s}</math>

By contrast, the additive state decomposition satisfies

<math>n = n_{p} = n_{s} \text{ and } P = P_{p} + P_{s}</math>

Additive state decomposition on a dynamical control system

Consider an ‘original’ system as follows: Template:NumBlk where <math>x\in\R^n</math>.

First, a ‘primary’ system is brought in, having the same dimension as the original system: Template:NumBlk where <math>x_{p}\in\R^n.</math>

From the original system and the primary system, the following ‘secondary’ system is derived:

<math>\dot{x} - \dot{x}_{p} = f(t,x,u) - f_{p} (t,x_{p},u_{p}), x(0) = x_{0}</math>

New variables <math>x_{s}\in\R^n</math> are defined as follows: Template:NumBlk Then the secondary system can be further written as follows: Template:NumBlk From the definition (Template:EquationNote), it follows

<math>x(t)=x_{p}(t)+x_{s}(t), </math> <math>t\geq 0.</math>

The process is shown in this picture:



In fact, the idea of the additive state decomposition has been implicitly mentioned in existing literature. An existing example is the tracking controller design, which often requires a reference system to derive error dynamics. The reference system (primary system) is assumed to be given as follows:

<math>\dot{x}_{r}=f(t,x_{r},u_{r}),</math> <math>x_{r}(0)=x_{r,0}</math>

Based on the reference system, the error dynamics (secondary system) are derived as follows:

<math>\dot{x}_{e}</math> <math>=f(t,x_{e}+x_{r},u)-f(t,x_{r},u_{r}),</math> <math>x_{e}(0)=x_{0}-x_{r,0}</math>

where <math>x_{e}=x-x_{r}</math>

This is a commonly-used step to transform a tracking problem to a stabilization problem when adaptive control is used.


Consider a class of systems as follows:


Choose (Template:EquationNote) as the original system and design the primary system as follows:


Then the secondary system is determined by the rule (Template:EquationNote):


By additive state decomposition



<math> \Vert e(t) \Vert \le \Vert e_{p}(t) \Vert + \Vert e_{s}(t) \Vert</math>

the tracking error Template:Math can be analyzed by Template:Math and Template:Math separately. If Template:Math and Template:Math are bounded and small, then so is Template:Math. Fortunately, note that (Template:EquationNote) is a linear time-invariant system and is independent of the secondary system (Template:EquationNote), for the analysis of which many tools such as the transfer function are available. By contrast, the transfer function tool cannot be directly applied to the original system (Template:EquationNote) as it is time-varying.

Example 3

Consider a class of nonlinear systems as follows:

Template:NumBlk where Template:Math represent the state, output and input, respectively; the function Template:Math is nonlinear. The objective is to design Template:Math such that Template:Math as Template:Math. Choose (Template:EquationNote) as the original system and design the primary system as follows:


Then the secondary system is determined by the rule (Template:EquationNote):


where Template:Math. Then Template:Math and Template:Math. Here, the task Template:Math is assigned to the linear time-invariant system (Template:EquationNote) (a linear time-invariant system being simpler than a nonlinear one). On the other hand, the task Template:Math is assigned to the nonlinear system (Template:EquationNote) (a stabilizing control problem is simpler than a tracking problem). If the two tasks are accomplished, then Template:Math. The basic idea is to decompose an original system into two subsystems in charge of simpler subtasks. Then one designs controllers for two subtasks, and finally combines them to achieve the original control task.The process is shown in this picture:

Comparison with superposition principle

A well-known example implicitly using additive state decomposition is the Superposition Principle, widely used in physics and engineering.
superposition principle: For all linear systems, the net response at a given place and time caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses which would have been caused by each stimulus individually. For a simple linear system:

<math>\dot{x}=Ax+B(u_{1}+u_{2})</math> , <math>x(0)=0</math>

the statement of the superposition principle means Template:Math, where

<math>\dot{x}_{p} = A x_{p} + Bu_{1}, x_{p}(0) = 0</math>
<math>\dot{x}_{s} = A x_{s} + Bu_{2}, x_{s}(0) = 0</math>

Obviously, this result can also be derived from the additive state decomposition. Moreover, the superposition principle and additive state decomposition have the following relationship. From Table 1, additive state decomposition can be applied not only to linear systems but also nonlinear systems.

Suitable Systems Emphasis
Superposition Principle Linear Superposition
Additive State Decomposition Linear\Nonlinear Decomposition


Additive state decomposition is used in stabilizing control,[1] and can be extended to additive output decomposition.[2]


  1. Quan Quan, Guangxun Du, Kai-Yuan Cai. "Additive-State-Decomposition Dynamic Inversion Stabilized Control for a Class of Uncertain MIMO Systems,"
  2. Quan Quan, Kai-Yuan Cai. "Additive-Output-Decomposition-Based Dynamic Inversion Tracking Control for a Class of Uncertain Linear Time-Invariant Systems," The 51st IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 2012, Maui, Hawaii, USA, 2866-2871.

Further reading

  • Quan, Quan and Kai-Yuan Cai (2009). "Additive Decomposition and Its applications to Internal-Model-Based Tracking,". Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference, Shanghai, China. 817-822.
  • Quan Quan, Hai Lin, Kai-Yuan Cai (2014). "Output Feedback Tracking Control by Additive State Decomposition for a Class of Uncertain Systems," International Journal of Systems Science 45(9): 1799–1813.
  • Quan Quan, Kai-Yuan Cai, Hai Lin (2015). "Additive-State-Decomposition-Based Tracking Control Framework for a Class of Nonminimum Phase Systems with Measurable Nonlinearities and Unknown Disturbances," International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control 25(2):163-178
  • Quan Quan, Lu Jiang, Kai-Yuan Cai. "Discrete-Time Output-Feedback Robust Repetitive Control for a Class of Nonlinear Systems by Additive State Decomposition"