Americans in Philippine Scouting

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The Scout movement was planted in the Philippines by Americans. Over decades, many Americans have supported Scouting in the Philippines, both in the Boy Scouts of America Philippine Islands Council No. 545 and the Boy Scouts of the Philippines.[1]

Early Years, 1910–1923

Portions of Roosevelt's quote of Brown's letter are reprinted (before and after the publication of the Handbook for Boys) in New Castle News (26 May 1911), the Corsicana Daily Sun (31 May 1911), Boys' Life (Vol. I, No. 5, July 1911, page 33), The Washington Post (8 August 1911), The Youngstown Daily Vindicator (23 August 1911), The Miami Metropolis (20 September 1911, page 3), and The Official Handbook for Boys, 11th edition, 1914. The Boys' Life bit, "Philippine Boy Scouts," reports: "Proof of the value of the Boy Scouts comes from Manila, Philippine Islands, the outpost of the Boy Scout movement. Elwood E. Brown who has organized the Boy Scouts in the Philippines, has written a letter to the national headquarters of the Boy Scouts of America, telling of the assistance which the Manila Boy Scouts gave recently at a fire in Manila." The Miami Metropolis article, "Boy Scouts Work with the Firemen Just Like Heroes," reports that it is "Elwood E. Brown, organizer in the Philippines" who had written to Roosevelt.[3][4]


  • Edwin Emil Elser (21 Feb 1867, Hartford, Connecticut–17 Jul 1962): Arrived in Manila in 1901 as agent of E.C. McCullough & Co. Became the leader in the Philippine insurance business, and an officer in some 20 companies and the American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands. Rotary Club of Manila President, 1922–23. Member, Philippine Council of National Defense. Grand Master, Grand Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons of the Philippine Islands, 1921. Philippine alternate delegate to the Republican National Convention, 1920, 1936. Brother of Manila businessman Henry W. Elser.[10]
As Rotary Club of Manila President in 1922, E. E. Elser wrote to the Boy Scouts of America Headquarters in New York City regarding the possibility of organizing a Boy Scout Council in Manila. Elser's signed communication to the BSA was typed on RCM letterhead identifying the Club's officers as: E. E. Elser, C. R. Zeininger, C. C. Mitchell, A. B. Cresap, Walter Beam, F. X. Byrne, H. B. Pond, and Wm. J. Shaw. Their initiative resulted in the establishment of the Boy Scouts of America Philippine Islands Council No. 545.

Boy Scouts of America Philippine Islands Council No. 545 Charter Members, 1923

On 5 October 1923, the Rotary Club of Manila and its President Charles Russell Zeininger held a meeting with many of Manila's prominent men. The meeting resulted in the formation of a Manila Boy Scout Council. The founding/charter members were all prominent figures in the commercial, political, social, and cultural scene of Manila. Most held simultaneous memberships in a number of organizations, such as the YMCA, the American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands, the Masons, the Elks, the Army and Navy Club, etc. Most, if not all, were members of the Rotary Club of Manila. (Many of them, and members of subsequent sets of officers, later suffered massively, some dying, as "internees" at Japanese "internment camps" for civilians.) Scouting for Filipino Boys,[11] volume 1, gives the names of twenty men. The Diamond Jubilee Yearbook adds the names of A. B. Cresap and Dee C. Chuan. These men would serve as the Council's first executive board for a year. They included 4 Filipinos,[12] 2 Chinese,[13] 1 Spanish mestizo,[14] and 15 Americans:

  • Charles E. Adams: BSA Philippine Islands Council No. 545 founding Deputy Commissioner. Later served as part-time Council Scout Executive.
  • Clifton Miles Beaty (12 Mar 1895, DeKalb, Indiana–3 Jun 1980, San Marino, California).[15]
  • Harvey Albert Bordner (9 Apr 1872, Mount Aetna, Pennsylvania–19 May 1938, Indianapolis): After their wedding in January 1902, Harvey Bordner and his wife Maude Ethel Martin Bordner [16] traveled in February 1902 to the Philippines where they stayed until two years before Harvey's death, serving as public school teachers, 1902–36. A graduate (AB chemistry, 1896) and chemistry instructor of Indiana University, H. A. Bordner would serve as Bulacan Public Schools Superintendent and Philippine Normal School Superintendent. In 1918 he was named "Superintendent of Schools of the City of Manila." He was a member of the Rotary Club of Manila and the Manila YMCA, and was a 32° Mason. The H. A. Bordner Building at the Manila Science High School was named after him. After a lifetime in the Philippines, the Bordners moved back to Indiana in 1936 due to Harvey's ill-health.[12][17]
  • Albert John Brazee (1876–1950): From Oregon, he arrived in the Philippines in 1898 as a lieutenant in the Oregon Volunteers in the Spanish-American War. Became a captain in the 35th Infantry. Performed police work and census work in Manila. He married Spanish lass Consuelo Palma y Lopez,[18] daughter of a Spanish government official in the Philippines, in Manila on 11 January 1902, and they had eight children.[19][20][21]
  • Fr. Francis Xavier Aloysius Byrne, S.J. (20 Sep 1877, Boston–25 Nov 1929, New York City): Jesuit father. First American Rector of Ateneo de Manila, 1921–25, after its takeover from the Spanish Jesuits. Director, Rotary Club of Manila. Introduced Scouting at the Ateneo.[22]
  • Philip Durkee Carman (8 Jan 1882, Morgan Park, Chicago–7 Feb 1945, STIC, Manila): BSA Philippine Islands Council No. 545 founding President / Commissioner. Arrived in Manila in 1898. With Henry W. Elser,[23] founded the first real estate company, San Juan Heights Company, 1920. Organised P.D. Carman Co., Ltd., Addition Hills, Manila. Director, Manila Building and Loan Association. Served as reviewer on real estate for the American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands.[24][25]
  • Andrew Bruce Cresap (11 Jul 1878, Cincinnati, Ohio–13 Feb 1958, Alameda, California): President and General Manager, Luzon Brokerage Company. Officer, American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands. Treasurer, Rotary Club of Manila.[26]
  • William H. Douglas: US Army warrant officer. First BSA Philippine Islands Council No. 545 Scout Executive (part-time).
  • Franklin Edison Hedrick: Member, American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands.[27]
  • Alva Jay Hill (10 May 1880, Deshler, Ohio–3 Sep 1963, Los Angeles, California): Private, US Army, Spanish-American War. AB, Ohio State U, 1906. MA economics, U Illinois, 1909. LLB, Ohio Northern U, 1912. Served in Bureau of Education, Jul 1909–1910. Deputy Sheriff, Manila, 1910–Aug 1911. Government Attorney, Nov 1912–Dec 1919. Quartermaster, Philippine National Guard, 1918. Member, Rotary Club of Manila. Member, American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands. Law practice in Iloilo at Powell and Hill law office. Charter Member, Rotary Club of Iloilo. Member, Iloilo Chamber of Commerce. Commander, American Legion of the Philippine Islands. Author, Filipinos are Dependable Allies, unpublished manuscript.[28][29]
  • George H. Seaver (1878, Missouri–9 Mar 1938, Veterans Administration Hospital, Fort Miley, San Francisco): 1st Cavalry, Spanish-American War, Cuba. 33rd Infantry, Spanish-American War, Philippines. Joined Manila Police in 1901, rose in the ranks, became Police Chief 1913–17. Became officer in various companies. Officer, American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands.[13] Director, YMCA. Treasury Department officer, California, 1925–33.[30][31]
  • Samuel Wells Stagg: BSA Philippine Islands Council No. 545 founding Deputy Commissioner.
  • Everett Stanton Turner (30 Sep 1887, Turner, Iowa–24 Sep 1979, Duarte, California): Student Secretary, YMCA, 1915–18. General Secretary, Manila YMCA, 1918–26. General Secretary, YMCA of the Philippine Islands, 1926–52. Founder, Rotary Club of Cebu, 1932. Member, Methodist Episcopal Church, Manila. Conferred an award of merit by Pres. Elpidio Rivera Quirino for his many services to the Philippines.[14] Author, Nation Building (Manila: Capitol, 1965).[32][33]
  • John P. Wade: President, Rotary Club of Manila, 1924–25.
  • Charles Russell Zeininger: Editor, Manila Daily Bulletin, 1918–26.[34][35][36][37] Officer, American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands. As Rotary Club of Manila President in 1923–24, Zeininger presided at the meeting that organised the Boy Scouts of America Philippine Islands Council No. 545 on 5 October 1923.[38]

Other BSA Philippine Islands Council No. 545 Board Members, 1924–1937

Aside from the founding and charter members, many more Americans became involved in the Boy Scouts of America Philippine Islands Council No. 545 through the Council's annual election of officers.

  • Guilford Elvene Campbell (1867–18 Feb 1945, Los Baños): LLB, U Michigan, 1895. 2nd Lieutenant, 49th Volunteer Infantry, Philippine-American War, 1900–01. Law practice with Anacleto Diaz y Carbonell at Campbell & Diaz Law Office, 32 Pasaje de Norzagaray, Binondo, Manila. Member, University of Michigan Club of Manila, 1933.[39]
  • Howard Marion Cavender (1897, Washington State–15 Dec 1944, Subic Bay): Agent, Robert Dollar Company. Managing Director, Manila Hotel. Officer, American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands. Major, Quartermaster Corps, US Army.[40][41]
  • Arthur Frederick Fischer (6 Feb 1888, Chicago–31 Oct 1962, San Diego, California): Forester, Bureau of Forestry, 1911–16. Acting Director, Bureau of Forestry, 1916–17. Director, Bureau of Forestry, 1916–36. Assistant Professor of Forest Engineering, University of the Philippines, 1912–17. Professor of Tropical Forestry and Dean, School of Forestry, University of the Philippines, 1917–36. Delegate, 4th Pacific Science Congress, Batavia and Bandoeng, Djava, Nederlands-Indië, 16–25 May 1929. Adviser on natural resources, Commonwealth of the Philippines. Introduced cinchona in the Philippines in 1924 for the production of quinine. President, Rotary Club of Manila, 1934–35. Reviewer of business conditions for lumbering for the American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands. Colonel, US intelligence, WW2. Author, The Forester.[42] Contributor, Minor Products of Philippine Forests, edited by William Henry Brown (1884–1939). Brown and Fischer authored Philippine Bamboos[43] and Philippine Mangrove Swamps.[44] The shrub Eugenia fischeri / Syzygium fischeri Merr. and the Fischer's pygmy fruit bat, Haplonycteris fischeri Lawrence, were named after Fischer.[45]
  • Thomas Fitzpatrick: Council Scout Executive, part-time.
  • John E. Goo.
  • John William Green, III (20 Jul 1873, London, UK–2 Oct 1954, Sawtelle, Los Angeles, California): Soldier, Spanish-American War, 1896–99. Soldier, Philippine-American War, 1899–1901. Chief, Secret Service, Manila, 1913–18. Soldier, WWI, 1917–18. Chief of Police, Manila, 1922–29.[46]
  • Joseph R. Greenan: Assistant Council Scout Executive for the Visayas.
  • Fr. James Edward Haggerty, S.J. (d. 1963): Jesuit father. Vice-Rector (1937–40) and Rector (1940–49), Ateneo de Cagayan (later Xavier University), Cagayán de Oro. Chaplain, US Forces in the Philippines, 10th Military District, Mindanáo, South West Pacific Area Command, 1942–45. Author, Guerrilla Padre in Mindanao.[47] Recipient of the BSA Philippine Islands Council's first Silver Carabao, 1931.
  • Henry Hermann: Founder of Electrical Supply Company and radio station KZKZ, Manila.
  • Elmer Kolso Higdon (14 Oct 1887, Clarence, Ford, Illinois–15 Apr 1961, St. Luke's, Quezon City): He and his wife Idella Eleanor Wilson Higdon (1889–1977) were Disciples of Christ missionaries in Manila, 1917–37. They authored From Carabao to Clipper.[48] Elmer became a founding member of the National Christian Council and the Federation of Evangelical Churches in the Philippine Islands.[49]
  • Lucius Roy Holbrook (30 Apr 1875, Arkansaw, Wisconsin–19 Oct 1952, Letterman, San Francisco, California): First arrived in the Philippines in 1889. Participated in various military campaigns. Served in France during the Great War. Brig. Gen., 1925–33. Commander, Fort Stotsenburg, 1926–29. Maj. Gen., 1933–39. Commanding General, Philippine Department, 1936–38.[50]
  • Frank Bassett Ingersoll (29 Nov 1866, Greeneville, Tennessee–25 Apr 1944, San Mateo, California): He served as the Manila prosecuting attorney, a municipal court judge, a private lawyer in Manila, a Director in the Philippine Bar Association, a member of the Legislative Committee of the American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands, President of the Rotary Club of Manila (1931–32), and a BSA Philippine Islands Council delegate to the BSA National Council. He returned to the USA in 1940.[51]
  • A. S. Macfarlane: Appointed BSA Philippine Islands Council Scout Executive by BSA Chief Scout Executive James Edward West in 1924. Before coming to the Philippines, A. S. Macfarlane was Scout Executive of Jacksonville Council in Jacksonville, Florida. At the same time, he ran the racist secret society Pathfinders of the Golden Trail. Possibly, he had been deputed to the Philippines to discourage the PGT. He would later become the first BSA Scout Executive of Puerto Rico.[52]
  • S. J. Nesbitt
  • P. H. Noble
  • W. L. Patterson
  • David Ritchie: Council Scout Executive, part-time.
  • Charles Schofield Salmon (1878–1952): Proprietor of C.S. Salmon and Company, of Salmon, Dexter and Company, and of other businesses. Officer, American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands.[53]
  • Joseph Henry Schmidt (7 Oct 1880, Chicago–26 Dec 1935, Manila): 16th Infantry, Spanish-American War. Grand Master, Grand Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons of the Philippine Islands, 1927–28. KCCH, 1929. 33°, 1933. Recipient of the BSA Philippine Islands Council's Silver Carabao.
  • William James Shaw (20 Sep 1877, East Barnet, Vermont–1 Mar 1939, Caloocan): Entrepreneur. Philanthropist. He worked as a busboy on a US Army transport ship to pay his passage to Manila, arriving in 1901 and never leaving hence. Became part owner of Atlantic, Gulf & Pacific. President, Rotary Club of Manila, 1925–26. Founder, Wack Wack Golf and Country Club, where his monument stands. Shaw Boulevard and Repertory's William J. Shaw Theater were named after him.[54][55]
  • L. E. Stair
  • Harry Henderson Steinmetz (20 Jan 1878, Ohio–28 Feb 1940, San Diego, California): Baptist minister, missionary, physician. Member, American Baptist Foreign Mission Society.[56] Arrived in the Philippines in 1906 with his wife Edith Miller Steinmetz.[57] He became a member of the Manila Medical Society in 1917. Member, Hospital Board, Methodist Episcopal Church, 1920–21. President, Philippine Medical Association, 1921–22.[15] President, Philippine Anti-Leprosy Society, 1935. Member, Philippine Leprosy Commission, 1935. Member, Medicine and Science Committee, American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippine Islands.
  • Josephus Emile Hamilton Stevenot: Last President of the Boy Scouts of America Philippine Islands Council No. 545.
  • Henry Schuler Townsend (27 Jun 1856, Minsted–21 Sep 1937, Hawaii): Teacher and education administrator in Hawaii (1880s–1900) and the Philippines (1901–35). Head, Department of Psychology, University of the Philippines. Follower of Francis Wayland Parker and John Dewey. Author, Primary Geography.[58]
  • Ernest Earl Voss, Jr. (1895–1969): BSA Philippine Islands Council Scout Executive (1935–38), appointed by BSA Chief Scout Executive James Edward West.
  • Irving F. Wiltse: Assistant Council Scout Executive for Luzon.

BSA Philippine Islands Council No. 545 Local Members or Supporters, 1923–1937

Boy Scouts of the Philippines, 1938–present

  • Josephus Emile Hamilton Stevenot (23 Dec 1888, Melones, California–8 Jun 1943, New Hebrides): Founder, President, and Chief Scout of the Boy Scouts of the Philippines. California miners Josephus and his three brothers (Ferdinand Gabriel,[68] Archibald Douglas Augustine,[69] and Casimir Michael[70]) had various business interests, including mining in the Philippines through their Stevenot Corporation (1929–41).[16] As a business executive and a major in the active reserves, Josephus based himself in the Philippines where he served as: commander of the Philippine National Guard aviation unit, co-founder (with Alfred John Croft[71]) of Curtiss School of Aviation, Director of Philippine Trust Company, Vice President & General Manager of Philippine Long Distance Telephone, Director of Bank of the Philippine Islands, Director of Philippine Milling Co., Director of Philippine Realty Corporation, and Director of Fidelity & Surety Co.[72] While working for Allied intelligence in the South West Pacific Area in WW2, Col. Stevenot died in a plane crash in Vanuatu,[17] and was buried at La Loma Cemetery, where his grave became for the most part neglected and forgotten, unknown and unseen by most Scouts and Scouters of the Philippines.[73]
  • Irving S. Hart (10 May 1871, Carmel, Putnam, New York–5 Sep 1954, Mary Chiles General Hospital, Gastambide, Sampaloc, Manila): Arrived in the Philippines in 1899; served in the Spanish-American War. A selfless humanitarian: spent his life performing welfare work and soliciting donations for charity projects. Founded the Balik-Balik Welfare Association in 1920, the Philippine Band of Mercy in 1937, and the leper Boy Scouts and Camp Fire Girls, San Lazaro Hospital, Sta. Cruz, Manila. Author, The Enigmatic Dr. Jose Raizal.[74] Lived at 87 Gastambide, Sampaloc, Manila with his wife Pauline Harris Hart. He was buried at Manila North Cemetery.[18] "He is Grand Daddy Long Legs to all our Camp Fire Girls." —Balita, Manila: Rotary Club of Manila, June 24, 1948.
  • J. Scott McCormick (1894, Hartford, Connecticut–25 Dec 1941, Jolo, Sulu): Arrived in the Philippine Islands in 1916. Teacher, then Bureau of Education Division Superintendent, Cavite, 1920–22.[75] Superintendent, Philippine Normal School, 1922–25. Chief, Academic Division, Bureau of Education, 1925–36. Division Superintendent, Lanao, 1936–41. Division Superintendent, Jolo, 1941. BSP Commissioner, Sulu and Mindanao. Shot in his home in his Scout uniform by Japanese soldiers. Memorialised in the name of McCormick-Gepigon Sulu Council, BSP.[76][77][78][79][80]
  • William Howard Quasha (19 May 1912, Manhattan, New York–12 May 1996, St. Luke's, Quezon City): American lawyer and civic leader in the Philippines. BS mechanical engineering and master's degrees (1933, 1935), New York U; LLB, St. John's U, 1936. Joined US Army 1942; arrived in the Philippines on staff of MacArthur; lt. col. at age 33; received Bronze Star. 1946, founded William H. Quasha and Associates. Member of American Legion, Army and Navy Club, Elks, Jaycees, Knights of Rizal, Lions, Republicans Abroad, Toastmasters, Fulbright Committee. Licensed lay leader, Episcopal Church in the Philippines. Grand Master, Grand Lodge, Free & Accepted Masons of the Philippines, 1962. [19] Visited lodges around the country. Endeavored to create rapprochement between Masonry and Catholic Church; visited Vatican 1964 for this. Scoutmaster, Troop 1, American School, BSA Far East Council. Joined Executive Board, Manila Council, BSP, 1949; conferred Silver Tamaraw. Member of BSP delegation to 21st World Scout Conference (Seattle, Washington, USA, 11–18 August 1967) and 22nd World Scout Conference (Helsinki, Suomi, 21–28 August 1969). Volunteer Chairman, President, CEO, St. Luke's Medical Center, 1975–96. The hospital named its medical school St. Luke's College of Medicine William H. Quasha Memorial. In Republic of the Philippines and/or Solicitor General v. William H. Quasha, August 17, 1972, the Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled that US citizens could not own land in the Philippines beyond July 3, 1974 – that would compel Quasha to give up his residence at Forbes Park. The "Quasha law" was overturned by Pres. Marcos. The Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test of Rensis Likert and William Quasha (1941, 1970, 1995) assesses spatial-visual intelligence.


  1. However, not a single American figure in Philippine Scouting has ever been invited to revisit the Philippines.
  2. The first edition is kept in print by the Boy Scouts of America for historical and sentimental reasons, and may be bought or downloaded from several sites on the internet, including Gutenberg. Several prints have also been made by various printers, including a colored edition published in 2011 by Skyhorse Publishing, New York.
  3. Unfortunately, the Miami News / Miami Metropolis archival site, formerly here, was removed or closed in 2015. Hence citation of this article can no longer be accessed online.
  4. Despite evidence, however, many would remain fixated still on the historical error that Scouting in the Philippines started with the Lorillard Spencer Troop in 1914.
  5. Photo: Col. Kiser unveils tablet to Southampton from US Army 14th Major Port
  6. Kiser, The American Concept of Leadership, New York: Pageant, 1954, 1955.
  7. Kiser, Americanism in Action, New York: Exposition, 1964.
  8. Their daughter Henrietta Jemima Doltz Puhaty (1906–1985) was born in the Philippines.
  9. The Paul Doltz Papers, 1902–1941, are kept at the Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[1]
  10. Henry W. Elser (d. 18 Jun 1923).
  11. One copy of Scouting for Filipino Boys survives at the National Library of the Philippines, Kalaw Avenue, Rizal Park, Ermita, Manila.
  12. Manuél Roxas Camus, Arsenio Nicasio Katigbák Luz, Honorio Gonzaga Pobladór, and José E. Valdéz
  13. Dee Ching Chuan and Lim Sae Gim
  14. Enrique P. Brias y Roxas
  15. Clifton Beaty married Martha L. Coplin in 1919 in Indiana, and divorced her in 1923. He then married Ellyn Chapin Broomell (1890, Chicago– ) in Manila on 9 August 1923, and divorced her in 1929 in Illinois. They had a son, Chester Broomell Beaty (1925, Chicago–2000, Montana). Clifton later married Florence M. Schadauer in 1933 in California.
  16. Maude Ethel Martin Bordner (18 Mar 1876, Bloomington–17 Apr 1968, Indianapolis).
  17. The Harvey A. Bordner papers 1902–1936 (correspondence, articles, reports, speeches, general information, photographs, clippings, diary, yearbooks, certificates, awards, memorial materials) are preserved in the Archives of Indiana University.[2]
  18. Consuelo Palma y Lopez (5 Dec 1880, Manila–17 Jun 1974, Montebello, California).
  19. Their son Albert John Brazee, Jr. (23 Jul 1904, Manila–8 Dec 1984, San Francisco, California) became a Boy Scout and Assistant Scoutmaster, studied at Ateneo de Manila and Far Eastern University, and served as Grand Master, Grand Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons of the Philippine Islands, 1948. He married Nancy Agnes Erwin (20 Nov 1901, Rochester, Minnesota–Nov 1963, Rochester) in Cavite on 1 July 1929. Both of them were incarcerated by the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp and then Los Baños Internment Camp. (Both are listed in "The Camp Roster" in Henderson, Bruce, 2015, Rescue at Los Baños, New York: William Morrow, HarperCollins, p 327.)
  20. Their daughter Helen Brazee Murray (10 Dec 1907–18 Feb 2000) was born in Manila, while daughter Mabel Brazee (Mrs. Sweet / Mrs. Palmer) (8 Oct 1910–17 Dec 2004, Littlerock, California) was born in Masbate City.
  21. Consuelo Lopez Palma Brazee, her daughters Consuelo Brazee Ford (25 Apr 1903, Manila–20 Oct 2000, San Jose, California), Elizabeth Brazee (2 Nov 1913, Manila–24 Jun 2002, Montebello, California), and Florence Catherine Brazee (8 Nov 1920, Manila–10 Nov 1999, Montebello, California), sons-in-law Edward Byron Ford (26 Aug 1894, San Jose, California–12 Feb 1957, San Jose) and William Elmer Murray Jr. (15 Aug 1905–20 Oct 1976, New York), grandsons Edward Byron Ford Jr. (8 Sep 1926, Cebú–26 Dec 2002, San Jose), Henry Alvin Ford (16 May 1929, Manila–15 Apr 1996, San Jose), and Stanley Joseph Ford (10 Jul 1931, Manila–2 Jul 2009, San Jose), and granddaughter Consuelo Carmen Ford (27 Sep 1933, Manila– ), were all detained at Santo Tomas Internment Camp, 8 January 1942–3 February 1945.
  22. O'Neill, Charles Edwards (1927–2009) & Joaquín María Domínguez, Diccionario Histórico de la Compañía de Jesús, Madrid: Universidad Pontificia Comillas, 2001.
  23. Henry W. Elser (d. 18 Jun 1923): Brother of Manila businessman Edwin Emil Elser.
  24. Philip Carman married Edna Lenora Mertz (9 Dec 1883, Sedalia, Missouri–24 Sep 1972, Santa Barbara, California) on 16 June 1909 in Sedalia, Pettis, Missouri. They were incarcerated by the Japanese at Santo Tomas Civilian Internment Camp, on the grounds of the University of Santo Tomas, where Philip became a member of the music committee tasked with the daily broadcast of music by loudspeaker in the camp. Philip Carman was among 28 people (16 internees) killed by Japanese bombardment of Santo Tomas (from Intramuros) some four days after the camp's liberation by the 8th Cavalry Regiment. Carman would be interned at Manila American Cemetery, McKinley Parkway, Bonifacio Global City, Taguig, Metro Manila, his grave (Grave 151, Row 3, Plot D) unknown to Scouts and Scouters until 2016. Philip and Edna Carman had three children: Ruth Schuyler Carman Lane (1910–1987), Dickerson Mertz Carman (1912–1962), and Edward Hamilton Carman (1915–2008). Their granddaughter Nancy Carman (daughter of Edward) lives in the USA.
  25. two photos of Philip Carman
  26. Andrew Bruce Cresap married Grace Arnold (1886–1972) in Manila, 19 May 1914. They would have four children, all born in the Philippines: Lavinia Cresap Gilbert (16 Jun 1915–10 Dec 1997), Florence Cresap Schuldt, Ida May Cresap Sipe, and Andrew Bruce Cresap Jr. (d. 2008, Oakland, California). See family photo in Igorót garb.
  27. F. E. Hedrick's wife Miriam Reich Hedrick sold land to Claro M. Recto. Their daughter Eleanor Ann Hedrick Keiffer (1920–1990) and granddaughters Miriam Grace Keiffer (1941–1995) and Patricia Keiffer were born in Manila.
  28. "Ajay" married Martha Lavina Mills (1894–1980) in Kobe, Japan on 12 November 1923. They and their sons Jay Ward Hill, John Mclain Hill (19 Jun 1926, Iloilo–9 Aug 1986, Birmingham, Alabama), and Samuel Wallace Hill (17 Nov 1928, Iloilo–18 Apr 2009, Port Charlotte, Florida) were incarcerated by the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp and then Los Baños Internment Camp, all of them listed in "The Camp Roster" in Henderson, Bruce, 2015, Rescue at Los Baños, New York: William Morrow, HarperCollins, p 333. Jay Ward Hill served as a Scout leader inside the Los Baños Camp. (Cf: Martha Mills Hill, Rosalie Heacock, John Mclain Hill, Linnets and Pomegranates, Marina del Rey, California: DeVorss, 1977.)
  29. "Before internment, my teacher in American School had been Mrs. Hill. Her three sons: Jay, John and Sam were around my age and we were good friends before, during and after the war. Before internment, Mr. Hill was an assistant attorney on Gen. MacArthur's staff. For some reason, the Japanese suspected him of being part of the US military and soon after our confinement, he was taken, with some other suspects, to Fort Santiago (a military prison). After 80 days, he was returned to Santo Tomas. He weighed about 80 pounds. Both his legs had been smashed. After that, Mr. Hill always walked with crutches." – Dennis James Greene (17 Sep 1926, Manila–23 Feb 2015, Carmel-by-the-Sea, California), "The Liberation of Santo Tomas Prison Camp in World War II" in Civilian Prisoners of the Japanese in the Philippine Islands, pages 11–12.
  30. "Chief is Ordered North," Oakland Tribune, Oakland, California, July 2, 1930, page 13: "Col. George H. Seaver of Oakland, enforcement chief in the northern California prohibition district under Administrator William G. Walker, has been named assistant administrator... He was a member of Roosevelt's Rough Riders in Cuba and later went to the Philippines where he was chief of mounted scouts. He served for 25 years in the Philippine police and was chief of the Manila police department for 13 years before joining the prohibition bureau here. During the World War he was a colonel of Infantry and is now a reserve officer. His home is at 4669 San Sebastian Avenue, Oakland."
  31. Seaver married Neville Van Cleave (1877–1933). They had three children, all born in the Philippines: Mark H. Seaver (b. 1907), Margaret E. Seaver Turner (b. 1909), and Marian J. Seaver (b. 1911).
  32. Turner married Mary B. Aborn (12 Dec 1889, Iowa–29 Apr 1983, California) in 1914. They were incarcerated by the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp. Their daughter Georgina Dorcas Turner Wardell (1922–19 Aug 2010, Bradbury, California) was born in Manila.
  33. See: Lenz, Frank, "Stant Turner of the Philippines" in Turner, Everett Stanton, Nation Building, Manila: Capitol, 1965.
  34. Cf: Taylor, Carson [1875–1962; founder, Manila Daily Bulletin; member, Publications Committee, ACCPI], History of the Philippine Press, Manila: n.p., 1927.
  35. Cf: "Journalists to Hear Zeininger" in The Daily Nebraskan, Lincoln: University of Nebraska, Vol. XXVI, No. 48, November 21, 1926, front page.
  36. Cf: "Zeininger Talks to Journalists" in The Daily Nebraskan, Lincoln: U Nebraska, Vol. XXVI, No. 49, November 23, 1926, front page.
  37. Cf: "Zeininger Talks to Journalists" in The Daily Nebraskan, Lincoln: U Nebraska, Vol. XXVI, No. 50, November 24, 1926, front page.
  38. His son Charles Russell Zeininger, Jr. (1916–2002) was born in Manila.
  39. Guilford Campbell was incarcerated by the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp and died of beriberi at Los Baños Internment Camp.[3] Listed in "The Camp Roster" in Henderson, Bruce, 2015, Rescue at Los Baños, New York: William Morrow, HarperCollins, p 328.
  40. Major Cavender was killed in the Ōryoku Maru.
  41. Howard Marion Cavender, Jr. (1924–1994) was born in the Philippines.
  42. Fischer, The Forester, Manila: Rotary Club of Manila.
  43. Brown & Fischer, Philippine Bamboos (Bureau of Forestry Bulletin 15), Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1918.
  44. Brown & Fischer, Philippine Mangrove Swamps (Bureau of Forestry Bulletin 17), Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1918.
  45. His son Arthur Frederick Fischer, Jr. (1915–2010) spent much of his youth in the Philippines, attending Brent School in Baguio.
  46. His son John William Green, IV (1920–1998) was born in Manila.
  47. Fr. Haggerty, James McNeil Crawford, and Edward Norris Wadsworth (1903–1990; BSA/LDS Boy Scout) attempted to save the Ateneo de Cagayan's 15,000 books, some rare, that ultimately were caused to be destroyed by the Japanese. (Haggerty, Guerrilla Padre in Mindanao, New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd., 1946; Manila: Bookmark, 1964.)
  48. Higdon & Higdon, From Carabao to Clipper, New York: Friendship, 1941.
  49. Idella Higdon served as supervisor of nurses at a mission hospital, the first Principal of Union High School in Manila, and secretary of a Christian literature distribution committee, and back in the USA became a faculty member (1945–47) of the Kennedy School of Missions.
  50. Quartered at Camp Murphy.
  51. Ingersoll married Joshena Stone Mekeel on 20 June 1909 in Seattle, Washington. She authored Golden Years in the Philippines (Palo Alto, California: Pacific, 1971, ISBN 978-0870151880). Their son Frank Bassett Ingersoll, Jr. (1912–2003) was born in Manila.
  52. "...the Boy Scouts of America had just arranged to send Porto Rico its first Scout Executive, Mr. A. S. MacFarlane, recently of the Philippines (where he organized Scouting and placed it on a sound basis)...Boys' Life, Vol. XVIII, No. 11, November 1928.
  53. Salmon and his wife Mary Wade Salmon were incarcerated by the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp.
  54. Gleeck, Lewis Edward Jr., Bill Shaw: The Man and the Legend, San Juan, Metro Manila: William J. Shaw Foundation, 1998.
  55. Zafra, Jessica, The Life and Legacy of William J. Shaw, San Juan, Metro Manila: William J. Shaw Foundation, 2009.
  56. Hjertstedt, Virginia Lee, "History of American Baptist Missions in the Philippines" (MA thesis), Berkeley Baptist Divinity School, Berkeley, California, 1952.
  57. Edith Miller Steinmetz worked in Christian education in the Philippines. She and her former pupil Victor Carreon co-founded Christian Friends for Racial Equality (CFRE)[4] in Seattle in 1942. (Cf: Steinmetz, Edith & Ethelyn Hartwich, "Twenty Years History of the Christian Friends for Racial Equality, Seattle, Washington, 1942–1962," Christian Friends for Racial Equality Records, University of Washington Library Special Collections. Cf: McClees [Phillips], Johanna, "Christian Friends for Racial Equality: a unique approach to race and religious relations in Seattle, 1942–1970," Senior thesis, University of Washington, 2000.)
  58. Townsend, Primary Geography, New York: American Book, 1917.
  59. The Chapmans arrived with their daughter Katherine and son Jim. Another son was born in Dumaguete.
  60. Chapman, Some New and Interesting Philippine Ants, Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1963.
  61. Chapman, James Wittenmyer & Santiago R. Capco, Checklist of the Ants of Asia (Institute of Science and Technology Monograph 1), Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1951.
  62. Wheeler, William Morton & James Wittenmyer Chapman, "The Ants of the Philippine Islands" in The Philippine Journal of Science, Volume 28, 1925.
  63. Wheeler, William Morton & James Wittenmyer Chapman, "The Mating of Diacamma" in Psyche, Cambridge, Dec 1922.
  64. James & Ethel Chapman, Escape to the Hills, Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Jaques Cattell, 1947.
  65. James and Ethel Chapman were incarcerated by the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp, 1943–45.
  66. Prof. Chapman attended the first Rotary Club meeting after the War, Santo Tomas Internment Camp, 28 February 1945.
  67. Scouting, Vol. XX, No. 6, June 1932, page 177
  68. Ferdinand Gabriel Stevenot (1877–1963).
  69. Archibald Douglas Augustine Stevenot (1882–1968).
  70. Casimir Michael Stevenot (1892–1968).
  71. Alfred John Croft (1887–1970): American aviator. Flying instructor of Josephus Stevenot at Brooks Field, Texas. Co-founder, with Stevenot, of the Curtiss School of Aviation, called the Curtiss Flying School, Camp Claudio, Rizal, where they trained the first 25 Filipino pilots.[5]
  72. The Stevenot Family Papers, 1918–1966 are at Holt-Atherton Department of Special Collections, University of the Pacific, Stockton, California.
  73. One notable exception to this was Scoutmaster Rodolfo Gutierrez of Tondo, Manila, who took Boy Scouts to visit the grave of the BSP Founder.
  74. Hart, The Enigmatic Dr. Jose Raizal, Manila, 1934, 1936, 1953.
  75. "County and Other Local Superintendents of Schools" in Educational Directory, 1921–1922, Washington DC: Office of Education, 1922, page 36.
  76. "Scout Master Killed Defying Japs in Silence" in Chicago Daily Tribune, Volume CIV, No. 132, June 2, 1945, front page.
  77. Gasconade County Republican, Vol. 86, No. 32, Owensville, Missouri, September 27, 1945, page 6.
  78. "Three Choose Death to Imprisonment" in Cass City Chronicle, Cass, Michigan, October 6, 1945, page 4.
  79. "Three Choose Death to Imprisonment" in The Cameron Herald, Vol. 86, No. 32, Cameron, Texas, December 6, 1945, page 8.
  80. Martín, Dalmacio, J. Scott McCormick: Apostle of Education in the Philippines, Manila: Macaraig, 1948.



  • The Official Handbook for Boys, first edition, Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1911.
  • Scouting for Filipino Boys, Volume 1, Manila: Boy Scouts of the Philippines, 1949.
  • Diamond Jubilee Yearbook, Manila: Boy Scouts of the Philippines, 1996.
  • Philippine Education Magazine, Vol. XXIV, No. 10, Manila: Philippine Education Company, March 1928.
  • Boy Scout Book, Volume 1, Manila: Boy Scouts of the Philippines, 1972.
  • On My Honor: Stories of Scouts in Action, Manila: Boy Scouts of the Philippines, 2001.
  • Good Morning!, Manila: Boy Scouts of the Philippines, 2012.
  • Boys' Life magazine, Boy Scouts of America.
  • Scouting magazine, Boy Scouts of America.
  • Annual Report, Boy Scouts of America, 1911–1938.
  • Annual Report, Boy Scouts of the Philippines.
  • Gleeck, Lewis Edward, Jr. (1912–2005), The Manila Americans (1901–1964), Manila: Carmelo & Bauermann, 1977.
  • ___, Over Seventy-five Years of Philippine-American History: The Army and Navy Club of Manila, Manila: Carmelo & Bauermann, 1976.
  • Center for Internee Rights, Inc., ed, 2002, Civilian Prisoners of the Japanese in the Philippine Islands, Paducah, Kentucky: Turner. ISBN 1563118386 [20]
  • Stevens, Frederic Harper (1879-1982), Santo Tomas Internment Camp, New York: Stratford House, 1946.
  • Hartendorp, Abraham Van Heyningen (1893–1975), The Japanese Occupation of the Philippines, Manila: Bookmark, 1967.
  • "Names of Americans Interned in Manila Made Public Today" in Reno Gazette-Journal, Reno, Nevada, March 30, 1942, page 5.