Liu Zhongjing

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Liu Zhongjing (Template:Zh), also known as William Liu[1] and by his cult followers as 阿姨 (Auntie), is a Chinese historian and translator of history and political philosophy works from English.

Liu was born in Zizhong, Sichuan Province. He adheres to traditionalist conservatism of the analytic philosophy school dominant in the Anglophone world, and is considered an important figure in the pro-Western ultra-right in contemporary China. He advocates that the gravest tragedy in the modern history of China was caused by China's painstaking maintenance of the unity and integrity of its own territory after it inherited it from the doomed Qing Empire. He argues that the current state of the mainstream models of the Western democratic system (with characteristics like consensus decision making, welfare state and over-suppression of parastate actors) will prove fatal, as evident in the appearance of forces aimed at undermining it due to its weaknesses such as the ISIS. He also advocates that the necessary fail-safe must include multiple layers of power structures, also that the "landed gentry", referring to civilian oligarchs with substantial private wealth and local cultural heritages, should be included as spokespeople for regional communities, in order to avoid depletive extraction of rooted communities by the state or other trans-regional dominant powers.

Liu currently lives in the United States.[2]Template:Better source


Born in 1974, Liu graduated from West China Medical Center of Sichuan University in 1996 and have since served in a Xinjiang local police department as a forensic scientist for 10 years, during which he felt the acute inter-ethnic tensions in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. He obtained a Master's degree on world history studies at the Sichuan University in 2012. Liu then studied for his doctoral thesis on history studies in Wuhan University.

While a scholar on Western political philosophy, Chinese history and world history, Liu's publications and academic discourses generated a cult following especially in China's contemporary liberal, pro-Western, non-Han Chinese ethnic nationalist, Han Chinese regionalist and right-wing circles. His highly controversial advocacies and views on civilizational, national, modern, ethnic, regional, religious, class, racial and ideological identitarianisms, strongly influenced both by Oswald Spengler and Ayn Rand, are dubbed 姨學 (Auntology, the study of Aunt) by his cult followers.

One of the innovations of Auntology is the division of the modern world into three spheres: 1. The Wilsonian Sphere: where dominant forces and institutions adhere to common modern values which are inherent of Western and Christian origins, and maintain a system of collective safety, 2. The Hobbesian Sphere: where pragmatic, realistic, Machiavellian and opportunistic players somehow ensure limited endemic dominance by submitting to Wilsonian supremacy and 3. The Darwinian Sphere: where the haphazard exercises of power by self-serving forces, fall far short of order or modern politics.[3]

Auntology is also often interpreted by its followers as a call to abandon the construction of a united Chinese nation, Chinese state, Han Chinese nation, Zhonghua Minzu, imperial China or party state, for a more fragmented and often de-sinicized picture of Huaxia, East Asian sphere or collectivity of regional ethnic communities. Though harboring romanic views on tribalism and medieval feudalism, Liu in fact rarely agrees with the essentialist veneration of any particular ethnic culture as self-generating. Rather, he quite strongly agrees with a diffusionist position on Human Civilization.

Though influenced heavily by Toynbee, Huntington and Spengler, Liu does not adhere consistently with the Spenglerian and essentialist notion that a set number of civilizations, such as the Islamic or Indic, are discreet organisms fated to be independent of each other. The diffusionist tendency of Liu brings him more affinity with Yukichi Fukuzawa and Ziya Gok-Alp when it comes to the interpretation of national and civilizational identities.

In a way, Liu's theory on world history is a synthesis between Spengler's cyclical model on civilizations, and the World System Theory from the political left.

Liu became a born-again Christian in April 2016 at a church in Sha Tin, Hong Kong, entering the Christian fold through the Shouters evangelical movement. Liu emigrated to the United States soon after that.[4]

Views and claims


Anti-Chinese nation

Liu Zhongjing denies China's current mainstream Chinese nationalism (China identity, Chinese people identity, Chinese unification, requirements for territorial integrity), the interpretation of Chinese history by the Nationalist Party of China and the Communist Party of China, anti-Japanese trends in modern times, the Northern Expedition, and revolutionary diplomacy (abolishing all unequal treaties, repossessing the concessions), and the Chinese Communist Party system (Leninist rule). He believe that these have caused great calamities in modern China and in the future[5], and believe that between the First World War and the Second World War, the Chinese Nationalist Party and the Communist Party of China was used and controlled by the Soviet Union, making China as a human shield of the Soviet Union to against Japan, resulting in an unnecessary Second Sino-Japanese War.[6]

Deconstruction of Chinese nation and Han nation

Liu Zhongjing has always stressed that the concept of Chinese nationalism is just as same as Ottomanism (empire super-nationalism), is better to fail. Both these nationalisms want to forcibly unify different ethnic groups into one nation, they are castles in the air. The cost of the success for Chinese nation is relying on and binding to Leninism (only Communist International has the ability to invent China, if Chinese reject the Communist International, they will attribute themselves to nothingness);[7] And even if Han nationalists (pan-cultural nationalism) are willing to abandon land outside China proper, the ambition is still too great. Similar to Slavic nation, German nation, and Latin nation, Han nation should not be unified.[8] He also pointed out that the reason why Chinese nation has fallen into the present is the inevitable result of that Chiang Kai-shek has often compared himself to Kemal, but refused to abandon Ottomanism and invent small nation as Kemal did. If Chiang Kai-shek willing to admit Manchurian independence, willing to abandon the invention of Chinese nation, and willing to invent a Goetian nation, his reign in the five provinces of Jiangdong would be difficult to subvert.

Moreover, the Anti-Chinese actions of Southeast Asia must be attributed to Chinese nationalism, communism, and Leninism. Chinese nationalism makes China believe that all Chinese ethnic people in the world belong to China's government, causing the crisis that Southeast Asia was annexed by China, the dependence of Chinese nationalism on Leninism means that if Southeast Asian countries want to oppose communism, they must oppose Chinese.[9]


Fellah theory

Liu Zhongjing believes that the Imperial Empire that began with Qin dynasty belonged to the Fellah nation. The Fellah Empires actually have only population, not nation. People do not live in their own community city-state, but live naked under the administrative power of the imperial bureaucracy. The Fellah empire feared locality, so it turns the area outside the capital into provinces, uses the county system to format places. The more people who have survived in the Fellahization state, the more primitive qualities they have forgotten.[10][11][12][13]






Liu Zhongjing believes that "nukelogy" is equivalent to God's justice and advocates to "nuke" the east from Xi'an.[no citations needed here]


Views on the First Opium War

Liu Zhongjing thinks that the First Opium War "It is not the British initiative to expand, it is the result of in the process of maintaining free trades, the British have been forced to administer judicial arbitration in countries that are really unruly. In general, the mistakes made by those rulers infringe private property and seizure foreign property, or bankrupt because of squandering waste, cause implicated in foreign business, unable to afford debts, etc."[14]



Prediction of "the Great Flood"


Comments on ISIS

Defense of Japanese war crimes



Inside the People's Republic of China

Xu Jilin (professor of East China Normal University) on The Beijing News: The student who just passed the 30 years old is a rare geek, a crazy scholar, and read this book, deeply shocked. His great knowledge and understanding of the ancient, the modern, Chinese and Western, is a rare genius in today's academic circles.[18]

Li Erke (freelance writer) on Southern Metropolis Daily: It should be acknowledged that his (Liu Zhongjing's) reading, memory and amazing association seem to be blameless, but factual error, lack of thought, just peddling the combination of (pseudo) Western centralism, (pseudo) England conservatism, (pseudo) Spengler-style civilization seasons, the (pseudo) new world order, (pseudo) Gongyang Zhuan, etc. A political philosophy called "small community" backed by virtue, via "scientific path" and "grass ash line".[19] The so-called controversy caused by Liu Zhongjing did not actually enter the field of vision of specific historical issues in the study of professional historiography. In essence, a political gesture. The reason why he popular is because the main controversial positions and methods are rough, but the scholars with deep thoughts are unable to fully express their views for various reasons.[20]

Zhang Yaojie (researcher of Chinese National Academy of Arts) on Yuehaifeng: There are two articles that are solid and rigorous, giving a good impression, but (Liu Zhongjing) refused to give a minimum of hard work in the examination and excavation, but only opportunistic interpretation via the classical Chinese with half-literal and half-vernacular, which Guo Tingyi and other senior historians have already explained clearly and directly, and the words are not satisfactory. Then, with the addition of the traditional Chinese Yijing and push-back styles, the guessing and fortune-telling thing goes down, and "this is right and wrong, and that is also right and wrong"-ish slogan to shock people, surprisingly winning.[21]

Yu Shicun (Chinese poet from the Department of Chinese Language and Literature of Peking University) on ifeng: Not only Wang Yi, Li Yingqiang, even Liu Zhongjing believed in Christianity, but also went to the United States. Liu Zhongjing has a great knowledge and charm in the group of young intellectuals. But his way of life and behavior proves that these people have not found something to live in... and in the process of recognizing this way of life, they also have to produce creativity, which is the most important.[22]

Disputes of translation works

David (Douban Netizen) wrote a 20,000-word article entitled Shame Yan Fu, offend Hume: A Comment on Liu Zhongjing's Translation of The History of England, complaints to the translator Liu's low level of English, poor historical literacy, frivolous translation attitude, and numerous wrong names. David said this book that letting Hume often recall in the late years, was famous together with The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon and The History of Scotland by William Robertson, can be called great work of the 18th century "philosophy history", was ruined by Chinese translation.[23]

For another work, The Ideals of the East by Liu Zhongjing, scholar Liu Zheng published an article in Southern Weekend saying that the language of the translation is dry and powerless (just unimportant), the important matter is too many mistakes. The translator's English vocabulary is rushed, and often misunderstood the original intention, he has not been able to extract useful ingredients from the succinct Japanese-to-English translation for enhancing his translations. As a result, the mistakes of people names and places names are everywhere.[24]

June 29, 2017, Southern Weekend published the article The Dreamer Ayn Rand and the "strange people" Liu Zhongjing by Tian Fangmeng (lecturer at Beijing Normal University). On July 4th, it published Sampling Report of Liu Zhongjing's Ayn Rand Biography on its app. In two articles, Tian Fangmeng used the investigation principle of social science to conduct a sample test on Liu Zhongjing's text of Ayn Rand Biography which published in 2015. He pointed out that Liu Zhongjing used his own style to abbreviate and rewrite Anne Heller's Ayn Rand and the World She Made, suspected of plagiarism.[25] Template:Cquote


Liang Jing (political commentator) on Radio Free Asia: A global perspective and an eloquent historical analysis, subtly criticizing the historical view of the Great Unification. There are many wonderful high theories, showing his talents, rare academic honesty and courage. However, Liu's history theory and view, like Lee Teng-hui's "Chinese 7-block theory", can mislead the Chinese people. Liu underestimated the vitality of the culture of the Great Unification, and I could not accept Liu's "destiny tendency". However, if honest scholars like Liu Zhongjing can continue to be tolerated, even encouraged, they will increase hope. By rediscovering history, the Chinese will gain imagination to create the future.[26]

Zhou Xian (Hong Kong financial commentator) on Ming Pao: Liu Zhongjing is the most admired folk historian in recent years. Many people disagree with Liu Zhongjing's bold historical view and think that there are many mistakes. But... a person with so many new insights, if 30% of his opinions are correct, it's already great.[27]

Literary works

[no citations needed here]



  • The Causes and Outcomes of Events during the Republic of China: 1911-1949, 2013
  • From Huaxia to China, 2014
  • Ayn Rand: Biography and Ideas, 2015
  • Classic and History: Historical Construct in the Huaxia World, 2015
  • Foresights and Hindsights: Ideas, Patterns and Traditions, 2015
  • The Fallen of Modern History (volume of Late Qing and Beiyang): Liu Zhongjing comments on modern people, 2016
  • The Fallen of Modern History (volume of KMT and CCP): Liu Zhongjing comments on modern people, 2016
  • The Clues of the Far East: the Input of Western Order and the Evolution of China, 2017
  • China Depression: a Brief History of Inner Asia Leading East Asia, 2017
  • The Fallen of Modern History (volume of Literati in the Republic of China), 2018


  1. "William Liu | 劉仲敬 (@LiuZhongjing) | Twitter". 2016-12-20. 
  2. "Internet gossip: Liu Zhongjing has run the road to the United States (網傳劉仲敬跑路美利堅)". 牆外樓. 2016-04-05. 
  3. "A Brief Discussion on Liu Zhongjing's Phenomenon (略論劉仲敬現象)". 
  4. "Liu Zhongjing: Newborn (新生)". 
  5. Liu Zhongjing (2016-08-31). "The ashes of civilization - China's position in the world (文明的灰燼——中國在世界上的位置)".劉仲敬-文明的灰燼-中國在世界上的位置-35d74fae4d09. 
  6. Liu Zhongjing (2016-11-29). "The game of the Far East in the 20th century - Japan and the Soviet Union (Part I) | 二十世紀遠東的博弈——日本與蘇聯(一)".二十世紀遠東的博弈-日本與蘇聯-一-9b43c6f9eaa5. 
  7. Liu Zhongjing (2017-01-18). "Communist International and Chinese nation (共產國際與中華民族)".共產國際與中華民族-c1dd8aa692a7. 
  8. Liu Zhongjing (2018-01-29). "Classification of Nation Invention (民族發明分類學)".民族發明分類學-becac22fddfd. 
  9. Liu Zhongjing (2017-10-31). "East Asian Nationality Construction under the Pattern of Internationalism (Part II) | 國際主義格局下的東亞民族構建(下)".國際主義格局下的東亞民族構建-下-9c2125a0b81. 
  10. Liu Zhongjing (2017-11-15). "Strive to move on or fall behind (不進則退學)".不進則退學-2111908906ee. 
  11. Liu Zhongjing (2017-02-15). "A little life experience: how to rule China and benefit the world (一點人生經驗:如何統治中國和造福世界)".一點人生的經驗-如何統治中國和造福世界-624ddd57506f. 
  12. "姨:費拉的性格是欺軟怕硬而且能力很差,匪諜習慣依靠這種人。他們的地位就是小推車農民工,沒有工資和軍餉,送到朝鮮去消耗美國人的子彈。如果你心軟不肯打,他就贏...".夏格明/posts/325ikLSJEb1. 
  13. "[Special How to deal the Fellah around you? - Aunt teaches you life experience (Part I) |【特典】身邊都是費拉怎麼辦?——阿姨教你人生經驗(一)"]. 
  14. "Liu Zhongjing: Concise East Asian History in the 20th Century (簡明20世紀東亞史)". 牆外樓. 
  15. Liu Zhongjing (2016-11-27). "諸亞與諸夏".諸亞與諸夏-e8748e3b7633. 
  16. 諸夏文化傳播協會 (2017-02-12). "Cathaysianism Foreword (諸亞與諸夏發刊詞)".諸亞與諸夏發刊詞-8829ca4e267e. 
  17. "Auntie's trip to Beijing and secret cheats (阿姨北京之行秘傳心法要義)". 牆外樓. 
  18. "Uncertain history? (不確定的歷史?)". 
  19. 李爾克 (2015-11-15). "How does a "prophet" make people judge? (有一種「先知」讓人如何評判?)". 
  20. 李爾克 (2015-11-15). "Liu Zhongjing's three faces (劉仲敬的三個面相)". 
  21. 張耀傑. "Liu Zhongjing's flaw and exaggeration (劉仲敬的硬傷與浮誇)". Yuehaifeng (粵海風2015年06期). 
  22. 余世存 (2016-05-30). "Readers who reading and doing differently, can mostly be regarded as cultural crimping (知行不一的讀書人頂多算文化掮客)". 
  23. David (2014-08-10). "Shame Yan Fu, offend David Hume (羞煞嚴復,氣煞休謨)". Douban. 
  24. 劉錚 (2017-07-25). "這樣的岡倉天心譯本要不得". 
  25. "國內思想週報:劉仲敬被控抄襲、鼓浪嶼申遺成功". 2017-07-10. 
  26. 梁京 (2014-08-19). "發現歷史與創造未來". 
  27. 周顯 (2016-11-17). "炒股理由都是吹出來". 

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