Supporters and Opposers of Iran Nuclear Deal

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The Iran deal, more formally known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, was created and signed by Iran and the P5+1(United States, France, Russia, Great Britain, Germany, and China) on July 14, 2015 in Vienna. Ultimately, the Iran deal prompted a strongly mixed reaction from leaders around the world:while supporters, such as US President Barack Obama, Iran President Hassan Rouhani, most 2016 Democratic Presidential contenders, and several world leaders (mainly from Europe, Asia, the United States, and the Middle East) largely hail the deal as an important milestone, opposers of the Iran deal, including several Republican Senators, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, AIPAC, and Citizens for a Nuclear Free Iran largely criticize the deal.

Supporters of the deal argue that the deal includes no better alternative, proves the United States is capable of making international agreements, guarantees that Iran cannot obtain a nuclear bomb, inspects the Iranian nuclear agencies, prevents Iran from producing highly enriched uranium, reduces the power of the Iranian nuclear program, enhances the ability to deal with Iran on other issues, such as with Middle Eastern stability, and helps the United States deal with Iran's nuclear program.[1] However, New York Senator Chuck Schumer notes that Iran can still pursue a nuclear bomb after the 10 year waiting period, that the "snapback sanctions provision if Iran cheats is too weak, and that the Iran nuclear inspections regime is too weak.[2] Indeed, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu says that the Iran deal "[risks] a catastrophic Middle East war," and the money Tehran receives from the deal can also fund efforts to destabilize regional conflicts.[3]

Provisions of Iran Deal

Template:Further The following details the contents of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action signed by Iran and the P5+1 countries in Lausanne, Switzerland and in Vienna:

  1. Iran will have to reduce its total number of centrifuges from ~19,000 down to 6,104. 5,060 of the remaining centrifuges can enrich uranium over the next 10 years.[4]
  2. For 15 years, Iran can enrich uranium up to 3.67%, build no new uranium enrichment facilities, and reduce its current stockpile of 10,000 kg of low-enriched uranium down to 300 kg.[4]
  3. For at least 10 years, the amount of time Iran can acquire the material needed to build a nuclear weapon in ("breakout time") extends from 2–3 months to 1 year.[4]
  4. The Fordow nuclear reactor will stop enriching uranium for at least 15 years, and will not have fissile material;however, it can keep 1,000 older centrifuges.[4]
  5. In addition, the Fordow nuclear facility, located underground, will turn into a research center for Iranian and world scientists.[5]
  6. Iran can continue its R&D on enrichment, but it will have to rebuild its heavy water reactor in Arak (the only site in Iran capable of starting production on weapons-grade plutonium[5]) and reduce the number of centrifuges at its nuclear facilities, but continue to keep the nuclear facilities.[4]
  7. The International Atomic Energy Agency has the right to inspect Iran's facilities, including that of Parchin to prevent military-related developments.[4]
  8. After the IAEA and the United Nations confirms that Iran has took key steps to prevent a nuclear bomb, the sanctions will be lifted. If there are violations, the sanctions will snap back into place.[4]

Supporters of Iran Nuclear Deal

Template:Further

Reasons Behind Iran Deal Support

The various politicians and celebrities listed here support the deal because of the following:

  1. Since the United States has not had a bilateral agreement with Iran since 1979, the Iran deal will provide grounds for the United States to develop better ties with Iran[6]
  2. The Iran deal is verifiable and is the better option the United Nations has to avoid war in the Middle East.[7]
  3. The Iran deal contains strong provisions to make sure that Iran keeps its promise to not build a nuclear bomb, including a "snapback" sanctions provision and consistent inspections by the IAEA.[8][9]
  4. The Iran deal can improve American and Israeli national security and can prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear bomb in the process.[10]
  5. The Iran deal can improve Middle Eastern and global security as well.[10]
  6. The United States can retain its credibility on the world stage by accepting the Iran deal with open arms.[10]
  7. Countless foreign countries benefit from the lifting of sanctions, leading to more foreign investment in Iran, which can in turn improve the respective countries' and Iran's economies.[11]

United States

Executive Officers

Senators

US Representatives

US Ambassadors

Scientists

Military Officials

Interest Groups

Celebrities

Iran

Israel security experts

Other countries

North America and South America

Europe

Middle East

North Africa

Asia and Oceania

United Nations and International Organizations

Opposers of Iran Nuclear Deal

Template:Further

Reasons Behind Iran Deal Opposition

The various politicians and celebrities listed here oppose the deal because of the following:

  1. The Iran deal still allows Iran to obtain a nuclear bomb after its expiration 10 years later, just like the North Korea Nuclear Deal in 1994, in which North Korea still managed to explode a nuclear bomb after the deal had expired.[105]
  2. The Iran deal erodes Middle Eastern, American, and Israeli security.[105]
  3. Iran can still cheat the deal, which makes the deal meaningless in retrospect.[105]
  4. The Iran deal gives Khamenei's government legitimacy, which minimizes the effect of sanctions on the Iranian government in general, thus giving the Iranian government increased influence in the global stage.[105]
  5. The Iran deal can cause a nuclear arms race in the Middle East.[105]

United States

Executive Officers

Senators

US Representatives

Interest Groups

Scientists

Celebrities

Iran

Other Countries

Public Opinion on Iran Deal

Template:Further

United States

The deal's support by the American public has varied widely from poll to poll, reflecting the way the polling firms asked whether the American public approves of the deal or not. Interestingly, for polls that provided little information about the deal, support for the deal ties strongly with approval of US President Barack Obama. However, for polls with more information about the deal, support for the Iran deal was widely approved. The following lists the results of various polls conducted about the Iran deal:[65][138]

  • According to a Pew Research Center Poll released July 21, 2015, 79% of Americans heard about the Iran deal, and Americans disapprove 38%-48%. In addition 73% do not trust Iranian leaders to uphold the agreement, and 54% do not trust US and international agencies to monitor Iran's compliance either.[139]
  • According to a YouGov Poll taken July 14–16, 2015, the American public supports the deal 43%-30%, but is not confident that it will work 23%-59%. However, Germans approve of the Iran deal 63%-18%, while 24% see Iran as either an ally or friendly state.[140]
  • According to a Public Policy Polling Poll taken July 23–24, 2015, Americans approve of the deal 54%-38%, and call on Congress to implement the deal 54%-39%. However, Americans are slightly more likely to vote for their members of Congress in the next election 42%-36%.[141]
  • According to a Washington Post/ABC Poll taken July 16–19, 2015, American voters approve of the deal 56%-37%, but are not confident 35%-64% that it would prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear bomb.[142]
  • According to an LA Jewish Journal Poll taken July 20–24, 2015, Jewish voters support the deal 48%-28%, and say 47%-41% that the Iran deal will make the Middle East more stable. However, American voters approve of the deal 28%-24%, with 48% expressing no opinion, and say 28%-50% that the deal will make the Middle East less stable.[143]
  • According to a second Economist/YouGov Poll taken July 18–20, 2015, American voters support the deal 51%-33%, and want their Senators to support it 45%-27%;however, they view Iran unfavorably 6%-76%.[144]
  • According to a Quinnipiac Poll taken July 23–28, 2015, American voters disapprove of the deal 28%-57% and say 58%-30% that it will make the world less safe.[145]
  • According to a Wall Street Journal/NBC Poll taken in July 2015, the American public backs the deal 35%-32%, while 33% have no opinion. Support is staggered along political party lines:Democrats approve 58%-8%, whereas Republicans disapprove 15%-60% [146]
  • According to a Quinnipiac Poll taken July 30–August 4 in New York City, New York City voters oppose the Iran deal 43%-36%, and say 42%-40% that the world will be less safe because of the deal. Jewish voters oppose it 33%-53% as well, and say 51%-37% that the world will be less safe because of it. Therefore, NYC voters back Senator Chuck Schumer, who once represented a largely Democratic portion of the city, on his opposition.[147]

Iran

  • According to a University of Maryland Poll taken May 12–28, 2015, 57% of Iranians support the deal, whereas 15% opposed it.[148]
  • According to a PAAIA Poll conducted May 20–31, 2015, 64% of Iranian Americans support the Iran deal, and 8 in 10 say it will improve relations with the West.[149]
  • According to a Government Poll released August 6, 2015, 80%-88% of Iranians support the Iran deal, whereas 4% oppose it.[150]

Israel

  • According to a Jerusalem Post taken July 15, 2015, 93% of Jewish Israelis said that the deal will endanger Israel.[151]

References

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  2. Jennifer Steinhauer and Jonathan Weisman (August 6, 2015). "Chuck Schumer Opposes Iran Nuclear Deal, Shaking Democratic Firewall". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/07/us/politics/schumer-says-he-will-oppose-iran-nuclear-deal.html?_r=0. Retrieved August 11, 2015. 
  3. Louise Ireland (August 4, 2015). "Israel's Netanyahu asks U.S. Jews to oppose Iran nuclear deal". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/08/04/us-iran-nuclear-israel-usa-idUSKCN0Q925Y20150804. Retrieved August 11, 2015. 
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