European diaspora

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Template:Infobox ethnic group The European diaspora consists of European emigration and their descendants who emigrated from Europe and played a key role, particularly in the Americas and Australia.[1][2]

From 1815 to 1932, 60 million people left Europe (with many returning home), primarily to "areas of European settlement" in the Americas (especially to the United States, Canada, Argentina and Brazil), Australia, New Zealand and Siberia.[3] These populations also multiplied rapidly in their new habitat; much more so than the populations of Africa and Asia. As a result, on the eve of World War I, 38% of the world’s total population was of European ancestry.[3]

Magnitude and Scale of Emigration

The discovery of the Americas in 1492 stimulated a steady stream of voluntary migration from Europe. About 200,000 Spaniards settled in their American colonies prior to 1600, a small settlement compared to the 3 to 4 million Amerindians who lived in Spanish territory in the Americas but then it grew the number of Spanish immigrants in addition to other European population of Romance language (French and Italian). In Brazil the European emigration remained very small in the first two centuries of colonization: between 1500 and 1700, only 100,000 Portuguese settled there. However, the development of the mining economy in the 18th century raised the wages and employment opportunities in the Portuguese colony and the emigration grew: in the 18th century alone, about 600,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, a mass emigration given that Portugal had a population of only 2 million people. In North America the immigration was dominated by British, Irish and other Northern Europeans.[4]

Post-independence emigration

Mass European emigration to the Americas happened in the 19th and 20th centuries. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars until 1920, some 60 million Europeans (and 10 million Asians) emigrated. Of these, 71% went to North America, 21% to Latin America (mainly Argentina and Brazil) and 7% to Australia. About 11 million of these people went to Latin America, of whom 38% were Italians, 28% were Spaniards and 11% were Portuguese.[5]

Between 1821 and 1880, 9.5 million Europeans settled in the United States, mainly Germans and Irish. Other waves included British and Scandinavian people. Despite the large number of immigrants arriving, people born outside of the United States formed a relatively small number of U.S. population: in 1910, foreigners were 14.7% of the country's population. Nothing similar to what happened in Argentina, which was the American country where immigrants had a larger impact in the ethnic composition. By 1914, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, with 12% of its population born in Italy, the largest immigrant group. Next was Canada: by 1881, 14% of Canada's population was foreign-born, and the proportion increased to 22% in 1921. In Brazil the proportion of immigrants in the national population was much smaller, and immigrants tended to be concentrated in the central and Southern parts of the country. The proportion of foreigners in Brazil peaked in 1920, with just 7%, mostly Italians, Portuguese, and Spaniards.[4] In 1901–1920 immigration was responsible for only 7 percent of Brazilian population growth but in the years of high immigration, 1891–1900, the share was as high as 30 percent (higher than Argentina's 26% in the 1880s).[6]

The countries in the Americas that received a major wave of European immigrants from the mid-1800s to the mid-1900s were: the United States (32.6 million), Argentina (6.5 million), Canada (5.1 million), Brazil (4.4 million), Cuba (1.4 million), Uruguay (713,000).[7] Other countries received a more modest immigration flow (accounting for less than 10% of total European emigration to Latin America) were: Mexico (270,000), Colombia (126,000), Chile (90,000), Puerto Rico (62,000), Peru (30,000), and Paraguay (21,000).[7][6]

Immigration arrivals in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

Destination Years Arrivals Reference
Template:Flagicon United States 1821–1932 32,244,000 [8]
Template:Flagicon Argentina 1856–1932 6,405,000 [8]
Template:Flagicon Canada 1831–1932 5,206,000 [8]
Template:Flagicon Brazil 1821–1932 4,431,000 [8]
Template:Flagicon Australia 1821–1932 2,913,000 [8]
Template:Flagicon Cuba 1901–1931 857,000 [8]
Template:Flagicon South Africa 1881–1932 852,000 [8]
Template:Flagicon Uruguay 1836–1932 713,000 [8]
Template:Flagicon New Zealand 1821–1932 594,000 [8]
Template:Flagicon Mexico 1911–1931 226,000 [8]

Present population data

Country
Continent or region
(Recent)
% of total population
Population in
(thousands & millions)
Template:H:title Template:Abbr
North America N/D 279.6m
Template:Flagicon Costa Rica 82.7% 3.8 Lizcano3 [9]
Template:Flagicon Canada 76.7% 25.1 2011 Census [10]
Template:Flagicon Puerto Rico (U.S.) 75.8% 2.8 2010 Census [11]
Template:Flagicon United States 72.4% 223.5 2010 Census [12]
Template:Flagicon Saint Barthélemy (Fr) - - - -
Template:Flagicon Cuba 64.1% 7.2 2012 Census [13]
Template:Flagicon Bermuda (UK) 31.0% 19,938 2010 Census [14]
Template:Flagicon Guatemala 18% 2.4 INE 2010 [15]
Template:Flagicon Nicaragua 17.0% 1 WFB2 [16]
Template:Flagicon Dominican Republic 13.6% or 16% 2.0 2006, WFB1 [17]
Template:Flagicon U.S. Virgin Islands (U.S.) 15.6% 16,646 2010 Census [18]
Template:Flagicon Panama 6.7% est. - 2010 WFB2 [19]
Template:Flagicon Mexico 9% or 15% 10.8 or 16.8 WFB2, Lizcano3 [9][20]
Template:Flagicon El Salvador 12.7% 0.7 2007 Census [21]
Template:Flagicon Turks and Caicos (UK) 7.90% 1,562 2001 Census [22]
Template:Flagicon Virgin Islands (UK) 6.90% - 2001 Census [23]
Template:Flagicon The Bahamas 5.0% 16,598 2010 Census [24]
Template:Flagicon Anguilla (UK) 3.2% 431 2011 Census [25]
Template:Flagicon Barbados 2.7% 6,135 2010 Census [26]
Template:Flagicon St. Vincent 1.4% 1,478 2001 Census [27]
South America N/D 173.5m
Template:Flagicon Uruguay 87.7% 2.8 2011 Census [28]
Template:Flagicon Argentina 85% 34.6 WFB1, Lizcano3 [9][29][30]
Template:Flagicon Chile 52.7% 9.1 Lizcano3 [9]
Template:Flagicon Brazil 47.7% 91.0 2010 Census [31]
Template:Flagicon Venezuela 42.2% 11.9 2011 Census [32]
Template:Flagicon Colombia 37.0% 17 2010 study est [33][34]
Template:Flagicon Paraguay 20.0% 1.3 Lizcano3 [9]
Template:Flagicon Peru 6.0% or 15% 4.5 2012 ENAHO, WFB2 [35][36]
Template:Flagicon Ecuador 6.1% 1.3 2010 Census [37]
Template:Flagicon Bolivia 5.0% - WFB2 [38]
Australia and Oceania N/D 22,983,042
Template:Flagicon Australia 90.0% 20 2006 Census [39][40]
Template:Flagicon New Zealand 74.0% 2.9 2013 Census [41]
Template:Flagicon New Caledonia (Fr) 29.2% 71,721 2009 Census [42]
Template:Flagicon Guam (U.S.) 7.10% 11,321 2010 Census [43]
Template:Flagicon Northern Mariana Islands (U.S.) 2.4% 1,117 2010 Census [44]
Africa N/D 4.6m
Template:Flagicon South Africa 8.9% 4.5 2011 Census [45]
Template:Flagicon Namibia 4.0% or 7.0% 75-100,000 est. [46]
^2 CIA The World Factbook.
^3 Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XX by Francisco Lizcano Fernández.

The number above refer to those who self-described as white in the census. Exclude those who self describe as mixed race with European descent such as mestizo and mulatto.

By region

Nations and regions outside of Europe with significant populations of European ancestry:[47]

Map of percentage of people with European ancestry, showing the European diaspora. (The map is based on data from this article: European diaspora, censuses and articles quoted in the file description.)

Africa

Template:Main article Template:Further

About 0-1 percent of the populations in Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone, usually are in the professional business elites. Not limited to Europeans, the "white" population includes Arab peoples: Lebanese and Syrians.[53]

Asia

Template:Further

Small communities of European, white American and white Australian expatriates live in East and Southeast Asia, such as China, Japan, South Korea, Thailand and Singapore.

Small communities of European, white American and white Australian expatriates in the Persian Gulf countries like Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the UAE; and in Aramco compounds in Saudi Arabia. Historically before 1970, small ethnic European (esp. Greek and Italian) enclaves were found in Egypt (Greeks in Egypt, Italian Egyptians) and Syria (Greeks in Syria).

Americas

Template:Further Template:Euromericas Total European population in the Americas—approximately 446,394,000

Europeans in Northern America

Europeans in Latin America and the Caribbean

  • Middle America (including Central America and the Caribbean) and South America (see White Latin American) -- Total European population approximately 197,094,000
    • Template:Flag – 79% of the population or 38,900,000, may include an unknown percentage of mestizos and mulattos.[81] Other sources[82] put 86.4% of the population as white, with a higher number of mestizos.
    • Template:Flag (European Bahamian) – 12% of the population or 39,600, the majority are African or other races.[83]
    • Template:Flag (White Barbadian) – 4% of the population or 11,238, it's thought to be the highest of all British West Indies islands.[84]
    • Template:Flag – 34.1% of the population or 23,064, with a black or part-white/black majority.[85]
    • Template:Flag – 15% of the population or 1,636,000, the country except for Paraguay and Ecuador have the lowest white populations of South America.[86]
    • Template:Flag (White Brazilian) – 49.7% of the population or 93,000,000. Another 42.6% are pardos of mixed White, African and/or Amerindian descent (showed by genetic research to be of predominant European ancestry). Afro-Brazilians by genetical research showed to be of about 37.1% European ancestry (the majority inherited by colonial or Imperial times and of Portuguese origin). Some people of claimed Asian and Indigenous origin can also have European descent.[87]
    • Template:Flag – 52.7% (9,100,000) is white in Chile.[88]
    • Template:Flag – 86% of the population are (white Colombian) or part white (mestizo or mulatto).[89][90]
    • Template:Flag – up to 90% white and/or mestizo (European and Amerindian descent); 80-85% is white and 10-15% mestizo, or 3,827,000 (3,400,000 and 427,000).[91]
    • Template:Flag – 64.1% of the population or 7,160,399[13]
    • Template:Flag – 16% of the population or 1,655,959 is white and an additional 73% are mulatto or 7,555,311. In total, 89% of the Dominican population is either fully or partially of European ancestry.[92]
    • Template:Flag – 6% of the population or 940,000, while 72% are mestizos.[93]
    • Template:Flag – 9% of the population or 720,000, but the remainder 90% have some European ancestry.[94]
    • Template:Flag – 12% of the population or 26,000, but the French government insists all citizens of France regardless of race are "French".[95]
    • Template:Flag 18% of the population or 2,490,000 people.
    • Template:Flag – 4% of the population in Haiti are white and mulatto (both African and European ancestry) and 1% European, or 97,000. White Haitians are chiefly of French, Italian, or German origin not including Middle Eastern & North American whites. This figure excludes the percentage of Haitians with less than noticeable European admixture.
    • Template:Flag – Approximately 2% of the population or 40,000 people are White, mainly British, American, and Portuguese (This number increases to 60,000 people and 3% of the total population when Arabs and Lebanese are included). However, the vast majority of the population in Jamaica have some degree of European Ancestry.[96]
    • Template:Flag – 2% of the population or 8,000, with another 3% mulatto descent.[97]
    • Template:Flag[98] (White Mexican) – About 16.5% of the population European or about 20,160,000, and an additional 70% of mixed European and Amerindian descent[99][20][100]
    • Template:Flag – 17% of the population or 1,000,000 people, and 69% mestizo.[101]
    • Template:Flag 14.0% of the population is White of European origin or 352,000 people, 58.1% mestizo, 7% mulatto, 6.7% Amerindian, 5.5% Asian, and 7.1% other (2000 Census).
    • Template:Flag 75.8% of the population or 3,620,897 self identify as having European ancestry. 12.4% is of black or African-American ancestry and 8.5% are of other ancestry, including American Indian. 3.3% identify as mixed.[102]
    • Template:Flag (European Peruvian) – 15% of the population or 3,425,000, about 40% mestizo or partial European descent.[103]
    • Template:Flag – Surinamese Creoles, mixed people descending from West African slaves and mostly Dutch Europeans, form 15.7 percent of the population.
    • Template:Flag – 1.7% of European descent or 24,600, mainly British, Spanish, French, German, and Portuguese, with a number of Scandinavian descent, although 30-40% have East Indian or 5% are Lebanese/Syrian Arab backgrounds.[104]
    • Template:Flag (white Venezuelan) – 42,2% of the population or 11,490,018, about 49,9% are part white (mestizo or partial European descent.) making it 92,1% of the population white and/or mestizo (European and Amerindian descent) or 25,076,755.[105]
    • Template:Flag – 88% of the population or 3,074,000, the rest have various levels of European descent.[106]
    • Template:Flag—90% or 7,940; Saint Martin (Statistics not available).[107]
    • Template:Flag, 100% European of British descent—total population 3,140.

The Virgin Islands divided between U.S. Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands, each have a small European minority.

Oceania

Template:Main article

  • Oceania -- Total population of Europeans in Oceania is approximately 23,185,000 or approximately 22,818,000 excluding Hawaii.
    • Template:Flag (European Australian) – 93.2% of the population or 20,299,000 people. People of aboriginal extraction number about 548,400, of which approximately 60,000 can speak Australian languages or Kriol.[108]
    • Template:Flag (New Zealand European) – 59.1% of the population or 2,361,000, plus some Māori of mixed white-European descent.
    • Template:Flag (Caldoche) – 44.6% of the population or about 112,050; the territory is under French rule.
    • Template:Flag – 10% of the population (mostly French with some white Americans) or 26,700, and 6 to 8% are Euronesian (part white-Polynesian).[109]
    • Template:Flag – Europeans are 27.1% of the population (2008 survey) or 367,000 (called Haoles), although 65% of all Hawaiians have white-European descent.
    • Template:Flag – 10% of the population have Spanish and white American descent (2000 Census) or about 17,800 people. Guam has a history of Spanish settlement before 1900, now a U.S. territory.[110]
    • Template:Flag, about 50% British-Polynesian from Pitcairn Island (1,070 people) and 50% white-British descent mainly via Australia (1,070 people).

Contemporary European diasporas

Template:Further Template:Columns-list

Potential emigrants

According to a 2010 Gallup study, an estimated 80 million adults in the European Union would prefer to emigrate if given free choice. About half of these would migrate to another country within the EU. The remaining 40 million have a desired destination outside of the EU, about 14 million would migrate to North America (USA or Canada), and 9 million to Australia or New Zealand.[111]

See also

References

  1. " To Make America": European Emigration in the Early Modern Period edited by Ida Altman, James P. P. Horn (Page: 3 onwards)
  2. The European Diaspora in Australia: An Interdisciplinary Perspective edited by Bruno Mascitelli, Sonia Mycak, Gerardo Papalia
  3. 3.0 3.1 "European Migration and Imperialism". Archived from the original on 2010-11-22. https://web.archive.org/web/20101122193228/http://historydoctor.net/Advanced%20Placement%20European%20History/Notes/european_migration_and_imperiali.htm. Retrieved 2013-09-14. "The population of Europe entered its third and decisive stage in the early eighteenth century. Birthrates declined, but death rates also declined as the standard of living and advances in medical science provided for longer life spans. The population of Europe including Russia more than doubled from 188 million in 1800 to 432 million in 1900. From 1815 through 1932, sixty million people left Europe, primarily to "areas of European settlement," in North and South America, Australia, New Zealand and Siberia. These populations also multiplied rapidly in their new habitat; much more so than the populations of Africa and Asia. As a result, on the eve of World War I (1914), 38 percent of the world’s total population was of European ancestry. This growth in population provided further impetus for European expansion, and became the driving force behind emigration. Rising populations put pressure on land, and land hunger and led to "land hunger." Millions of people went abroad in search of work or economic opportunity. The Irish, who left for America during the great Potato famine, were an extreme but not unique example. Ultimately, one third of all European migrants came from the British Isles between 1840 and 1920. Italians also migrated in large numbers because of poor economic conditions in their home country. German migration also was steady until industrial conditions in Germany improved when the wave of migration slowed. Less than one half of all migrants went to the United States, although it absorbed the largest number of European migrants. Others went to Asiatic Russia, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand." 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Boris Fautos – Fazer a América: a imigração em massa para a América Latina."
  5. Marília D. Klaumann Cánovas (2004). "A GRANDE IMIGRAÇÃO EUROPÉIA PARA O BRASIL E O IMIGRANTE ESPANHOL NO CENÁRIO DA CAFEICULTURA PAULISTA: ASPECTOS DE UMA (IN)VISIBILIDADE" (in pt) (PDF). cchla.ufpb.br. http://www.cchla.ufpb.br/saeculum/saeculum11_art08_canovas.pdf. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Blanca Sánchez-Alonso (2005). "European Immigration into Latin America, 1870-1930" (PDF). docentes.fe.unl.pt. http://docentes.fe.unl.pt/~satpeg/PapersInova/Labor%20and%20Immigration%20in%20LA-2005.pdf. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Baily, Samuel L.; Míguez, Eduardo José, eds. (2003) (in English). Mass Migration to Modern Latin America. Wilmington, Delaware, United States of America. p. 14. ISBN 0-8420-2831-5. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=NZQxkfvMJFgC&lpg=PR14&hl=es&pg=PA14#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 Samuel L. Baily; Eduardo José Míguez (2003). Mass Migration to Modern Latin America. Rowman & Littlefield. p. xiv. ISBN 978-0-8420-2831-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=NZQxkfvMJFgC&pg=PR14. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Francisco Lizcano Fernández (2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). UAEM. p. 218. http://convergencia.uaemex.mx/rev38/38pdf/LIZCANO.pdf. 
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Ancestry in Canada
  11. "Puerto Rico: People; Ethnic groups". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. https://web.archive.org/web/20110531035849/http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/. Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  12. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named c2010
  13. 13.0 13.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named one.cu
  14. "Bermuda: 2010 Census of Population & Housing Final Results" (PDF). Bermuda Department of Statistics. December 2011. Archived from the original on 28 February 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130228051323/http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sources/census/2010_phc/bermuda/Bermuda_new.pdf. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  15. INE- Caracterización estadística República de Guatemala 2012 Retrieved, 2015/04/17.
  16. "Nicaragua: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nu.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  17. "D.R.: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/dr.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  18. 2010 Census U.S. Virgin Islands: Race
  19. "Panama: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pm.html#People. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Mexico: People; Ethnic groups
  21. "El Salvador: Censos de Población 2007" (in es) (PDF). digestyc.gob.sv. 2008. p. 13. http://www.digestyc.gob.sv/servers/redatam/htdocs/CPV2007S/Docs/RESULTADOS_FINALES.pdf. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  22. Turks and Caicos 2001 Census (Page: 22)
  23. National Population Census Report 2001, The British Virgin Islands Percentage Distribution of Population by Ethnic Group, Intercensal Change and Sex, 1991 and 2001 White/Caucasian 6.80% + Portuguese 0.10%.
  24. Bahamas 2010 census TOTAL POPULATION BY SEX, AGE GROUP AND RACIAL GROUP "In 1722 when the first official census of The Bahamas was taken, 74% of the population was white and 26% black. Three centuries later, and according to the 99% response rate obtained from the race question on the 2010 Census questionnaire, 91% of the population identified themselves as being black, five percent (5%) white and two percent (2%) of a mixed race (black and white) and (1%) other races and (1%) not stated." (Page: 10 and 82)
  25. Anguilla Population and Housing Census (AP&HC) 2011 Who are we? – Ethnic Composition and Religious Affiliation.
  26. BARBADOS - 2010 POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS Table 02.03: Population by Sex, Age Group and Ethnic Origin (Page: 51-54)
  27. POPULATION, DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUPS (Page:16-17) 1.4% white (608 "Portuguese" and 870 other "white").
  28. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named enha-asc
  29. Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. by David Levinson. Page 313. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998. ISBN 1-57356-019-7
  30. "The World Factbook". cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html. Retrieved 2014-04-12. 
  31. "2010 Brazilian Census" (in pt) (PDF). ibge.gov.br. 2011. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/censo2010/caracteristicas_da_populacao/tabelas_pdf/tab3.pdf. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  32. Resultado Basico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011, (p. 14).
  33. Colombia a country study, 2010 (pag 86,87) Template:En icon
  34. Simon Schwartzman (25 July 2008). "Étnia, condiciones de vida y discriminación". http://www.schwartzman.org.br/simon/coesion_etnia.pdf. Retrieved 2014-07-11. 
  35. ENFOQUE INTERCULTURAL-APORTES PARA LA GESTIÓN PÚBLICA La Encuesta Nacional de Hogares (ENAHO 2012) Page:17.
  36. [1]'Central Intelligence Agency of the United States- (statistics) '
  37. EL UNIVERSO. "Población del país es joven y mestiza, dice censo del INEC". El Universo. http://www.eluniverso.com/2011/09/02/1/1356/poblacion-pais-joven-mestiza-dice-censo-inec.html. Retrieved 17 June 2015. 
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  39. 2006 Census Tables : AustraliaTemplate:Dead link Template:Original research inline
  40. "Australia: Ethnic Groups". Britannica Online for Kids. 2014. http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/article-258656/Australia. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  41. "2013 Census QuickStats about national highlights". Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. https://web.archive.org/web/20140714165128/http://m.stats.govt.nz/Census/2013-census/profile-and-summary-reports/quickstats-about-national-highlights/cultural-diversity. Retrieved 17 June 2015. 
  42. Estimer appartenir à une ou plusieurs communautés 2009 census - New Caledonia according to ethnic group
  43. Guam (Territory of the US) CIA Factbook - based on the 2010 official Census statistics
  44. The Northern Mariana Islands 2010 Census
  45. Census 2011: Census in brief. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. ISBN 9780621413885. http://www.statssa.gov.za/Census2011/Products/Census_2011_Census_in_brief.pdf. Template:Dead link
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  52. Botswana: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  53. 53.0 53.1 Senegal, About 50,000 Europeans (mostly French) and Lebanese reside in Senegal, mainly in the cities.
  54. Swaziland: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  55. Morocco: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  56. Tunisia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  57. "Country – Vietnam :: Joshua Project". joshuaproject.net. http://joshuaproject.net/countries/VM. Retrieved 2014-07-11. 
  58. "Country – India :: Joshua Project". joshuaproject.net. http://joshuaproject.net/countries/IN. Retrieved 2014-07-11. 
  59. "Country – Bangladesh :: Joshua Project". joshuaproject.net. http://joshuaproject.net/countries/BG. Retrieved 2014-07-11. 
  60. "Country – Myanmar (Burma) :: Joshua Project". joshuaproject.net. http://joshuaproject.net/countries/BM. Retrieved 2014-07-11. 
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  62. Fiona Hill, Russia — Coming In From the Cold?, The Globalist, 23 February 2004
  63. Robert Greenall, Russians left behind in Central Asia, BBC News, 23 November 2005.
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  65. Turkmenistan: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
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