Kaze no ryu

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Template:Sources Template:Inline Template:Accuracy Template:COI Template:Infobox koryuKaze no Ryu Bugei is the "wind style military art". It was developed by the people of Shizen village, who inhabited Hokkaido’s forests, in the northern part of Japan (Kamakura Period 1192 A.D. - 1333 A.D.). During that time, the art was called "Uchiu Shizen" which means "domain of the nature and space". Shizen’s origin is linked to the Ainu people,Japan’s true natives, who during centuries had been banished to Japan's North.

Ainu Warrior

Historical records indicate that in 801 A.D. Ainu tribes were defeated in the north by Tamuramaro Sakanoue. The repressed Ainu joined with others who were discontented with the feudal regime, such as Ronin, healers and farmers, who all took refuge in hidden villages in the forest. In direct contact with nature, these people developed their own culture and traditions. There were four villages that formed the Shizen people: Kawa, Yabu, Tayo and Yama.

They developed their own language - "Shizen-go" - and religion - the "O-Chikara" - based on the belief of natures energy, called Tengus.

History

The Bugei taught by the International Bugei Society came from Ogawa Shizen Kay school, descending from the Kawa village. The history affirms that "Kaze no Ryu" was baptized by Yorike Mizuguchi, who was influenced by Iizasa Chōisai Ienao who, as the legend says, received divine inspiration.

"Kaze no Ryu", as well as other styles, were developed through constant technical improvements. They had a belief that cemented their directions and determined their path of development. Although there are some inconsistencies, lineage sources assure that Kaze no Ryu differs from other styles by its strategic capacity, and also the affirmation that the style was divinely inspired.

Bushi brought with them their simple ideas of excellence, a mindset of giving their total obedience to direct superiors, and a fight and die without minor hesitation mentality. These ideas, according to historical records, contrasted with the highly sophisticated and introspective Nara.

These contrasts were solved with the imposition of guns. Many clan aristocrats totally perished and the few noble that survived didn’t bare any influence, and were restricted to represent themselves in an imperial court to the emperor. Also, most of the monasteries and libraries that contained the Heian culture essence (writings, records and works of art) were destroyed.

This brutal style of war was suddenly understandable for most of the population. In multiple small incidents, although with a great social importance, the drama of the mortal confrontation between two men was repeated in history many times, till the point where this particular experience became an intrinsic aspect of the Japanese soul. During the Tokugawa period the traditions of the military class, under an old and continuous culture, strongly reinforced the national character image that the Japanese were naturally a people of war.

The intensity of the struggle and civil conflicts impresses anyone who has had contact with the European war periods. However, for the Japanese, these combat periods were considered normal. The proof of that could be the way Japanese call their country- “Great Land of Peace”, although Edo's streets owned warlike names such as Armor, Helmet, Arc, Arrow etc.

The samurai class had succeeded in complete saturation of the national psyche with a particular interpretation of the national spirit (Yamato-Damashii), imposing their values to the remaining portion of the country, and with historically freezing the period of training and development characterized by the feudalism. However, that can only be evaluated starting at the beginning of the Meiji Period (from the middle of 1868.)

Yorike Mizuguchi, who later changed his name to Manabo Ogawa, was the ancestor of the genealogical tree of the family Ogawa. Yorike was a priest and believed in god’s message as the initial form to a person’s elevation. Later, Manabo was recognized by the priests as a Kokeisha (successor) of the traditional lineage of Kawa village.

It is believed that the adopted name – Ogawa – was without a doubt, an homage to his rebirth in the water of “the small river” where the Kawa village bathed.

Foundations

Long history and complex traditions of the Japanese martial arts are based on a great variety of forms methods and weapons which create all different specializations.

The Japanese martial arts specializations reached their perfection in the feudal era of Japanese history. This period extends for 9 centuries, with the end of the 9th century, to the Meiji Restoration in 1868 when the feudal era was officially over.

Jutsu, made by the idiograms Bu and Jutsu literally means “military technique or military method”. This is the feudal warrior known as the Samurai or Bushi who was always the reference character to always dominate the combat or military aspects, in-turn, Bujutsu was implied to denote “practice and art of the Japanese martiality”. Bujutsu was then the strategy or the functionality of the techniques of war and how these should manage to reach their objectives. Bugei, has the union of Bu which means military and Gei which means art, when put together is the “Art of War”.

Its purpose is not for war these days, even though its ideology is closely related to the traditions of its art, since Bujutsu refers to the real form of war. For this reason, Bugei includes disciplines not only related to Bujutsu for reality and efficacy, but also for the formation of a warrior.

The Bugei or “military art” had its origins in feudal Japan and was studied at that time simply to wage war. It was in the Tokugawa Period that Bugei began to be studied as a way of life, turning itself to education, discipline and ethics. It has been preserved to this day as one of the richest arts being respected because of its philosophy and high level of spiritual evolution of its adepts.

Each specialization of the Japanese martial arts is known by the word jutsu which can be translated as methods, arts or even techniques. Jutsu indicates that there is a standard or characteristic way of executing a proposed action. Usually a jutsu is made of common techniques which were incorporated from other arts, and placed in its own techniques. In the Japanese martial arts the techniques consist of a methodic, symbolic and particular way of handling a weapon.

A very common way of identifying the combat art is through the name of the weapon being used. For example, Kenjutsu means the “the art Jutsu of the sword Ken”. But some arts have the name of its meaning or objective like, Aikijujutsu which means “the art jutsu of the harmony ai of the energy ki. In Aikijujutsu, smoothness is the way of conducting the enemy’s energy while applying the defense of an attack while being firm.

Frequently the combat arts have two specializations, which doing these technical refinements may noticeably vary from the original art, thus creating new arts detaching from the original one.

Inside Bugei, more precisely in the Kaze no Ryu lineage this detachment does not exist, since technique modifications are not permitted. All of the combat arts from this linage must remain faithful to the war traditions.

This explains why all students fall in great regimenting, not being allowed to be reproved in any discipline. Failing in maintaining this exact conduct will result in the student being expelled from the school, and forbidden to practice the art in any schools of the lineage anywhere around the world.

It is true that while some classic arts like Kenjutsu,”sword art”, has had some detachments that were accepted like Iaijutsu, has turned into a new art of the same nobility and complexity.

Finally it is possible to identify arts through the name of its master or through the name of its school.

Modern History

File:Ogawa Ryu Lineage Word 5.pdf
Ogawa Ryu family lineage
DPv2 loves original research.

The Kaze no Ryu Bugei was brought to Brazil by the Ogawa family, descendants of the Kawa village located at Hokkaido, northern Japan.

They disembarked at Portos de Santos, Brazil, in 1935 and moved to Paraná (state) in southern Brazil to live as farmers and began to teach members of that colony the art of Kenjutsu.

There are records that refer to the techniques developed by Hiroshi Ogawa Sensei. So, until the seventies, in Brazil, this lineage was also called Ogawa Ryu. This term was developed because of its efficiency due to the Soke. It is possible then to notice differences between Bujutsu which means the real form of war and the Brazilian Kaze no Ryu.

Ogawa Sensei taught the Koryu Seitegata, but his true passion was the real form of war. Ogawa Sensei had many personal problems with his original country which failed to recognize his competence and intelligence for 15 years. After his recognition, the Brazilian colony reached the golden age with many unique opportunities with meetings and festivals which provided the exchange of knowledge for the Kaze no Ryu Bugei instruction. The Kaze no Ryu Bugei instruction added studies like Philosophy, Meditation, Ki, Banting and also studies related to religion like mythology, sermons and traditional hymns, which is included in the total number of disciplines of the school. At once 18 disciplines of Bugei [[Bugei Juhappan](武芸十八)] were introduced into many cultural aspects weaving into the intellectual knowledge.

The Ogawa family that brought the Bugei to Brazil was formed by Hiroshi, Ogawa; Kazuo, Ogawa; Nabuaki, Ogawa; and Kibashi, Hirayama. Akamini, Aeishi was the first to speak of the form of Bugei practiced in Brazil. History tells us that he touched the colonists by using the occult sciences, helping the people who were in moments of despair. He lived in Brazil until 1940’s when he returned back to Japan.

With the end of the second world war, Japanese Emperor Hirohito had to accept being defeated by the military occupation over the country. Meanwhile in Brazil, the Japanese colony of the state of Sao Paulo refused to accept that Japan had lost the war and imposed that Japan had won the conflict. A fanatic organization called the Shindo Renmei decided then to purify the colony by assassinating all of the colonists who accepted that Japan had lost the war, charging them with treason.

With the rising of this fanaticism, Hiroshi Ogawa oriented the immigrants in practice of fast techniques of self defense, planting the seeds of Bugei in Brazil in silo. After many events involving the Ogawa family in Brazil 1952, Hiroshi Ogawa accepted a small group who would study the tradition of its family. This group consisted of but not limited to, Hoberatu Conioaraki, Asau Mitsunaga, Abe Hideshi, Idioshi, Minuru Nagatami, Oshimitsu Muramoto, Inishi Izawa, Isau Horibi, Ioshi Masuda, Sodau Ibihara. Shidoshi Jordan Augusto would start learning Bugei afterwards with Kazuo Ogawa and Kibashi Hirayama in the state of Goias and received from the hands of Hiroshi Ogawa his Master graduation.

It is very common that each Ryu belonging to the Koryu specializing in some arts or even a particular characteristic can be seen in many lineages, which is a reason of pride amongst its apprentices. In this way, Kaze no Ryu Bugei specializes in the Art of Strategy be used the characteristic of all the arts of this lineage. Moves are executed with great speed and violence based on strategies that provide victory in case of combat. Each art has its way of applying the strategies according to each technique.

In Kempo for example, the strategy is applied with a great number of false moves in order to deceive the opponent and respond violently causing severe wounds or death.

Bujutsu

The long history and complex tradition of Japanese fighting arts are grounded in a variety of forms, methods and weapons, featuring their specializations. Each specialization is known by the term "jutsu", a word that can be translated into our language as a "method", "art" or even "technical". The term jutsu is an indication that there is a performance feature the same way or the action it proposes. Generally, it is understood that performances in common, descended from other arts, and also developed other forms of performance and procedures characteristic of a new jutsu. In the case of Japanese combat, however, a somewhat specialization consists of handling of a gun.

It is very common to identify the combat weapon name in the introduction of your practice. This is seen, for example, in Kenjutsu - art (jutsu) Sword (Ken). However, it's not uncommon, to have certain specializations, such as identifying the name, the meaning or purpose of your practice, even if it is not using weapons like Aikijujutsu - The art (jutsu) of harmony (ai) energy (ki) Soft, flexible (ju). The smoothness is the manner of conducting the energy of the enemy in the application of a defensive fighting, even with firm strokes. Often, a specialization of combat has sub-specializations, many of which had a technical refinement, a noticeable and substantial change compared to the original, eventually becoming a specialization and unlinking of its art matrix.

Inside the Bugei, more precisely the lineage of Kaze no Ryu, this decoupling does not exist, simply because of their alteration is not permitted. All combat arts of that lineage still remain faithful to the traditions of war. This explains the great rigidity required of the practitioner or internal student not being allowed to fail in the practice of any field. Failure to maintain accurate performance and method of application of the techniques is considered serious, and the student shall be excluded from the art of Bugei, being no longer permitted to practice any art from the lineage in their country of origin or worldwide. It is true, however, that certain classical arts have owned sub-specializations such as Kenjutsu - Sword Art - who originated the art of drawing the sword - Iaijutsu , and this, by the large amount of details and procedures, eventually becoming a another art in itself, has the same nobility and complexity.

Finally, you can also find arts whose brand names are identified by the name of the master who gave birth (in the case of refining a style or art matrix, or possessing a characteristic procedure of a family line), or by school name in the particular art that was taught. The specializations of Japanese fighting arts are those that have been developed and have reached the pinnacle of perfection in the feudal period of Japanese history. This period extends for approximately nine centuries since the end of the century. And early IX century. To X century. XVIII, more precisely until 1868, when the Meiji Restoration, the feudal era was officially declared over.

Koryu

The Koryu word of Japanese origin, has the literal translation "old flow", used to refer to the old schools, styles or traditions, not necessarily just in the traditional war.

  • Ko - Antique
  • Ryu - character of Chinese origin that reads in Japanese "nagare" which means flow. Likewise, it is referred to as reading Ryu style.

There were several versions that considers the koryu only as a Bujutsu, as erroneously translates. Koryu is also a form of Bujutsu, but its initial form of conservation is facing the reasoning of the match itself. Bujutsu is one of several terms used in classical martial arts or techniques in Japan. Unfortunately there is no exact definition for the classical martial arts, preventing an accurate description. Some define its start in 1876 when the act was enacted prohibiting the use of swords (Haitorei), dividing the martial arts between classic and modern. Others prefer to use the term Koryu Bujutsu solely to the arts of the sixth century and the oldest traditions.

The classical traditions were developed in battlefields by bushi warriors, who reasoned within a prism of necessity, not of beauty. Every school that makes up a Koryu is followed within a lineage that has a Soke which is given generation, which carries the menkyo kaiden, which refers to the founder of the tradition. But in each school are variations in the nomenclatures referred to as a classic way of conserving it in the present era, many followers of the old schools formed new clans that have emerged as a way of improving the existing one.

In Japan today, there are few schools which still retain their original form of execution.Many new styles were created and changed. This fact also is due to the natural evolution of the human being, who in an era of globalization, did not inhabit the concepts outlined in past centuries. In schools that retain the Koryu, there is only one master in each generation who chooses a successor. Schools met who did not bother with this, but just to convey properly the past to the present. This generates a second form of thinking, which places subject to the same technical condition of the central master. The transmission system in the schools of koryu is centered around forms, and transmission taken from master to student, any school that has such a system that has abolished its methodology might not be called koryu.

In Japan in various forms of technical styles that are considered as Koryu were shown. The koryu techniques are initially stored as a form of reasoning to ensure victory in a battlefield, this is perhaps the greatest feature of the techniques of Koryu. Some schools still insist on the holder-Budo Gendai (modern budo forms) as Koryu. Surely these modern arts have a connection with the old ways, but the changes made over the years changed the way of thinking and execution, taking the opportunity to teach a large group of students, is designed to educate and develop the human.

Each ryu has its particularity and peculiarity, being impossible to make a generalization technique. Who knows or is part of a koryu can detect a fraud, however small it may be, in the format of the educational structure, as in behavioral form. In general, traditional schools these days will split their programs for domestic students and enthusiasts, thereby getting the old forms characterized as a national treasure. Generally these traditional schools still retain their religious and traditional forms as internal curriculum.

Taijutsu

Taijutsu is the Japanese term that designates body martial arts or “Body Arts”. Tai means “Body” and jutsu means “art”. Taijutsu is a very old fighting form that sought to perfect techniques for all kinds of situations in which weapons or any other type of protection was unavailable, only being able to utilize your own body. Taijutsu like many of the ancient arts was defined in a simple way in terms of its forms, however, its wealth and secrets were passed through much time of training, restricted to people that were considered worthy of discovering the true essence of Taijutsu.

Taijutsu is basically divided into 3 arts of corporal contact. The part that studies the form of grasping, immobilization and strangulation is Jujutsu, a very old art that stems from Kumiuchi, which ends up taking adversaries to the floor.

The traditional Jujutsu is strong and violent, whose objective is to carry on its own classical plot as a strong and sustainable war weapon. To practice the techniques related to classical Jujutsu came about by its rustic form of functional characteristics of the daily situations in the middle ages.

Yoroi Kumiuchi or Kumiuchi practiced without armor. The Jujutsu techniques were developed for when the Samurai was attacked while wearing his common daily clothes. This way, for many people, Jujutsu was associated uniquely to self defense. The only thing that remained was the development of unbalancing an attack; and these were divided by Nage, Taosu, Oroshi, Kumi and others. Therefore as Japanese armor allows for arms to have the flexibility or desired mobility, it was developed as a series of hits based on twists, articulation and strangulation, forms of bone removal and a series of techniques that aim to efficiently destroy the opponent.

The knowledge of locking and breaking techniques and articulations, have always been present in unarmed combat. Many historical versions explain the reasons of Somen techniques, dedicated to articulations. The most used versions pertain to the origin of the armor, made to be flexible, giving only articulations as the attack target. This leads to the study of the all forms of destruction that are evoked at the opponent,leaving the bone part that has been specifically named Koppojutsu. We can’t forget to mention the strangulation techniques related to blood interruption and breath interruption. When these techniques are applied, it stops arterial blood flow to the brain, as well as, airflow which causes hypoxia, leading to the loss of unconsciousness.

Kobujutsu

The Kobujutsu is art that covers all weapons studied in the ancient practices of war. Currently known as Kobudo (weapons of way), the arts that make up Gendai Budo in certain regions was the reference for all weapons that were not part of the noble class of daisho (whose literal translation from the kanji "ooki" or "dai" means "big" and "sho" or "chisai", "small"), composed by Katana, Wakizashi, Aikuchi or both. Thus, in some regions the Bo, Jo, the Yari, the Naginata, the Sai, the Jutte (sort of trident), the Tonfa (sort of truncheons), Kama (sort of sickle used to cut rice) among others, were classified in the same way as members of the Kobujutsu. In certain arts such as aikido, karate-do among others, all that refers to techniques that use some kind of weapon is called Kobujutsu, which could be translated by the kanji used as a reference, as "old art of war." "Ko" means old, "bu" war and "jutsu", art.

Within the classical arts which retain Koryu concept, Kobujutsu is the term that refers to the different characteristics of the weapons used by samurai. Most of these weapons were borrowed by farmers and rebels, as a result of the hunting season to swords, improvised agricultural tools as weapons of defense, such as the tonfa, nunchaku etc.. Such weapons later became part of the curriculum of individual schools.

Nowadays, information about the Kobujutsu are vast, with several versions and analyzes that do not establish anything real or unique. Some claim that the Kobujutsu emerged in Okinawa, others by the evolution wars. Others attribute to Chinese influence. Western books that originally dealt with Kobujutsu cited only a few weapons, which became known by Westerners and years later became the protagonists Kobujutsu, but many others were used in the Tokugawa and Meiji period. The tessen, or gunsen (iron fan), paragraph (a kind of ax) and kiseru (pipe) are some of them.


The Bugei Sanjûroku Happan

Physical Disciplines

* Unarmed Combat (Taijutsu)

It is very common that each Ryu belonging to the Koryu specializing in some arts, or even a particular characteristic, can be seen in many lineages and is a reason of pride amongst its apprentices. In this way, Kaze no Ryu Bugei specializes in the "Art of Strategy", which is used in all of the arts of this lineage. Moves are executed with great speed and violence based on strategies that provide victory in case of combat. Each art has its way of applying the strategies according to each technique.

In Kenpo for example, the strategy is applied with a great amount of false moves in order to deceive the opponent and respond violently causing severe wounds or death.

Like many weapons that were developed to provide methods of combat, the human body has also improved the ways of using structural competence like the head and various parts of the body for attack and defense.

In Japan for instance, as a nation connected to war, unarmed combat techniques became so efficient, that they began to be studied and applied against any kind of opponent…armed or not.

The study of angles, tractions, impacts and levers, that could be achieved with your own body and the damage that could be caused at any place on the body, was exhaustingly perfected into the unarmed arts, and could bring the same advantages against the opponent who is handling the most dangerous weapon.

It is possible to notice, for example, the unarmed techniques applied against opponents with a knife, tantodori or with a sword.


組み打ち Kumiuchi

Kumi Uchi is the part that looks at ways to grab (assets and bottlenecks). Quite ancient, is a struggle aimed at taking opponents to the ground. It is one of the richest arts movements and exercises, however they are saved by the great masters, as they were very efficient for the development of mind-body ratio. The origin of Kumi Uchi can be regarded as the most primitive of all. Some teachers say that their origin was marked when a primitive man, enraged by some other, advanced toward him to attack him. And because there were still unknown martial techniques, his first reaction was "grab" the enemy. But his practice as an art of war was only to emerge later.

Even so, their techniques were based on fighting through the grip, which was well developed over the years. One of its strongest features is also linked to aggression, since its purpose was always for war purposes, and not as a sport.

The name of art can be translated into Portuguese as follows:


  • Kumi: Hug and Hold
  • Uchi: Beating


Kumi Uchi is a very complex art, which is the oldest form of combat with gripping. Even within Kumi Uchi for its multitude of techniques and detentions are studied quite hard to fight standing, but with a connotation linked to grab more. The Kumi Uchi is within the taijutsu, the oldest, established through grappling, projections, and key bottlenecks in the finalization of the fight as quickly as possible.

The geography of Japan has always been an important point in the development of reasoning techniques (very hilly, country with 80% of its territory with mountain formation). This demonstrates that there was a big trend of the fighting moor and conducted on the ground, causing nature to become a potential weapon. In the regions of Hokkaido, certain villages reached the extreme of using his training with wild animals such as bears, who had their nails trimmed, tied and jaw. The idea of developing a technique to overcome the size and weight of the opponent was constant. The need for the improvement brought to the present day evolved techniques used in close-range combat.

Yoroi Kumiuchi (practiced with armor). The Jujutsu techniques were developed for when the Samurai was attacked while wearing his common daily clothes. This way, for many people, Jujutsu was associated uniquely to self defense. The only thing that remained was the development of unbalancing an attack; and these were divided by Nage, Taosu, Oroshi, Kumi and others. Therefore as Japanese armor allows for arms to have the flexibility or desired mobility, it was developed as a series of hits based on twists, articulation and strangulation, forms of bone removal and a series of techniques that aim to efficiently destroy the opponent.

The knowledge of locking and breaking techniques and articulations, have always been present in unarmed combat. Many historical versions explain the reasons of Somen techniques, dedicated to articulations. The most used versions pertain to the origin of the armor, made to be flexible, giving only articulations as the attack target. This leads to the study of the all forms of destruction that are evoked at the opponent,leaving the bone part that has been specifically named Koppojutsu. We can’t forget to mention the strangulation techniques related to blood interruption and breath interruption. When these techniques are applied, it stops arterial blood flow to the brain, as well as, airflow which causes hypoxia, leading to the loss of unconsciousness.

柔術 Jujutsu

Perhaps this is the most popular of all art presented in the old Bugei programs. Jujutsu, for centuries, was the great secret weapon of the Japanese army, which remained on his resume until the Second World War. Its origin is lost in time leaving the trails that have arisen in India or even by the Japanese Indians. One way or another, the flexible or soft art, as it is translated, Jujutsu differs largely as presented in the contemporary era.

Such an art has undergone a makeover in the Meiji era, where it was included in the arts of Gendai Budo or Forms of Modern Art. The art created by Jigoro Kano, Judo called - Gentle Path, years later, also came to be called Jujutsu. Traditional Jujutsu is included in the Koryu program, which aims to conserve early classical forms. The former was aimed at the maintenance of a defensive Bujutsu in battlefields. Thus, it can not be considered a modern sport.

The Jujutsu that the Western world knew after the Meiji era is what we call Gendai Budo. Direct reference records of the largest schools of Bujutsu and in the chronicles of ancient Japan, indicate that many of the methods of unarmed combat were developed and applied by the Japanese during the "long night feudal" and a significant number of these methods have become important in warrior training. By definition, a method of unarmed combat is a systematic and ingenious way to apply the human body as a weapon. This type of combat without the use of arms was adopted, to first order, to resolve the problems of violent clashes. Armed and unarmed combat seem to have coexisted since the beginning of history supplementing, integrating or replacing one another in accordance with the demand of time, place and circumstances. Indeed, the observation that the human body could operate with skill in combat as a primary weapon, and that mastery of its elements and funcionality be able to make a man violently subdue another man while simultaneously applied this in his own defense .

The Ogawa Shizen Kay, who is the progenitor of the International Bugei Society, is traditional in the conservation of the original kata and established forms of Koryu. Saburo Ogawa, known as the great samurai rare skill, taught their children the arts of war, and years later, they would land in Brazil. Ogawa sensei for years, has been among the world's leading authorities in Jujutsu and its derivations. However, few recognize as such, and the largest Japanese authorities cited his name always connecting it to Brazil. Perhaps xenophobia experienced by the Japanese toward immigrants, Ogawa sensei took years before his name was actually recognized as one of the best. However, his skills were related to the name of the father (Saburo Ogawa). The fact that his family is traditionally not weighed for personal development, Ogawa Hiroshi closed the gap between Japan and Brazil.The communication between the two countries was always done in a poor manner. Thus, only after the year 1978, the Japanese began to visit Brazil to learn about the fantastic art by Ogawa sensei. His ingenuity and conservation of tradition struck several authorities of Bugei Koryu.

骨法術 Koppojutsu

Literally translated as a method of bones, Koppo is the peculiar form studied in the arts that seek to attack the joints. Studied in the Middle Ages by the more traditional schools, the Koppojutsu, or simply Koppo, can be translated into a version adapted to attack the West as the bones. Characteristic of Jujutsu and Aikijujutsu, the Koppo is undoubtedly one of the most efficient materials studied within the curriculum of Bujutsu.

Within the present time, we find Sussumo Motoshima as great connoisseur of traditional forms stored in sequences of forms called as Kata.Motoshima Sussumo is Chieko Motoshima son, daughter Noriyuki Mizumatsu, great technique Koppojutsu holder. Mizumatsu was famous in his province to organize the forms and determine them in a classification that did not exist. According Motoshima Sensei, are in all ten kata that are ten sequences each, which correspond to frequent bouts of time.

The International Bugei Society retains the basic teaching of the ten sequences of Koppojutsu that is required for Shoden exams. Ogawa Sensei put Motoshima down as the greatest authority of Koppojutsu still alive. Ogawa Sensei, who always retained the same forms of Koppojutsu, allowed Motoshima Sensei, in his visit to Brazil, to reorganize the ways of Bujutsu taught in Brazil.

拳法 Kenpo

Another part of Taijutsu is Kenpo. Kenpo is a very aggressive art form that drives its style from the observation of animal movements which made this form a natural aggressive fighting art. It is possible to imagine the natural essence of a Tiger that is searching for its food. It was truly inspirational that ancient masters would look at training and developing their bodies as preparation for war. The Kenpo philosophy is to see the body naturally in union with its aggressiveness. According to a teaching, a Kenpo practitioner should perform more than 1,000 movements before a sparrow hits the ground. This violent corporal fighting form was developed for war, and for this reason has been prohibited later in Japan restricted only for villages who have the purposes of martial practicing as a way of war art.

合気柔術 Aikijujutsu

Completing Taijutsu we have Aikijujutsu, very old fighting based on harmony and the use of internal energy known as KI. The function, in terms of the postures and movements, require the muscular groups to work harmoniously with contractions and lunges that provide traction. A good corporal performance needs factors such as physical practice, resonance, preparation and good health. Then we have to consider always searching for balance so we can enjoy the efficiency created by good condition, resonance, speed, contraction, and flexibility.

Haragei

Haragei is a broad study of bioenergy from the concept of "ki" (life energy), acquired through breathing. The breath feeds all our senses, our body functions, cells, organs and etc. It is what keeps us alive. Breathing was the first thing we did upon entering this world and the last thing we do. Although not realizing it, the breath is intimately linked to our emotions and behavioral patterns. Notice how it moves, becoming short and shallow, when we are anxious or afraid. When we think of something good it expands and deepens. The old masters of the O-Chikara knew this and began to test different types of breaths and analyze their effects. It was developed so that the breathing exercises "Ketsugo", the "densho butsu no kami" and "taiso", we call Haragei.

We breathe about 20,000 times a day. In every breath, we absorb around 300 ml of air. But our lungs were designed for more, as the lung capacity of an adult is about 4 liters. Our everyday breath moves only 10% of our lungs behave. Thus, our body and mind work with a much smaller amount of fuel they need and we can never fully express our potential and live a healthy life if we do not increase our oxygen intake. Practicing the exercises that Haragei offers us, expands our breathing and reeducate muscles and organs involved in this process so that this breathing pattern is maintained even after the end of practice. Many of these exercises should be learned directly with an instructor because they need to be corrected. You will learn the good effects this produces, and are quite simple and can be done at home.

Ki (aka chi kung) is a holistic system that combines breathing techniques with precise movements and mental concentration. Its goal is to promote health and well-being full. Kukiga means "pursuit of internal energy" and is a more simple and effective weapon to your arsenal of detoxification. Practice ki daily, preferably with comfortable and loose clothing and you will boost your energy levels, cope with stress and avoid a large number of diseases. Ki also improves concentration and enhances creativity and inspiration. The breathing, movements and postures of Ki have specific effects on the production and circulation of lymph. The exercises work several ways contracting the muscles of the body, using gravity (inverted postures for certain members) and deep breathing, which pumps the lymph and increases blood oxygenation. The great advantage of Ki is that anyone can do it: if you're too weak to stand, there are exercises that can be done in a sitting position. If you can not even sit, there are exercises that can be done in a lying position.


Suiren

For a country like Japan, which is an archipelago, swimming is as natural and necessary as breathing. For the warrior, it was an art that could and in fact, was used in combat. The battlefields were often interspersed with streams, lakes and flooded rice fields. Many important battles took place near the long expanses of water separating an island from another. Therefore, since ancient times, man surrenders to the difficulties that the confrontation in the water offers. With the invention of modernity and equipment, the man could move with ease and explore underwater worlds not yet known. However, before that, nothing could be done. There was then a need for a development that would provide the circumstance for medieval man to combat it in water.

The curriculum included swimming, floating, submerging and other techniques that in principle made much difference. As such techniques were perfected, man developed specific forms of movement in the water that would give you the status of an enemy when in this environment, armed or not. Certain exercises developed by Mukai Ryu, consisted in making the warrior crossing a river, holding a paper fan out of water without it getting wet. Other schools, like Kankai Ryu, developed techniques of swimming in open water - which included swimming in semi-upright position, through a powerful footwork (ashi-maki).

This technique made later, spies and other classes of mercenaries obtain success in their daily assaults. Currently, little is known about such an art, and everything that's similar were adaptations of historical principles that contributed to what we now call Suiren. Scholars believe that, nowadays, what is found is a new form of Suiren who tries to reassemble the beginning. Anyway, we still talk about and study this ancient art that moves, with the modernity of techniques developed by swimming almost become obsolete, forgetting the unique and specific burden of tradition.

Ogawa Sensei, forerunner of Bugei in Brazil, taught a few tricks in the form of kata, believing that many took advantage of the non-observation of the facts and created their own methods. Ogawa Sensei teaches only what he learned from Saburo, including only four kata.


* Armed Combat (Kobujutsu)

Literally, Kobujutsu means “Old Art of War”. The word has been applied to define the practice with weapons. Some arts, of the Gendai Budo or even some classic styles of Jujutsu, usually define the practice with weapons as Kobojutsu. However, without considering weapons like Sai, Tonfa, Kama among others, some Koryu refer only to classic weapons like , Bokuto and Tanto. However, when analyzing the word, every art that uses weapons can be involved in Kobojutsu. The most famous arts of Kobojutsu can be found in many Ryu. Kyojutsu, Kenjutsu, Iaijutsu, Battojutsu, Tantojutsu, Naginatajutsu, Yarijutsu, Bojutsu, Kusarijutsu, Tessenjutsu and many others are kept alive thanks to traditional teachings from all around the world.

Sojutsu

Sojutsu or Yarijutsu, the art boom, has in its history a comparison with Naginatajutsu - the art of naginata - a kind of spear with a curved blade attached format on the end. Each was practiced according to numerous styles and were sub-specializations of the wide range of long and short types of blades that coupled the pieces of wood. This art has been passed down in the feudal period and is found with strong technical modifications Jojutsu .

The yari originally came up with the use of bamboo (Take-yari) and then won blades for a more appropriate outcome in battles. Even with the growth in popularity of the sword during the middle of the Japanese feudal period and the preceding period (Meiji Restoration), the spear was always present at official ceremonies and was always carried by warriors escorting provincial lords in their travels. The weapons were kept in perfect condition in arms clan.

The Japanese spear was usually not used with the intention of shooting. It has been used since the beginning of time. Some Yari were made by traditional swordsmiths, and therefore have a construction similar to that of spades, while others made by less skilled forgers were made as a single piece with its unhardened materials (does not possess Hamon). It was a weapon used by samurai and the common front soldier (ashigaru).

There are many variations of Yari. The two best known are: su yari (straight blade) and kama yari (with another slide horizontally across the straight blade). Exceptionally, the long su yari is called the omi yari. Also kama yari has particularities in terminology if the blade cross the straight blade has the same size. Its name then becomes Jumonji yari.

The yari katakama has a single blade perpendicular to the straight blade (on only one side) or have the blade perpendicular to the two sides, but differently to the line size. It was speculated that this would be the result of the repair of a broken cross a yumonji yari blade. The Kikuchi yari (relatively rare) is a single point and are usually kira zukuri style or shobu zukuri. This style was named by Kikuchi yari, Higo family, during the Age of Nambokucho (1336-1392). The Kikuchi yari appears in both and in broad proportions.

Lance warriors in battles continued to be taught and practiced professionally in schools of Bujutsu for a while. However, the isolation of this warrior, although it was once familiar to every Japanese, has become more common until the almost total disappearance of this kind of man of war.

薙刀術 Naginata Jutsu

The naginata was a weapon commonly used in Japanese history. The Forge, construction and polishing are made similar to those applied in the traditional Japanese sword. This weapon is about two feet tall. Although the naginata was used by samurai, its traditional use was taken by women samurai defending castles during the absence of men. The old naginata was large, with a very long, curved blade. Now, it tends to be shorter, smaller and less curvature on the blade. The Blade of the 17th century may or may not be signed by the manufacturer or nakago. Not all have the naginata polishing type of sword (san-dan-maki), however, all have some type of reinforcement.

The naginata blades were commonly cut, redone in its forms and polished again to make the styles of shobu-zukuri wakizashi or unokubi-zukuri. The tsuba naginata in are generally small, being essentially the same diameter seppa. However, some of the tsuba had the same design and size as those found in the blades. The nakago a naginata is placed by a single mekugi, although some show two nakago-ana. Naginata with similar blades of the swords, which were mounted a few inches, were called nagamaki-Naoshi. The Nakagami has the yokote as the katana, while the naginata does not. It was used during the Kamakura Period and the beginning of the Muromachi Period.

Inside the Kaze no Ryu Bugei, the naginata is mystically charged by the weapon Kaze no Tengu and Tengu Wind, which has significant power within the study of strategy. For deriving the strain O-Chikara, Kaze no Tengu uses the naginata to be a weapon to kill the enemy from a distance. Within the mythologies, was the weapon Senso Tengu taught women to defend themselves from the attacks of other warriors in armed clashes. In combat, being short would surely bring a disadvantage to women, the naginata would provide a defense with a powerful attack without fighting hand-to-hand. How Kaze no Tengu has many faces (featuring its power strategy) and one is a female face, the naginata composed of this outfit, being the preferred weapon of that Tengu.

Isolated naginata of the legends of Kaze no Ryu Bugei, in turn, is an important military weapon that makes up the "Koryu in Kobujutsu" class. Its practice is mandatory, known as the Naginata Jutsu (or Naginata Jutsu) and performed within the traditional techniques of war. The program is not extensive as the others, but the student requires a great dedication. Although it also has the characteristic of being the weapon most used by women in the past, the students of Kaze no Ryu Bugei programs are also subject to the practices of all other weapons of the line, and their skills tested in exams. Thus, the naginata not consecrated as an exclusive weapon for women, but retains its historic importance, especially by religious contexts of the O-Chikara.

棒術 Bojutsu

DPv2 loves original research.

The art of using the bat and other instruments with similar wood as weapons, represents the transition point of the methods of armed combat for unarmed. Wood, natural or polished and in every possible way, has always served the man in the implementation of their ability to fight. It provides, if not the first, certainly one of the first materials used by man in the manufacturing of deadly weapons.

In the Japanese dimension of combat arts, however, wood is not (at least during the feudal era) a primary material used in the manufacture of weapons, but iron and steel. However, this constituted a fertile although secondary dimension, whose strategic capability was explored, developed and systematized, by several methods that began to take shape, each full and effective methods inside and outside itself. Because they are comparatively less dangerous to practice than a blade, the stick and various other wooden weapons were usually used in dojo training schools of Bujutsu, where the techniques of long guns and swords were taught.

Over time, the relative use of wooden weapons developed so well, that the real fight using the bat or wooden sword, was engaged by warriors (even in self-defense against an unfair and potentially lethal attack, with the opponent being armed or not). The use of wooden replicas of weapons of steel or iron allowed a lethal desired result not to be minimized and, in cases of exceptional skill, almost completely eliminated the chance of an accident.

This helps explain the popularity of baton between members of the class who abhorred the idea of shedding the blood of his companions. Priests, monks, travelers, ordinary people and even poets used the stick or other wooden instruments, many of which are still used today for various purposes. Even the warriors competed in skill test using these weapons. According to the dictionary, the baton is any elongated wide variety thing.

Specifically, within the military aspect of Japanese culture, however,the bat or a similar instrument of wood was used primarily in training bushi techniques that in real combat, involve the use of a deadly blade of steel. Thus, there are many specializations in the use of the stick and there are many specializations with the use of arms, because the wood replaced almost all of them at the time. The relationship between the bat and gun was so close, that the technique and strategy was virtually indistinguishable from each other in a symbiotic exchange. Thus, a swordsman could employ the curved bat imitating the shape of a sword with the same precision of a blade.

Techniques (jutsu) created by the effective use of these wooden weapons, however, were substantially the same when employed while using them with iron or steel. Each, however, also developed regardless of the discipline with which he was associated, producing its own legacy and body of literature. The first specialization course is represented by the art of the long cane with the thickness of Bo – the Hasaku-bo-bo or Rokushaku. The second is represented by the art of Han or bo-bo.

One of the uses of particular methods that are practiced today are Jo or Bo, not as much as the real fighting art - Jojutsu - but with subjects that employs the form of Jodo. In kaze no ryu, Bugei both as Jo or Bo have in its particularity preserving its original form, i.e., in the practice of the arts of war (and Jojutsu or Bojutsu).

杖術 Jojutsu

Rekishi at Jo - History of Bat

It is believed that the art of the short stick was developed by the great swordsman Muso Gonosuke, roughly four centuries ago, after a defeat in battle by the famous Miyamoto Musashi, who used wooden swords (bokken, bokuto) to his fights.

According to historical tradition, Gonosuke withdrew into a Shinto temple and, after a long period of hard training, lots of purification and meditation on the cane art , developed a remarkable mastery over the Jo. His style was called Muso Shindo Ryu, who was then challenged Musashi to a new confrontation. The method created by Gonosuke allowed the penetration of the strong stance of the Musashi style.

Gonosuke Sensei practiced hard continuously until the development of the basic strokes that resulted in 20 techniques, which were later combined and enhanced, and created the basic (kata) forms.

The basic Katas of Jo Jutsu, which later became part of Jodo (name adopted by some schools), include the use of sequences with other weapons such as Bo (long staff), Bokken and Tanto (knife).

短刀術 Tantojutsu

Tantojutsu or art knife (knife made under the same standard of Japanese swords) is basically divided into two forms:


 * Both - The type of knife used in Japan 
   
 * Aikuchi - The most crooked kind of knife used in Japan 

The art of Tantojutsu can also be divided by age, with the most classical and traditional forms cited as Koryu and more modern forms, which already involve newer concepts (from century XIX) cited as Kindai.

The Practice of Medieval Tantojutsu

Why study Daisho? It was studied because it was always important for the formation of a warrior or samurai discipline. Knives to fight a shorter distance than the sword, were used for their agility and ability to harmonize with many different angles and directions.

Inside the Kaze no Ryu or wind style practiced by Kyudoshin Bugei Kay Kan, descendant of Ogawa Shizen Kay, who maintains this tradition for more than 400 years, the art of both is seen through the prism of reality and not fantasy , which makes it one of the most detailed and dangerous. The art of the knife has always had a special attention for the richness of movement and anatomy studies, to make the most efficient implementation of fighting techniques with the knife. Hiroshi Ogawa, Saiko Shidoshi, most responsible for the Ogawa Shizen Kay, adapted the way of Tantojutsu Koryu (classical forms) for the Kindai Tantojutsu (modern forms) of urban defenses (ShiHogo and ToshiHogo).

Tanbojutsu

Tanbojutsu is a Japanese martial art which uses short sticks. It is a part of jōdō. The techniques where used by farmers in the Kai Province (today Yamanashi Prefecture), the land of the Takeda, when they had to fight against thieves and bandits. They picked up any stick available and defended themselves. Very efficient locks for throwing the opponent to the ground, strikes and blocks are also comprised in this martial art.

It is also thought that the actual shugi was developed to imitate the shape of the tantō scabbard [1] which was used in old time's close combat.

In Takeda Ryu Nakamura Ha Sobudo, Tanbojutsu uses at least two short sticks with an oval section. In Kaze no Ryu Ogawa Ha we use one stick. The special geometry of the stick increases the pain during locks and blocks. In some occasion, sticks can be used as throwing weapons.

The martial art practiced by the Athosians in the science fiction program "Stargate: Atlantis" is based on this discipline.

Sutekki Jutsu

Sutekki-Jutsu, is a Japanese martial arts school of tanjojutsu, originally devised by Shinto Muso-ryu practicitioner Uchida Ryogoro (1837-1921) as a way to utilize the western-style walking stick into a weapon of self-defence. The tanjo is not to be confused with the pre-meji era short stick hanbo.

After the Meiji Restoration in 1869, which would herald the Meiji Era, Japan took a giant leap from the old feudal system into a more modern western society. The samurai-caste was disestablished and everything western were brought into Japan as a way to modernize both its society and economy. This included the construction of railroads, reforming the military based on the Prussian system and building new facilities for modern communication and modernizing and expanding the domestic industry. It would also bring along western clothing with European clothes as a popular new choice of wardrobe.

Among the things that were imported, the western style walking stick was one of them, and it quickly became a very popular item in Japan, especially for former samurai who were not allowed to wear swords anymore as a sign of their high status and other high-ranking individuals. In 1950's, Ogawa Hiroshi, devised a new set of self-defense techniques for the walking stick drawn primarily from existing Jojutsu techniques. These techniques were part of the self-defense program taught to the Japanese immigrants in Brazil.


鎖術 Kusarijutsu

Known as Manriki Kusari or background, this weapon is a chain ballasted with weights at both ends that works as an artifact mooring, crush or choke members or neck. In the Middle Ages it was believed that the Fund Kusari could produce in their technical ability the strength of a thousand men. Therefore, it was widely used in the attacks and defenses both for short and long distances.

There are basically three types of Kusari practice: short, medium and long. Many theories have been developed from a single principle, not establishing a school as sole owner of the actual techniques. The Kusari made of steel appeared in dimension as the first Bujutsu Japanese gun. Their combat application, whether alone or combined with other weapons, appears to be very old. In fact, she seems to have been the link between poles of various sizes and various legends as nage-range.

Some authors believe that it was widely used in the defense of castles. Others see the Kusari is also used to connect to Kama - Sickle various thicknesses. The gun usually has a lot of iron widely used to protect the hands. Weapons of this type became known as Kusari-gama and its primary purpose was to paralyze the opponent's sword or throw your chain towards the enemy while its other end was free to deadly operations. One of the experts Kusari-gama was Shinryukan Yamada, who beat many swordsmen with his chain and sickle before meeting death at the hands of Mataemon Araki, a swordsman who arrested Shinryukan on a bamboo stake.

Kankyo Jutsu

The Japanese word whose literal translation is "art room". Taught by old masters, art Kankyo Jutsu aimed at using the environment as an auxiliary weapon. The ability to move in a tight or very spacious place is not easy task that should be ignored. The principle of Kankyo Jutsu occurred due to the necessity of fighting in forests, towns, villages, stables etc. The Tokugawa era was marked by constant evolution of the thinking of war. Several were Ryu were developed in its teachings of environmentalization and awareness of space offered at the time of the conflict.

The idea that a warrior should be always aware, forced the older samurai to develop certain strategic principles that would apply at certain locations. Many attributed the knowledge to be important victories because of the arts that have been added such as Heiho , Bajutsu , and Kyujutsu amongst others, producing a better prepared army. Such an art was widely used by the secret class that wielded protection to Ieyasu Tokugawa, always placing in the rubble of the castle or even in false rooms and using attributes that facilitate the removal of such a leader in the event of an unexpected war. The Kankyo Jutsu was the main weapon used by large strategists who cited passages in their difficulties offered by the terrain.

剣術 Kenjutsu

Kenjutsu (the art of the sword ) is generally recognized as a combative art. It always begins with a drawn sword, with an aggressive intent. The first recorded historical systematic teachings of the Japanese long sword began at about 800 AD Since that time, about 1,200 styles (schools) were documented. Many practitioners of Kenjutsu began to question whether a higher understanding could be achieved with practice and study with the sword. Thus, the Kenshi (swordsman) transformed the "art of the sword" (Kenjutsu) in a "way of the sword" (Kendo). Hence Kendo emerged, around the second century.

Kenjutsu is considered a Bujutsu classic (art of war or martial art), being formulated well before the Meiji reform (classic / modern dividing line). Classical Kenjutsu ryu (schools) tend to be quite secretive regarding the practice of their techniques, being very closed to outsiders of the Bugei Art. The classic ryu Kenjutsu is the closest to the classical training of the warrior in the modern world. Examples are Shinkage Yagyu Ryu, and Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto Ryu. The use of the Katana, within the traditional clothing of Kenjutsu, the hakama is usually in keikogi and obi (sash).

Kata (sequence of movements or exercises formulated) is the usual way to learn the intricate movements required. Initially practiced individually, but can practice double or even multiple individuals. The default tool is the practice bokken (wooden sword mock) or a real blade. The royal court, and the stroke of the blade against tied bundles and stems of bamboo, called tameshigiri , provide the most advanced practice ryusha (practitioner of a style) the real impact of the blade against a target.

Usually (but not always) in Japanese martial arts, the objectives of the "Do" is to improve the interior, while the "jutsu" focuses on teaching the techniques of war. Note that this is a modern convention, not something that reflects the historical use of suffixes: what we now call Kenjutsu may once have been used as Kendo. The convention of terminology jutsu / do as used in the West was popularized mostly by Draeger. Defining terminologically, the art of winning real fights with real swords is Kenjutsu. The primary objective of Kenjutsu is victory over opponents, the primary goal of Kendo is to improve himself to the study of the sword. The Kendo also has a strong aspect with big tournaments, watched eagerly by the Japanese public. Thus Kendo could be considered the Japanese philosophical / sporting aspect.

In terms of learning, Kenjutsu has a more complete resume. In Kendo, the need limits the range of techniques and targets. The practitioners of Kenjutsu not generally use shinai in training, preferring to use bokken (wooden swords) or katana (steel swords) in order to preserve the cutting techniques of real sword fighting. The training consists of Kenjutsu practicing the technique of cutting and running partner kata. For security reasons, the free circulation is rarely done with katana.

Kenjutsu History

The history of Japanese culture is full of episodes with the sword . In fact, one of the three sacred objects of possession of an emperor, was the sword. The other two are the jewel and the mirror. The old legend says that a Shinto deity dipped a katana at sea and the drops of water that dripped from the tip of the islands of Japan were born A cynic characterized the history of Japan as many people fighting over little earth. The sword and its use have shaped the history of the land and its people. First, the blade has become a very effective weapon of the court, even against armor. And two, its distribution has changed, which allowed the rise of a distinct style of Japanese sword.

In order to cultivate and improve the sword as a weapon and as an art form, two conditions were required. First, there should be manufacturers that could practice their trade without the risk of market stability. The most legendary battles from Japanese folklore occurred in this time period. Earlier, the battles were between the breed we now call Japanese, and indigenous peoples, called Ainu or Emishi. The battles were raging, and the leader of the army of the emperor was called Taishogun, later shortened to Shogun, the last military authority of Japan.

Later, the war between Gempei Taira clans and Miyamoto, documented as the wars between the clans struggle for supremacy. Miyamoto eventually won, laying claim to the title Shogun in their leader, after which the emperor declared that only the descendants of Miyamoto could lay claim to the title. At the end of the first century, three major generals rose, each in succession, and all the country under a unified leadership, Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyesu. When Tokugawa overthrew his last rival in the battle of Sekigahara in September 1600,it unified the country under one government for the first time in 800 years. Because Ieyesu could claim Miyamoto blood, also claimed the title of Shogun for himself and his heirs. Kamakura then moved the center of government to Edo, now called Tokyo. For the next 268 years, the Tokugawa Shogunate ruled the land in peace.

And with peace, came the decline in sword practice, however, small groups of traditionalists refused to forget the old ways. The writings of these kenshi are still quoted today as examples of great works. Miyamoto Musashi and Yamamoto Tsunemoto are still regarded as kensai (sword saints) in Japanese folklore. With great peace came warrior or unemployed ronin (literally "wave man"). Tokugawa tried to convert warriors into bureaucrats to run the government. The Tokugawa may have ruled in peace, but they held an iron fist to do so. Part of their way to control the flow of Japanese society was to establish a caste system.

There were four classes of people in descending order, samurai (royalty), farmers, artisans, and merchants. Those who were traditional farmer warriors could not use any of the longer swords, samurai could only wear the official badge of office, the sword. The Tokugawa also reached the shores of Japan to the outside world, engaging all intruders and allowing only a single small island near Kagoshima in the south to visit once per year for traders of Portugal.

Overall, the sword and its practice continued to decline during this time in a gradual manner. In 1854, the ships of Americans signed up Tokyo Bay and demanded open trade with Japan. but Tokugawa was pressured by internal forces to turn the tide. The only way to see Tokugawa preserve any measure of limited control was to return power to the emperor. And so in 1868, the Tokugawa stepped down, returning power to the emperor Meiji, beginning the Meiji reform.

Japan had entered the industrial revolution. The samurai were officially disbanded by Emperor Meiji. Later, they were excluded from the official emblem of the office wearing the two swords in 1877. This gave rise to the last great battle, the Satsuma Rebellion in December 1877 to January 1878. The Satsuma refused to obey and fought the government recruited (with modern weapons) in Kagoshima in the southern army. The samurai was killed and his martyrdom became a symbol for practitioners.

The modern period of the sword was characterized by a greater and more uniform decline. Samurai were forced to give exhibitions in order to try to earn money. The sword arts are divided in several ways. First is the sort ken or iai (sometimes called batto). Also at the same time are divided by origin, the three families of sword arts; Styles Muso ("empty"), Kage ("shadow"), and Shinto ("new sword"). Sometimes this mixes, depending on the origin and application. Within each type are the three styles.

Tessenjutsu

Tessenjutsu is the martial art of the Japanese war fan (tessen). It is based on the use of the solid iron fan or the folding iron fan, which usually had eight or ten wood or iron ribs. The use of the war fan in combat is mentioned in early Japanese legends. For example, Yoshitsune, a hero of Japanese legend, is said to have defeated an opponent named Benkei by parrying the blows of his opponent's spear with an iron fan. This use of the iron fan was taught to him by a mythological creature, a tengu, who also had instructed him in the art of swordsmanship.

The practitioners of tessenjutsu could acquire a high level of skill. Some became so skilled, in fact, that they were able to defend themselves against an attacker wielding a sword, and even kill an opponent with a single blow. Like so many other Japanese arts of combat during this era, tessenjutsu reached a high level of sophistication. For example, a famous swordsman in the late 16th century, Ganryu, was able to defeat several enemies with an iron fan.

Apart from using it in duels against enemies armed with swords and spears, the skilled wielder could also use it to fence and fend off knives and poisoned darts thrown at him. Like a sword, the tessen could be dual-wielded to parry with one hand and attack with the other.

Tessenjutsu is still practiced by only a few experts today. Kaze no Ryu Ogawa Ha Bugei are one of the few who are priveledged to carry on this martial tradition.

手裏剣術 Shurikenjutsu

Shuriken in Japanese means:

  • Shu - Hand
  • Ri - Which also reads ura - back in the middle of, in reverse, interior, palm behind, lining, wrong side.
  • Ken - That also reads Tsuguri - saber, sword, blade, clock pointer.

There are two basic types of shuriken: bo shuriken (long, thin blades) and hira shuriken, or shaken (flat blades, or star-shaped or diamond). The basic method of launching shuriken varies from one school to another, the main differences being in the shape of the blades and their use. According to the text of the school contribution of Susumo Motoshima Japan, the origin of the small pitch of the blades comes Ganritsu Ryu, founded by Matsubayashi Henyasai, a professional swordsman in the service of the 18th. lord of Matsuhiro in Kanei, circa 1624. This school gave the Katono or Izu Ryu, founded by a samurai from Sendai, called the Fujita Hirohide Katono, also known as Izu Katono, student of Matsubayashi.

According Motoshima sensei, this was the style that influenced the major schools of Bugei, being the source path of the practices studied in Kaze no Ryu Bugei. He pioneered the introduction of needles, with about 10cm and 20g, many of which he wore in his hair. The needle was held between the index and middle finger and thrown like a modern javelin, to the opponent's eyes. It was said that he could shoot two needles simultaneously with the figure of a horse, and hit each of his hooves.

According to the contribution of Iwasaki sensei were many styles that have emerged from there in ancient Japan such as:

Enmei Ryu The famous swordsman Miyamoto Musashi is regarded as the founder of this school, studying the launch of a 40cm blade, probably a "both" (knife). There is a story of a duel between Musashi and Shishido, expert Kussari-range (weapon developed to defend against the sword). When Shishido pulled his chain Musashi threw a dagger and pierced in the chest, killing him.

Shirai Ryu The Shirai Ryu was founded by Shirai Toru Yoshikane, born in 1783 in Okayama. At 8 years old, he began learning the art of the sword with Ida Shimpachiro Kiji Ryu, and at 14 he moved to Tokyo and trained daily in the school of sword Nakanishi, the Itto Ryu, and began teaching at Okayama at 23 . For nine years, his fame spread and he had more than 300 students, but he continued to doubt his ability. In subsequent years, he returned to Edo several times to train with their masters, until eventually achieved a kind of "biggest revelation" and found peace with his technique. After this revelation, he added the name Tenshin to his art, which became known as Tenshin Itto Ryu. The blade style and the method of release that he taught became known as the Shirai Ryu. The blade Shirai Ryu was a metal spike 15 to 25 cm long by 6mm diameter. It was pointed at one end and rounded at the other.

Negishi Ryu The Negishi Ryu was founded by Negishi Nobunori Shorei, successor Joshu Anaka during the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate. Negishi became a student of Kaiho Hanpei second master sword Hokushin Itto Ryu, after showing a promising handling the shinai as a child. Studied in other schools as Araki Ryu, and also throws Oshima Ryu, eventually becoming leader of Kaiho Ryu, and later taught for several years. When the Meiji restoration ordered the abolition of swords became farmer, and died in 1904.

The basic shape of the blade Negishi Ryu is similar to a pen with a larger head and the other end as a slender pump. Weighed about 50g, and sometimes had a tuft of hair or cotton on the back edge to ensure a straight flight.

Jikishin Ryu Not much is known of Jikishin Ryu, and it is suspected that it is a precursor to change of style or Shirai Ryu Negishi, or until the Kashima Shinto Ryu, because his method is to place the right foot one step ahead to launch the blade. The main difference is in the way of holding the blade.

The three smaller toes are bent, while the index finger pointing forward, as if it were a form of "Revolver" by hand. The blade is on the inside of his thumb and applies light pressure from the top down, holding her steady on the middle finger bent and holding the opposite end down when the blade leaves the hand. The indicator then rests on the side of the blade supporting. The rollout is just rising and lowering the arm from the side, while a step ahead is given. The arm cuts like a sword.

Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-Ryu This style is one of the most famous in Japan, with a long and distinguished history. It is an art consisting of various weapons, shuriken being included. Like many other schools, the shuriken was taught as part of the learning sword. There are descriptions of two types of blades. A chopstick is in the form of flat skewer with a sharp tip and the other straight.

Tatsumi Ryu This martial arts school was founded by Tatsumi Sankyo in 1500, and still works today. She teaches a full range of weapons including shuriken, and martial strategies and battlefield. Details on this Ryu shuriken are scarce at present, although it is suspected that the training was introduced as shuriken art in a more recent date.

Otsuki Ryu Yasuda Zenjiro, master of Otsuki Ryu Kenjutsu Hiroshima, recounts his teacher, Okamoto Munishige, a samurai of the Edo period of the Aizu domain, used the shuriken on many occasions during his employment in the shogunate security forces. He carried about 12 blades in various places including koshita (lapel hakama).

Ikku Ryu Ikku Ryu is the name given to a relatively modern style of shuriken, created by a master of modernity, Ikku Shirakami-ken. He was a student of master Naruse Kanji (died 1948), who trained in sword Ryu Yamamoto, and wrote a book about the fight with the Japanese sword, after his experiences in the war with China at the turn of the century.

Naruse was a student of Master Yonegawa Magoroku which in turn was a student of the founder of the Shirai Ryu above, Shirai Toru. His teacher, Shirakami learned about the Shirai Ryu and Negishi Ryu, and combined blade Shirai Ryu-style release of Negishi Ryu, and formed a new method, which involves a double edge blade.

居合術 Iaijutsu

Iaijutsu is "the art of the encounter", practiced combat techniques that are being taught during training. Practiced today as an automatic withdrawal, promotes self-discipline, improved coordination, and improves posture. In most styles, the actual cutting techniques are valid, but for the practice of Iaijutsu with defense or war, the accuracy is absolutely necessary. Some versions say the sword arts we know today probably began with Iizasa Choisai, the founder of Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto Ryu. This school included the use of many weapons like the spear, and throwing knives. A large part of their curriculum consisted of the quick draw and immediate use of the sword in self-defense. This section of his study is called Iaijutsu.

Jinsuke Hayashizaki Shigenobu (1542-1621) is reputed to have received a divine inspiration that led to the development of his art called Muso Shinden Jushin Ryu Battojutsu. Batto simply means "cut with the sword." The common thread to both schools, as in many other sword schools that dealt predominantly cutting with the sword, was that this art was practiced in the form of kata. How then can one be a truly effective martial art, being practiced through kata, against an imaginary opponent? This is a much harder question than it seems. The problem starts when trying to define 'effective', and considers that 'result' is desired. Of course, in the kata there is no opportunity to prove their technique in the fight repeatedly because, as in kenjutsu , there is no opportunity to modify their movements in response to those of his opponent.

From the perspective martial arts of the modern world, it is easy to treat the surface of traditional sword arts and criticize them as unfit simply because we do not walk down the street carrying a sword. The martial artist is to avoid combat. This was explained thousands of years ago by Sun Tzu in the "Art of War" and later by masters of strategy. The martial artist who trains fully and properly addressed by a sensei, develop an ability to recognize difficult situations and avoid them before they become a problem, minimize the conflict, or maintain a state of body-mind that does not provide opportunities to an aggressor. This is the meaning of Iaijutsu.

The kanji (character) 'I' can also be read as 'itte' and 'ai' as 'Awasu' in the phrase 'Awasu ni kyu ni itte the Tsune' which means "wherever you go and whatever you do, always be prepared. " Being prepared is not just having an aware state of mind, but having it rigorously trained so that, if necessary, a decisive technique can be used to end a conflict. With a sword, of course, the court is deadly. Therefore, the study of Kata is very difficult.

Kakuto no Bujutsu

It is a significant discipline of Bugei, which is the way and the reality of war. Kakuto means "fight, grapple" and Bujutsu, "art of war". Was later defined by the masters as the "art of war turned to reality." Since the beginning, the techniques of war have very different situations experienced in the theories and practices of a dojo's vision, kept in traditional schools, in a curriculum called "Okuden" the real and applicative forms.

The Kakuto in Bujutsu had its rise mainly in the Tokugawa era, when wars and conflicts were more constant. Psychological training provided by Kakuto in Bujutsu allows the practitioner a sense of the reality of war, which differs from the practice conducted by an instructor or teacher. The traditional manner directed for the purposes of the reality of war includes the use of any object that is available in a battle. Thus, the war had no rules or commandments that require them to use this weapon or that weapon. Among the most famous names is Takuji Sato, who lived at the end of the Tokugawa era, precisely during the period of transition to the Meiji era, which years later would restore the arts of turning them into Koryu Budo Gendai, which is a more appropriate for education, not for war.

It is believed that only the holders of certain Koryu arts lineages still contain such matters. The Bujutsu, in general, has always been concerned with the lived reality in its teachings, and that may be the most appropriate way to explain the creation of so many Ryu, since every day learning was performed and taught differently from the way home. Some schools have chosen to teach the traditional, unchanging form, and were later recognized by the maintenance of tradition and culture. Other preferred to teach in Kakuto Bujutsu free and in an experiential way. One way or another, few schools and styles that still care about this matter, which has very peculiar ways of teaching and characteristics, making it easy for a teacher to realize some fraud or something. As it has evolved, the methodology applied in the Kakuto Bujutsu is still the same as its source. Takuji Sato was a student of Kei Ogawa, who makes up the family tree of the International Bugei Society and the KBK Corporation.

Bajutsu

Bajutsu is the art of horsemanship war. The former bushi of high rank, was by definition, 'mounted warrior', which went into battle ahead of the troops. He therefore mastered the art of riding in feudal times, as indicated by the mount pieces of iron and bronze found in Japanese dolmens. Bajutsu is considered an aristocratic art as old as the Heian period. However, it lost much of its originality when the nobility, modifying the ancient practices of the clans war for more "civilized" forms of methods of violence, came to consider certain skills in martial arts so common, that in 1159 a captain of the guards outer palace even rode a horse, but merely to stimulate the provincial guards shouting in case of danger. Even in the most remote periods, the home of the bushi (ie, the central residence of the clan to which he belonged) included large stables and outdoor areas where horses were kept and trained, but there is no way to pinpoint exactly where and when the horse was introduced in Japan.

Some scholars argue that this animal was brought by immigrants to Yamato conquerors. Anyway, the horse used in Japan by "mounted warrior" seems to be the typical Asian pony, similar to that used by Chinese and Koreans, as well as the Mongol horsemen, who actually were born and lived with horses. The Japanese species is probably a cross of several continental lines, as these animals were often cited in lists of gifts exchanged between the Chinese court and the Japanese emperor. At the time, the cross-species was specialty of certain clans, each with its own method. The horses of the Nambu clan, particularly gained remarkable reputation throughout Japan.

These animals were apparently smaller than the European species or Arabs, but extremely strong, fast and able to perform highly sophisticated maneuvers. They were regarded as "notoriously bad tempered", and it was necessary to have an experienced hand to tame them, especially in the tumult of battle. The former bushi, as the Mongol warrior, had much skill in taming this beast. He wore a special armor (one-yoroi) when assembled. It was a lighter and more functional armor that developed in the seventeenth century, when the armor became predominantly decorative. It was basically the same armor he wore when walking, with the addition of certain items, such as the peculiar vest (horo), shin guards (sune-ate), and thigh protectors (haidate) to offset the disadvantage of being in a high position and consequently became an easy target for enemy swords during the battle. Unlike the mounts of European knights of the Middle Ages, the bushi horse was not wearing heavy armor. His head was protected with a mask of iron, steel or leather, molded in its format or representing mythical monsters. The armature of the animal body was composed of small blades leather sewn on a cloth. The Acrescia-saddle, stirrups, reins and bridle, that helped the rider to control the mount.

The art of riding on land is known as Jobajutsu Bajutsu or simply while riding in rivers it is called Suieijutsu or Suibajutsu. Each of these modalities has several traditional techniques, which differ from European ones. For example, the bushi usually mounted on the right, throwing their weight on the heel and not on tiptoe, as is done in Europe. The warrior held the reins with both hands until they were ready to fight the enemy, whereupon he tied to the rings and hooks on the armor itself and controlled the horse with his knees. The trajectory of movement of the rider on enemy lines was irregular, so he was not hit by archers. Near the enemy base, he was using their swords and spears, moving between enemy groups or grappling with another mounted warrior. In this type of encounter, both used their mounts with total mobility and coordination, as if they were on the ground. Under optimum conditions, the horse would be so in tune with the personality of its driver who acted instinctively, advancing and retreating at the right times. Even at night, the horses were used to trot silently, and were also trained to cross streams, rivers and lakes, for maneuvers near the homes of military clans waters.

The military riding had great effect on Bugei, not only as a military expertise but because it involved all the other martial arts as strategic support. The archery, weapons arts in general and techniques of unarmed combat, were directly affected by both the point of view of two riders facing as the point of view of a knight against a warrior in the soil. Riders employing all the techniques of Bujutsu mounted to the situation. The equestrian archery, for example, was a sub-specialization of Kyujutsu highly developed. Special techniques were developed like the sword, spear and even unarmed combat against an individual mounted. Even the horses were attacked without mercy, for the rider to come to the floor. The use of the horse in battle is no longer a determining factor in Japan even before in Europe. The high cost of maintaining horses and geographical relief Nipponese archipelago, full of mountains, did not favor the development of a large cavalry war, as was common in the Middle East, Central Asia, and Europe. After the Modern Era, Bajutsu virtually disappeared.

弓術 Kyujutsu

The Kyujutsu is the art of archery, which for centuries was considered the main weapon of the warrior in Japan. On the origins of this art, a theory claims that one would come from China through the famous archer Yoyuki, called by the Japanese "Shogun divine archery". Another hypothesis attributes the Ainos, who are recognized as archers, both in hunting and in war. The use of archery is linked both to the war, such as hunting, sports, spiritual and ritualistic practice. Even though its military strategic importance was lost after the introduction of firearms,it is still regarded as one of the noblest arts. It is a highly developed art with a complex system of techniques and practices, which initially had a wide variety of styles. Over time, many merged until there remained few major styles. There is a profound theory linking Kyujutsu to the birth of the Japanese nation.

After the unification of Japan in the Tokugawa period, the Kyujutsu became a mental and spiritual discipline, practiced far from the battlefields, under the stern tutelage of instructors who acted more as spiritual counselors than as masters of war. The name given to this discipline was Kyudo - the way of the bow and arrow. That method is still practiced in Japan, albeit in a modified form of the original. Kyudo gave the practice of archery a new dimension, as an instrument of integration and coordination that involves the personality of the practitioner in the highest physical, mental and spiritual level. It is based on the philosophical principles of Zen Buddhism and Taoism.

There are numerous legends about the great warriors who were proficient archers in ancient times. The most famous are the Minamoto Tametomo and Nasu no Yoichi. Minamoto no Tametomo would have been a man of exceptional strength and stature. His bow was so powerful that he needed five "normal" men to pull it. One of his most noted achievements would be to have sunk a ship with a single arrow. Nasu no Yoichi is known for his extraordinary ability demonstrated in the Battle of Yashima where, responding to a challenge, he hit a fan placed at the top of the mast of a ship, anchored about 70 yards from shore, thrown on horseback ahead of both armies, while facing each other on the beach. Indeed, it was during the Heian period that Kyujutsu developed as a practice of war, when it was used by the Knights. The basic equipment consisted of: archery (kyusen), cylindrical target (makiwara) and Canvas arrows (ya-bako). There were bows (yumi) and arrows (ya) of various types and sizes, each with a specific purpose.

The archery ceremonial usage developed almost simultaneously with the military use. The sacred ceremonies celebrating the foundation of the Japanese nation included aristocratic contests of skill in the art of archery, supported the sacred precepts of Shinto. Even today, this tradition is preserved in Yabusame, held annually in Tokyo and Kamakura, in mid-September.

兵法 Heihou

The Heiho is the strategy within the Bugei. It is a discipline that is part of human history since antiquity. Particularly prominent in all nations who staged wars, it acquired various forms, treatments and guidelines in every culture, and evolved, so more efficient results could be obtained. In the East, some works dealing with the subject became famous as "The Art of War" by Sun Tzu, and "Go Rin no Sho" (The Book of Five Rings) Miyamoto Musashi. In Japanese history, replete of wars and conflicts, the strategy played an important role in helping military leaders to perform the best maneuvers.

Known as Heiho, in Japan, some schools also took the name Bohiyako, composing reasoning facing the battlefield and enemy actions. Kaze no Ryu Bugei, particularly, is one of the strongest materials, making it an integral part of the way the student graduates Uchideshi, you get training in this field with eight years of study. Military training and maneuvers used in its performances made the strategy scary for those who did not know. In fact, the strategy permeates most physical disciplines of Bugei, since it constantly interacts with an opponent in each technique applied. Moreover, it covers an even larger sphere of action, when applied on the battlefield, through the planning of tactics. In today's world, where wars have turned to marketing and corporate field, the strategies assume a decisive role . In the area of management and marketing, the old jargon and war maneuvers are used today, but transported to a new economic reality.

In a simplified way, strategy is "what to do" and "why do". It is the determination of the tactics to be applied in the field. Several schools have devoted part of learning the subject, combined with studies of tactics, training and theories and have formed the military strategy as an art in and of itself. In the seventeenth century, these disciplines were divided as follows:


  • Heiho - military strategy;
  • Senjo Jutsu - tactics, maneuvers and handling of troops;
  • Soren - training and preparation of troops (training, handling etc.).
  • Gungaku - theory of military art (study of its nature and principles).


In Bujutsu, in a practical way, some of the basic combat strategies differ from tactics used in everyday life. All are thoroughly trained by practitioners, namely:


  • Attack - Enables employment of a technique before the opponent does. It builds on the initiative, the element of surprise and speed.
  • Counterattack - Allows application of a technique when the opponent started his onslaught. It is based on timing and well-calculated reactions that uses the enemy's attack as a defense.
  • Defense - Is to neutralize the opponent's action, preventing them from reaching their goal.


They all have advantages and disadvantages, and so they are used successfully, involving the detailed study and integration of various factors such as perception, coordination, breathing, self-control etc. Further information can be obtained from the institutions affiliated to the International Bugei Society.

Hojojutsu

Hojojutsu is the art of holding a prisoner and tie, using a rope. Developed in feudal Japan, was practiced by the samurai class. The word "HoJo" is formed by the kanji "ho", which is also pronounced "tori" and means "to capture, hold," and "jo", which is also pronounced "nawa", meaning "string." The word "jutsu" means "art, skill". The main reason for tying someone came from the need to hold, keep alive or prevent the escape of a particular individual. This was the case in feudal Japan when someone was captured by the enemy to provide information or to be used in exchange for someone important that was captured on the other side. There are several other reasons why Hojojutsu was used. One was holding a prisoner to be brought before any authority, in a possible trial for crimes committed. Thus, the Japanese are noted for having developed a sophisticated system of using rope to tie people.

The Hojojutsu was incorporated into the martial prowess of the bushi and mainly used in the bloody era of the 'Sengoku Jidai'. The lower class of officers, called 'okapiki', learned basic forms of Hojojutsu under the supervision of officers of the samurai class. The task of tying a prisoner or suspect was relegated to the lower patent. With the Meiji Restoration (1887), the Hojojutsu fell into disuse. It is important to note that prisoners were tied up in a specific manner, indicating their social status. Each method of mooring indicated the social position occupied by the prisoner and the crime he committed. There, inside the Hojojutsu, special techniques were used for people who were strong or who were able to undo the knots, so that the more laces a person moved, the more their arms would be strangled.

The ropes were usually made of linen, silk or hemp. In the Edo period, colored ropes crime indicated the status of the person. For example, the white rope was used for minor crimes, while the blue rope was used for serious crimes. If the person was someone important, the violet rope was used. If it was low class, they wore a black string. During this period, being tied with a rope by the neck was extremely humiliating. Some considered worse than death.

Various types of nodes are used for purposes ranging from squeezing, strangling or tying a prisoner to another. The Kaze no Ryu Bugei has the Hojojutsu in their curriculum, but other schools also developed this modality, such as Fujiwara Ryu, Chokuji Goden Ryu, Shin Shin Ryu Sekieuchi and many others. One method of capturing a prisoner was to launch a kind of hook that knocked the person. This was then tied in an intricate network of string, which completely paralyzed. Today there are few masters who dominate the traditional Hojojutsu. Modern police in Japan still carry strings to contain the prisoners, in addition to handcuffs.

Jittejutsu

Jittejutsu is the Japanese martial art of using the Japanese weapon Jitte (also known as Jutte in English-language sources). Jittejutsu was evolved mainly for the law enforcement officers of the Edo period to enable non-lethal disarmament and apprehension of criminals who were usually carrying a sword. Besides the use of striking an assailant on the head, wrists, hands and arms like that of a baton, the Jitte can also be used for blocking, deflecting and grappling a sword in the hands of a skilled user.

There are several schools of Jittejutsu today and various Jitte influences and techniques are featured in several martial arts.

抜刀術 Battojutsu

The Battojutsu is the art of cutting with the sword, and is closely linked to Iaijutsu and Kenjutsu . Its creation is attributed to Jinsuke Hayashizaki Shigenobu (1542-1621), who had received a divine inspiration to develop it as an art.

While studying the drawing of the sword (Iaijutsu) from the "saya" (sheath), the Battojutsu consists in a continuous motion, drawing the sword and performing the cut. The dividing line between these disciplines is very tenuous. The Batto is trained in three ways: individually (suburi), sequences (kata) and cutting test ( tameshigiri ). It is an art that seeks maximum efficiency, combined with the speed of execution. However, it should be emphasized that this "speed" comes naturally after years of grueling training. It is not performing any technique in a reckless manner. This is the type of amateur that can result in a poor technique and, what is worse, in physical harm. First, you need to practice slowly and carefully in order to develop the skill of management. For this reason, the beginner practices with the "bokuto", or the wooden sword.

Several techniques have been developed to Batto covering several situations where the samurai could encounter,what would lead to an unexpected confrontation. In many cases, such confrontations occurred far from the battlefields, in the castle of their lord himself. Such skills were essential to the medieval warrior in Japan.

Cultural Disciplines

Taiso

In the Kamakura Era Japan, there was a period of constant change for a people inhabiting an extremely hilly and cold (today Hokkaido) region, and living under constant battles. The need to seek the evolution of both the body and the mind, directed the horizon of people, who found the reason to progress from nature itself. By having a biotype short of current needs in this period, Shizen (forest people) have integrated all components of the regents of nature, developing exercises based on breathing as a source of absorption of KI (vital energy), with postures and movements covering both animals and nature in a whole.

With the observation of all these elements, we determined that every animal, plant and all other attributes of nature, jogging and harmonizes the universe differently than humans. These individuals began to look up and copy everything they saw, thus acquiring the same capabilities as the agility of a tiger, the flexibility of a bamboo, the strength of a river, the balance of heron, the lightness of a sloth and even even the stretching of a monkey.

From all this practice, several sequences, now known as methods, and simple exercises have become a therapy, meditation and even a medicine having the ability to control problems such as stress, hypertension, cardiovascular problems,breathing, and many others. With the use of a high sensitivity song, joins music therapy with the practice of "Taiso", forming an aggregate of paramount importance, which leads the human being of the century, the ability to harmonize with their inner selves, a world that borders on chaos, making it more social with everything around you. The practice of Taiso must maintain a certain continuity, so that the body is always fit and ready to receive an energy discharge, which requires force or other purposes. Just as the muscles weaken and tend to atrophy by lack of exercise, practicing Taiso loses its essence if done incorrectly or casually. You need to prepare the body for it to develop a capacity that man in general does not have.

The movement of the crane, for example, emerged as a joke, a dream of the man power to develop in such a way that would reach the heavens. Unfortunately it takes more than breathing and muscle development for the initiation of a "flight," and the man was not successful. But rather than give up the nature of his actions, he realized that it has acquired a new muscular capacity, and had in fact developed. Likewise, other existing movements are in Taiso. A single petal, that dances on the environment until reaching the ground, was a reason for that man trying to study this movement, and try to develop it to the fullest, so that he could feel as light as a petal observed. Understanding the nature and necessity of a continuing practice of Taiso, physical and mental, leads a person to a discipline, to maintain your practice, outside or inside of the schools. Further understanding of this discipline by itself shows the need to introduce this same concept to all the acts of its life, making him a person of greater respect for their commitments and interests.

礼儀と作法 Reigi to Sahou

"Reigi to Saho" is the study of the etiquette and politeness in Bugei. It is a matter of utmost importance, because the Bugei is a "military" environment, which requires the students discipline, respect and character. Such virtues are conditions for the individual who decides to go that route. Most of all manners begins within each person, and is the subject (Sonkei). Every disciplinary issue and behavior begins with this word. Respect is principle of all conduct of a person worthy of Bugei. Thus, to understand the thoughts and values of Bugei, you must first have within themselves the true respect for everything and everyone, including itself (kukimo Sonkei).

There are two types of etiquette - personal and formal.

The personal etiquette with respect to its form of conduct, thought and moral values. It is built by people's label in your way of being. Formal label, in turn, encompasses the entire study of standards of social conduct, which must be learned and decorated to become fit to be in any social environment, with the rules from the way people conduct themselves in a conversation with someone, to the way you dress. Although there are cultural differences between the rules of etiquette practiced in the West and the East, certain attitudes are universally accepted ,as well as, compliments and gratitude. However, in the middle of Bugei, there are a number of subtleties in gestures, words and attitudes that indicate whether the person is acting under the label or not.

Some examples illustrate the differences in the Western label of Bugei. An example is the apology. In the West, when you make some slip with someone, naturally it prompts an apology to the person. In Bugei it does not. The masters of Bugei do not accept excuses, because they believe that people need to give many explanations that are not worthy of your trust. Following this line of reasoning within the Japanese thought, this person might one day come to betray them. Justifying their mistakes is the biggest mistake in Bugei. The best approach will never give explanations because silence does not make mistakes. The recognition and acceptance of an error is an attitude of a noble human being.

Another question, is how to perform tasks that are not assigned. From the standpoint of Bugei, it is a great shame for one who did not perform their task. Fulfilling the obligation of another is often a crime worthy of death (through combat, or even the ritual of seppuku). Given these differences in relation to Western culture, it is natural that the beginning student commits gaffes all the time, because of lack of knowledge. However, once corrected by a senior, he should strive not to error again. Otherwise, this will demonstrate casualness, which is even more serious. However, the student follwing the real way of Bugei, if you embody the following attributes: humility, responsibility, education, respect and inner discipline.

書道 Shodo

Shodo is Japanese calligraphy, usually writing with sumi (black ink) and a brush on paper using Japanese or Chinese characters. A Shodo may consist of one or more characters, sometimes even hundreds. There is no right amount oh characters for that number. "Sho" means handwriting, and "Do" way. Writing can be a poem, or part of a proverb or comment about something accomplished. There are no restrictions as to what will be written. The purpose of the piece is to inspire, encourage, or commemorate an event. Although sadness, longing and a certain nostalgia can be expressed, the general feeling expressed in Shodo must not be negative.

Traditionally Shodo are found in temples, palaces and "tokonoma" house, a kind of shrine. Today, they can be seen everywhere. In Western-style houses in Japan, they are hung alongside paintings and photographs too. Shodo are also quite common in hotels, restaurants and reception areas of businesses.The number of Shodo should be chosen with a particular reason, be it to bring luck, prosperity, longevity, success, or simply because it is beautiful and the ideal size. Often there is a seasonal element in Shodo, replacing Japan as the season or event. The Shodo can be done for a special occasion such as a tea ceremony or matsuri.

Art as spontaneous and ancient (over 3000 years), the Shodo brings in its simplicity, a very particular manifestation of the feeling of the artist. Each piece is different and unique. Though more than two Shodo may have the same characters, they will never be equal. The color of the ink, brush pressure, the speed of the stroke, the role and the spaces between each stroke; everything is different. The photographer can make various Shodo on the same topic until you reach the desired result. A good handwriting that is maintained by the author and appreciated by others, however, most Shodo are destroyed.

The frame can emphasize the beauty of the piece, as well as its position in the environment, the lighting and even the action of time, as many enjoy the look of an old yellowed paper. The Shodo is done with a brush full of paint on a very fine handmade paper. Sometimes, the paper has fibers that cause creases and smearing the ink, producing a nice effect. Because of its delicateness, the pieces must be handled with care and preferably secured in a frame.

The West generally has difficulty understanding and appreciating this art. As the Shodo is done in a matter of seconds, it is difficult for the layman to understand the degree of difficulty involved in running a play. Not only is it an exercise in "good handwriting", but the combination of skill, style and imagination of the person who studied it intensely. Like Sumie, there are no touch ups, sketches or corrections on a piece of Shodo. The well-trained eye can distinguish good from bad handwriting instantly. The natural balance between the characters and the composition as a whole, the variation between thick and thin lines, the amount of ink on paper, the character size and pace throughout the work, are some criteria that can help in this distinction.

A Brief History of Japanese Calligraphy (Shodo)

Calligraphy arrived in Japan during the seventeenth century BC, through Buddhism. Buddhist scriptures were recorded in Chinese characters, produced by monks. The most famous Japanese calligrapher was probably the Buddhist monk Kukai. In one episode, the emperor Tokusokutei asked him to rewrite a section of a damaged panel. Kukai would have caught a brush in each hand, one in each leg and one in the teeth and thus simultaneously writing five columns of verses.

There are five basic types of written Chinese (kanji): tensho (written for stamps "hanko"), reisho (scribe's style), kaisho (blocky style), gyosho (semi-cursive) and sosho (cursive). All emerged in the late fourth century. The Japanese developed the "kana" characters during the eighth century, which express sounds in contrast to ideograms. Three types of "kana" were developed: "manyogana", "hiragana" and "katakana". The "manyogana" certain kanji are used phonetically to represent Japanese syllables, and were named after the poetic collection "Manyoshu". At the time these poems were compiled (VIII century), Japan did not have a proper system of writing. Some of the poems were written in Chinese characters used phonetically, and other Chinese characters used phonetically and graphically. From this drastic simplification, the "hiragana" and "katakana" emerged. In the hands of the women of the nobility of Japan, the "hiragana" developed into a beautiful writing, which is a unique calligraphic style of Japan.

墨絵 Sumi-e

The art sumi (ink) was introduced in Japan in the seventh century China, which dates back to about 2000 BC Over time, this art has established itself as also a typical Japanese art, with major contributions made by the monk-Toba Sojo, who drew " Choju Giga "in Heyan (795-1185) period, and Sesshu, in Muramaki (1333-1587) period as the first purely Japanese style of drawing Sumie. Terms are related to art: sumi (ink), Suzuri (ink stick), bokusho (art), kami (paper), and fude (brush, brush).

Sumie, also called "Suiboku-ga" refers to the Japanese monochrome ink painting, a technique that began in China during the Sung Dynasty (960-1274) and was assimilated by the Japanese in the fourteenth century with the help of Zen Buddhists monks. The Sumie has its roots in Chinese calligraphy, brush strokes learned in calligraphy are the same used in the painting. The most important is that the Sumie is not only a beautiful and unique art form, but also a philosophy. While most Western classical painting had as a goal the realistic description of the world and its objects, the Sumie has always been an expression of the artist's perception. Painters trying to capture the essence of an object, person, or landscape: more important than realism. Western painting uses color to create shadows, midtones and a sense of space. The traditional Sumie, on the other hand, uses only black ink. In oriental paintings, black ink is the highest simplification of color.

At the beginning of the tenth century, Japan started a big trade with China sending students to assimilate the best that Chinese culture had, highlighting especially calligraphy and religion. This exchange continued for a few more centuries, until internal changes through the Japanese adapted what they had learned as needed. A legacy of this bond of friendship was the seed of what would become the Zen Buddhism, whose date of birth was in the twelfth century. The Sumie, according to its origin, has as main feature. The speed in which it is performed, artistic inspiration that is transmitted in the shortest time possible, where there is no time for reflection or thought of what is being done, the artist must follow his spontaneous inspiration . There is no possibility of any correction or repetition there, a dash should be seen as unique, if any mistake he is "dead" and carrying all lost work.

This was the spirit that led many samurai to practice Zen and Sumie. A sword should be done spontaneously without chance for corrections or reflections, otherwise it would be dead due to the speed that the clashes occurred. In Sumie, it uses an ink made of soot and glue (Sumi) and brushes of fur from sheep or badger way to hold much liquid. But the paper is, in most cases thin and absorbent, which provides the main feature of this kind of paint.

The reason for choosing such a brittle material to convey the artistic inspiration, is that it should come to light in the shortest possible time. If the brush is very slow on the role, this is implemented. The white color is the background on paper (original color) is related to the universe. They do not see a definite and thus the characteristic related to the empty background is preserved. The philosophy of Sumie painting is moving to the role of the spirit of an object, with no intention to create a realistic work. Each stroke should be full of energy (Ki - life force that exists in all things). Each stroke has to show its vitality and life. A point is as an eagle or a dash as Mount Fuji. The point is a bird and the dash is the mountain. The Sumie artist as well as a master of the making of the samurai sword, put his spirit in the work and this creates life through their artistic expression.

Hisamatsu Shin'ichi, philosopher and connoisseur of Zen art, highlights seven characteristics that must exist in a Zen work, they are: asymmetry (fukinsei), simplicity (Kanso), naturalness (shizen), depth (yugen), detachment (datsuzoku ), stillness and inner serenity (seijaku). So, not all works can be classified as Zen Buddhists. The main topics related to Sumie are: bamboo, plum blossoms, orchids, flowers, birds and landscapes, not forgetting those linked to religious themes as paintings of the patriarchs or parables. There is a current trend of putting colors in some parts of the painting, especially where color is a way of demonstrating the spirit of the object. This fact occurs in many topics, such as the petals of flowers.

Today in Japan, many executives and people in high positions practice Sumie, not only as a form of relaxation or search for inner peace, but also as a way to improve business efficiency, especially with regard to making quick decisions. To paint Sumie, the practitioner must know perfectly the object that will be painted, so there is no reflection or doubt during the creative process an observation should occur almost constantly around things, so his practice also brings greater awareness of the life, because with it you start to have a greater sensitivity of the things and people around us.

The combination of painting, poetry and calligraphy artistic composition was preferred in Japan during the first half of the fifteenth century, especially in Zen circles. Programming of these "Rolls, Poems and Paintings" - Shigajiku - and commitment to making a work of art interconnected at all levels and senses crystallized here in a way. The latest, from the time of Ch'na master Chao-chou ts'ung-shen (778-897), unique personality, was also considered in Zen circles as something extraordinary. Eventually, comparing herself to the shutting down of emotions and desires and deepening during meditation with the penetration into a pumpkin: the principle is difficult, the opening is too tight, then the vision widens, however, soon came to a passage close; getting beyond it, we have the feeling of being in a tranquil lake. But ultimately, if we are to continue until the total liberation of all the strictures and limitations of the world of manifestation, it must be a shattered pumpkin.

A painting of Sengai (1750-1837), widely praised for its imaginative and humorous wealth, was a pumpkin dancing on the waves. The description that follows explains its resemblance to understanding the ultimate truth that escapes incessantly, despite the stubborn efforts. Now the pumpkin dips, now emerges again, and floats before our eyes. Just could not grasp it. Only the blind trust and uninterrupted trim on the support of the faith and purpose of enlightenment that lead to the other side of totally unexpected way, when we are no more harbored by that hope. Often this occurs only at an advanced age. It's what Hakuin (1685-1768) wanted to convey through his paintings, parables, so often repeated almost identically, in which two or three blind, groping carefully, crossing a small bridge. The comment says the following: "That the groping of the blind to cross a bridge to serve as a model of life during old age ..." (p.104 - Zen in the Art of Painting Brinker, Helmut Ed Thought.. ).

Two themes were transmitted to the zen art with a special preference. They are bamboos and orchids, most often connected to odd rocks. Thanks to its charming ways, their elegance and their attributes, in Asia, as an inexhaustible source of inspiration, both plants lend themselves as ideal means of the specific ideas and Zen Buddhist expression. Moreover, the connection so close between painting and calligraphic art offered mainly to aficionado monks, the opportunity of writing immediate and spontaneous spiritual intuitions or personal feeling.

In East Asia, bamboo is fundamental of ethical values. Its growth is straight compared to the intact nature of an exemplary man, his torso steady, regular and elastic, the inner righteousness that despite all the flexibility of your indulgence, denotes the unwavering constancy and firmness of a nobleman. Its always fresh and unchanged throughout the seasons green leaves are compared to stability, strength endurance and unwavering fidelity character as a valid model of ethics.

In China we find passages that show: "The inexhaustible supply of Peach Blossom", are full of metaphors ... The symbolic connection of this plant with the purity of sound and enlightened spirit made peach blossom became an integral part firmly literature and painting cultivated by Zen monks. The peach blossom, along with bamboo and pine, were already assessed, since the Sung and Yuang times, as one of the "Three winter friends" (san-sui yu-han). Thus, the image of a white sea of peach blossom attached itself to the thought of pristine purity of snow in winter and, in a broader sense, the uninterrupted survival during the hardest season.

Shakyamuni stiffened during the six years he spent in the ice and snow, the solitude of the mountains, before turning back to the world in order to proclaim his teaching. In this sense, all images of peach trees in bloom Rikkyoku it as the two wintry landscapes Linag K'ai - so at first glance, merely mundane topics - are appropriate to the religious context of Shussan Shaka. In China, concepts such as "ice" and "cold" are metaphors to stillness, linguistic habits adopted by Buddhists in the last step of Taoism.

医術 Ijutsu

Ijutsu is the study of Oriental Medicine and its various applications. Inside Bugei, this is an area of knowledge of the utmost importance and requires a minimum of eight years of study, it covers several areas, such as acupuncture, shiatsu, anma the kuatsu, reflexology, the physiognomy, phytotherapy among others. Allopathic medicine studies the anatomy of the human body but the similarities do not go beyond that. The holistic and energetic approach to the patient and the disease itself (unbalance), the forms of treatment and therapies applied differ in many aspects of Western medical science.

Kussajutsu

Kussajutsu is the study of herbs and their healing properties. It corresponds to phytotherapy, in disciplines in various cultures, most notably the East. China recognizes and utilizes the medicinal properties of herbs widely, from hundreds of years before Christ. Indeed, humanity knows the medicinal benefits of plants for millennia. Records of Roman, Egyptian, Persian and Hebrew medicine show that herbs were used extensively to cure practically every disease known to man. Many herbs contain powerful ingredients that, if used properly, can help the body heal. In its early days, the pharmaceutical industry was based on its ability to isolate these ingredients and make them available in a purer form.

According to the O-Chikara, all existing beings on our planet have an aura of power that surrounds the physical body. This aura is charged according to the vibration of the governing body, having different colors and intensities. In the case of plants, special devices allow to detect the energy that the coating layers and provides in some way, a direction in its therapeutic use. These devices measure even the affinity of a plant within a particular person, explaining why the use of the plant for the cure of a disease will be positive or not.

Other research methods demonstrate the difference in the energy field of a plant according to the type of farming that it had. Thus, plants were grown using organic fertilizers that are more balanced and brighter than those produced with the help of chemical additive energy fields. According to their energy, the plant can also be used to balance the emotions and feelings of people. Many plants are popularly used for energy cleaning environments and people, through incense and fumigations, precisely because some of them have transmutative qualities that allow the modification of atomic vibration, restoring harmony.

However, herbalists claim that nature put in the same herb other ingredients that are balanced with more powerful ingredients. These other components, although relatively less powerful, can help serve as an intermediary, or synergistic balance when working harmoniously with the most powerful ingredient. Therefore, when using these herbs in its complete form, in the healing process, the body uses ingredients provided by nature in a more balanced way.

From early times, the use of plants has been effective in curing many diseases - Science reveals its findings in the therapeutic values of plants developing the most effective scientific or natural, converging on the total real benefits in fighting the infections that plague mankind. The ancient people of the Middle Ages, as the Egyptians or Babylonians of Mesopotamia, experienced the healing power of plants.Many believe that the healing properties of plants are as effective as industrialized and synthesized drugs but without the side effects of these. In countries and communities where access to doctors and hospitals are limited, remedies made from herbs are the main form of medicine.

Doshu no Jutsu

Doshu no Jutsu is the art of leadership. With the principle of military tradition and the rise of the Shogunate, ruled the need for an organizational system that maintained high in the aristocratic class. Thus, from the command of the Ashikaga, Japan has been improving in the art of leadership, which consists of the manipulation of the media as well the administration and the economy. Many names were given in the past to such an art, aimed at structuring a guild, from its beginning until its consolidation. In other words, we can say either Doshu no Jutsu goes far beyond simply lead an army or a company. Nowadays, major universities have on your resume, disciplines aimed at building leaders.

Such teaching does not differ much from antiquity, being relevant placing an adaptation to the world of business today. This fact is that the books "Go Rin no Sho", Miyamoto Musashi, and the "Art of War" by Sun Tzu, were the most read at Wallstreet, USA. On the other hand, the art of leadership prevails in absorption and cultivation of thought focused on the evolution and mental improvement. "The man departs from and returns I restored". This phrase comes in to explain that the art of leadership, through his teachings, restores the normal way that any human being carries since birth. Being a compulsory subject in Bugei schools, Doshu no Jutsu is the foundation filed in the continuation of the Keiretsu companies and maintenance of military tradition.

Newer forms of flexible work organization emphasize more action teams over individual work. Team members, in general, are professionals with different expertise levels, greater maturity and involvement with the business objectives. To coordinate these teams, there is need for a new standard of leadership. In previous decades the prevailing profile of the dynamic and courageous leader who could win alone, his instrument of action was the hierarchical power, relatively rigid labor organization and control of the team. Today, in addition to dynamic and daring is expected to be the leader and creative entrepreneur, to work as a team member alongside other employees to: someone who can share the victories with the team.

The era of domineering leaders who kept the team members with restricted area of freedom to work is coming to an end. The relationship of the leader with the team is that of facilitator in order to obtain results. If previously served as commander, should now adopt the role of educator, always worried about unleashing the potential and talent of each team member and making the most of the individual skills. Paper focused on the production, is becoming a true human resources administrator. His weapon is no longer the power of the hierarchy, but the motivation of the staff and the central authority is passing the hierarchical position to the situation where the work is done, because the real power without exercising leadership leads to negative results.

We should reflect on the basic skills required for the performance of managers and leadership, that set of knowledge, skills and behaviors that enable the leader to generate a particular result by coordinating the work of the team. Competence in skills and knowledge related to the technical aspects of work and vary greatly according to the characteristics of products and services of an organization, behavioral skills, however, are necessary to any team leader.

Below we have listed some basic essentials to the listing leader competencies in organizations:

Self: The leader must have good perception and sensitivity of their impulses and motivations, as well as the effect of these behaviors on the people with whom they live. Confidence and realistic self-assessment of self postures are indicative and have strong impact on the situation of teamwork.

Self Motivation: Ability to set personal goals and pursue them with energy, enthusiasm, optimism and commitment to the objectives of the work. The motivated leader is a constant source of encouragement for the group. Major challenges in teams can be overcome only with motivated leaders.

Communication / Empathy: The currency teamwork is communication. Even small groups establish webs of communication and become scenes of strong emotions, alliances are formed and divergent objectives set-up. The leader must try to understand with empathy the views of all the people around and manage differences. Empathy is manifested in the ability to recognize the need for people to grow, so invest in the development of the talents as coaches and mentors.

Sociability: Ability to manage relationships, ability to create fields in common. People seem to know intuitively that leaders must manage their relationships effectively. The task of the leader is to get the job done by others and sociability makes this possible. Sociability is also manifested competence in managing diversity manifested in work groups: discussion, competition and conflict.

Boldness and Flexibility: It is expected that the leader is not only an entrepreneur and maintainer. But above all, it has flexible behavior ready to adapt to new situations and break paradigms.

In short, companies that operate in competitive markets have little room for managers in the traditional sense, but are deeply in need of leaders. And professionals in leadership roles are valued more for their behavioral skills toward teams than the use of hierarchical power conferred by position held in the organization. Although competence in skills and knowledge are important factors leading to Emotional Intelligence are decisive.

茶の湯 Cha no Yu

The tea ceremony - called in Japanese sado, or chado chanoyu - is much more than a stylized ritual of serving green tea powder in a serene atmosphere. It is a philosophy of life that for centuries has influenced many aspects of Japanese life. Green tea powder (macha) was introduced in Japan in the late twelfth century by Zen Buddhist monks who arrived from China. From the fourteenth century, spread among the upper class in the habit of making social gatherings for tea, especially for appreciating paintings.

Under the influence of the samurai, at the time the ruling class in Japanese society, have developed certain rules to be followed by the meeting participants of tea. This was the origin of Chado (literally "Way of Tea"). At first, meetings were characterized by ostentatious tea. It was only in the late fifteenth century Zen Buddhist monk Murata Juko (1422-1502) went on to encourage the practice of the tea ceremony in small rooms and few utensils. Another monk Sen no Rikyu (1522-1591), gave the final structure for the tea ceremony, in the late sixteenth century. Connected to zen philosophy, preached the wabi spirit Rikyu (detachment, simplicity, elimination of superfluous) for the tea ceremony, which would also become the essence of Japanese art.

Sen no Rikyu

Rikyu, considered the greatest of all the tea masters, identified four principles that guide the rules of the Tea Route: harmony (wa), respect (kei), purity (know) and tranquility (Jaku). One sentence sums up the meaning of Chado: ichigo, ichie ("one time, one meeting"). The Chado teaches that one should live every moment intensely, because it is unique, no repeats. Another important concept of the tea ceremony is "ire kokoro" (put the soul). The host tries to make his whole soul in the tea party and performs his role with the purpose of creating an atmosphere where the guest can find tranquility. After Rikyu's death, his teachings were passed down through the generations, their descendants and followers. Formed several schools, including the one with the largest number of followers is the Urasenke School of Tea, directed since 1964 by Soshitsu Sen, 15th generation Grand Master of Urasenke.

Kaze no Ryu Bugei

The Art of Tea within schools of Bugei descended from an older culture, which should also have been spread with Chinese ideas to prepare the tea. Studies within the Kaze no Ryu Bugei come from the teachings of Tengu, the energies of nature, turning his entire practice to spiritual refinement. One of the main acts of the ceremony is what we call Makoryo, ie the "inner purification and transformation" in the sense that element (tea), originating from the fusion of fire and water, to initiate a third energy, which extends around the inner those who practice. In schools Bugei, such practices are carried out almost daily, due to the large number of ceremonies to be held. Practiced alone or with a friend, girlfriend, partner, wife or children, for each situation there is a different ceremony. Some even completely change the plot, depending on the people that conduct.

盆栽 Bonsai

Despite being known as a Japanese art, it is known that the practice of miniaturizing trees originated in China, where it was taken probably along with Buddhism to Japan Bonsai The word derives from the Chinese word pun out. Even today there is a line of Chinese bonsai called Penjing, which follows different standards and aesthetics of Japanese models. This art of growing tiny plants born in China some three thousand years. The correct date and place where the first bonsai was grown are imprecise, but the story goes that the families during the winter, they lost some of their favorite plants. Unhappy with this type of incident, they gradually developed techniques that allowed conserve trees free from damage caused by the cold. There were many years of failed attempts to get the Chinese to cultivate the trees in trays.

The introduction of bonsai in Japan is a point of much discussion, but the strongest current believes that the arrival occurred during the Yuan dynasty in China, between the years 1280 and 1368, when the two countries have made great exchange. It's that time, 1309, the "Kasuga-Gongen-genki", a painting on parchment artist Takashina Takakane showing a celebration in front of a Buddhist temple with a bonsai in the background. This same picture is the target of controversy since depicts a landscape of the Heian period, 794-1192, or may be the oldest bonsai in Japan than currently assumed. The first recorded mention of bonsai date of the Kamakura period in Japan, period of history that goes from 1192 to 1333. The rolls of the priest Honen, who lived at the time, contained illustrations of miniature trees, planted in basins and exposed on shelves. Several other texts written during this period mention saplings and other plants harvested in the fields and mountains and made into bonsai. The famous theater play Hachi-no-ki, which deals with themes of the Kamakura Era, makes specific reference to plum, cherry and pine trees planted in pots. For all these facts, it is believed that the art of bonsai was already appreciated by Japanese nobility for at least 800 years.

During the Edo period, which goes from 1615 to 1867, gardening and potted plants, especially flowering species and colored leaves, were extremely popular in Japan However, evidence indicates that the increased interest in bonsai increased only in the late Edo period, when the trees were oddly deformed by pure mistake, considered good specimens of bonsai. This tendency to deformity was corrected and bonsai logo resurfaced as an expression of health and natural beauty. In 1914, to cover the growing public interest in this art, happened in Japan the first National Bonsai Exhibition. Twenty years later, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Tokyo instituted an annual exhibition, which is held to the present. Later times, an initiative of Takagi Foundation, to promote, among other things, permanent bonsai exhibition, opened on the outskirts of the Japanese capital Takagi Bonsai Museum of Art. In times past, the cultivation of bonsai was considered something of rich people. Today however is seen as a hobby and art by the general public. The taste for art has been growing year by year in Europe, the U.S. and Brazil.

生花【いけばな】 Ikebana

Ikebana is the Japanese art of flower arrangement. At first, it was an art appreciated by the aristocrats in the Heian (794-1192) period and spread to other social classes in the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries. The arrangement has a love of line, and also appreciation for shape and color, which highlights the difference of Japanese flower arrangement in relation to other arrangements. In its simplest form, representing heaven, earth and man. The arrangement symbolized certain Buddhist philosophical concepts but, over time, this art was adapting to the peculiar genius of the Japanese people. Gradually, very religious connotation was disappearing, emphasizing the teaching of naturalism.

The arrangement is linear in composition, with common branches. However, emphasis is placed on linear perfection and teaching of naturalism, trying to pass the teaching of understanding the natural growth of the material and demonstrate the love of nature in all its phases. The floral arrangement should follow somehow the weather and the season in which it lies. The symbolism of ikebana is closely associated with certain floral shapes with literature, tradition and custom. Each has its national holiday floral arrangement, as well as many family celebrations has its prescribed floral arrangement. It is remarkable that any Japanese floral arrangement is composed of three triangular groups of flowers or branches. A central upright group, a middle group in that part of the inclined direction standing structure, and another group in inverted triangle, which in part inclined to the central and intermediate group opposite direction.

It is rare to observe a floral arrangement devoid of natural foliage. Generally there are few branches of a tree or bush and some flowers. The most used are the flowers that grow naturally in the garden or in the field, and generally closed buds and leaves that are not fully developed are chosen. The reasons are two: while the branch is in bud, the beauty of the line rod is not obscured and also because you can watch it slowly unfold. The ikebana want to convey the idea of continuous growth in the life and vitality. Want to achieve the ikebana floral recreation of growth, based on the importance of line, rhythm and color. It is important to mention that the West give more importance to the quantity and color of the material, enjoying the beauty of flowers, whereas the Japanese emphasize the score line, developing the art in order to include stems, leaves, branches as well as flowers.

The main stem is forming the center line of the arrangement, called "Shin", and symbolizes the sky, one should choose the strongest example that the arranger has at hand. The secondary shaft or "Ring" is a human, the center line portion is arranged to produce the effect of lateral growth, should be approximately two-thirds of the height of the main shaft. The tertiary shaft or "Hikae" symbolizes the Earth. It is the shorter and is placed slightly forward or opposite to the roots of the two other side. It is very important the correct position of each stem, flowers can be added to fill out the arrangement. All are placed firmly in the container to give the impression that grow from a single stem. The choice of container is very important because the layout of the array will depend largely on the size, depth and width of this. Upon choice of material and plants, the next step is pruning, to adapt flower, branch or twig to the arrangement.

Physical and chemical to keep the flowers fresh and lively resources are employed. The Mizukiri or cutting the rod into the water is more simple, avoiding exposure to air of the trimmed end of the rod, avoiding suction of water loss by plants. The chemical feature is the use of a little hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, diluted in water that they will give vitality to cool and plants. Another feature is to rub a pinch of salt at the end of the stems. For better balance and firmness, the arranger can make a turn at the end of the stem or branch, should twist it gently with both hands to avoid breakage. The basic principles of the art of ikebana are respected and preserved. There may be differences of opinion and depending on the design schools of flower arrangement, but the basic principles are common to all of them.

折り紙 Origami

Origami is the art of paper folding. "Ori" means folding and "kami" paper. When joining two words, the "k" becomes "g", so "orikami" becomes "Origami".

In the year 105, T'sai Lao, administrator in the Chinese emperor's palace, began mixing bark, rags and fishing nets to replace the sophisticated silk that was used to write. He certainly could not imagine that mankind would use this invention called paper. The Chinese empire kept secret on the techniques of papermaking for centuries, for exporting this material at high prices. In the seventh century by Korean monks, the technique for making paper arrived in Japan as "a business in China," and a century later, the Arabs got the secret of this process. In Europe the technique reached by the twelfth century, and two centuries later, it had already spread through all the Christian kingdoms.

The role was not always good quality. Except in China and Japan, where from the first moments it was possible to practice bending it, the rest of the world, mainly in Europe, the paper was thick and brittle, making the practice of folding. Only from the fourteenth century, it was possible to fabricate a thinner and more flexible role in Europe. But the high cost to manufacture was also an obstacle to the popularization of origami. No one knows who created many origami, since many of them were passed by several people until the final shape. This occurred with the creation of "orizuru", and it is believed that this was the essence of origami, the union of several people for building. You could say that these origami are one of the oldest peculiar heritage of the country. According to some scholars, the first origami figures emerged in antiquity, around the sixth century, when a Buddhist monk brought to Japan the method of papermaking from China via Korea, which hitherto was not known.

Earlier, it had symbolic character in the rituals of Shinto ceremonies. The noshi, offerings made in the temples which were wrapped in paper, whose function was to separate the pure from the impure. The evolution of these wraps with increasingly complex and attractive folds so that origami was no longer a means to become an end. Thus, data were presented in different ways, following some basic rules, respected by all who doubled. A tradition that has its roots in the twelfth century. Also at that time it was found that there was a marriage rite in which roles were bent from the base of the balloon, symbolizing the bride and groom (moths). The moths - male and female - involving bottles of sake, symbolizing the union.

At this time, when the state and religion was one, Seisei Ichi the origami represented the nature of religious ceremonies. Say was used to transmit or record the intention of the religious ceremony. However, these were a mix of origami origami with kirigami, which is the art of forming figures through paper clippings. These origami were made using paper manufactured especially for the use of Shinto priests. Silhouetted up the squares or rectangles roles shaped radius, bending forward in time format, or nusa shide or objects used during ceremonies. And yet, in Katashiro used in harai, paper dolls used in Hinamatsuri (festival of dolls), the monkirigata which is the prototype of the badge, they all were made following the method kirikomi origami, which is "origami with cutouts."

"The Katashiro are still today serving in Shinto shrines in place of divinity, taking its shape. Oldest Katashiro origami is at Ise Jingu, Mie, therefore it is said that the history of origami is as old as the history of Japan "(Kanegae, 1988). These types of are considered a classic origami art, and is being taught today to students at the School Ogasawara tag. In Europe, without this religious sense, existed in the sixteenth century the custom of the students of the University of Padua, to visit their teachers, left a business card with your name, folded so as to express a feeling or intention.

The pentagonal node that the Japanese used to write their prayers was known in Europe since the twelfth century, especially among scholars of Geometry. The desecration origami gained ground parallel to the reduction of costs. The most popular classes began to have access to this practice and soon his techniques were quite widespread. The figures represented objects of daily life (samurai helmet, dolls, boats etc..). Many of these pieces are folded up to the present day. The beauty of the pieces, in large part, comes from the lightness of handmade paper used in its making. The similarity between Japanese figures and traditional European figures could be due to a direct communication made between missionaries and traders. Both traditions have the same figures, with predominance of bent at angles of 45 degrees. Some are documented in Europe since the seventeenth century. The pajarita (Birdie) Spanish now called all figures folded in Spain. The Spaniards believe is, in the European context, the people who more strongly maintained this tradition.

Another formal origami used until the present day is the noshi, an ornament placed on the gift wrapping, meaning that the person wants a lot of fortune for gifted person. The Japanese said that all this should be wrapped in pure white paper, and as it is not possible, utilizes the noshi this white symbolizing the Japanese custom. The Japanese consider the white race as sacred. They say that in the world the Japanese and Koreans are the only people who love white. The basic principles dictate that origami should be made from a plain paper, dimensional, so that the result is an object with three-dimensional be used without other materials such as scissors, glue or the like. From the seventeenth century, these strict rules were slightly changed, giving the freedom to use small cuts made since the beginning of the process.

The currently known recreational origami originated in the Heian period (794-1192), a time that origami is no longer to be more formal recreation, evolving into forms of herons, boat and dolls. According conceptualized the origins of origami, Professor Okamura Massao 65, researcher origami began in the seventeenth century by the samurai. It was they who took the first steps to the current format of origami. And the interesting thing is that unlike today, where origami is seen as a children's activity, until mid-early nineteenth century, it was regarded as a fun and interesting hobby restricted to adults, mainly due to the value dearly the raw material.From the manufacture of paper in Japan, the Japanese people get to know and improve origami, and passing from father to son. During the Edo period (1590-1868), origami is now practiced mainly by women and children regardless of social class. By the end of this era, about seventy types of origami, such as "tsuru" (crane), sapo, iris, lily, ship, basket, balloon man etc were created. These received the designation of origami, "origaka", "orisue", "tatami-gami" etc..

In the Meiji (1868-1912) was the origami again be taught in schools, after suffering major influences of the German method of origami. This is because the origami flourished in Japan in other countries also occurred the same, as in Spain, where the first origami were introduced by the Moors in the eighth century. While the international exchange made origami known around the world after World War I origami classes were eliminated in Japanese schools, claiming they were considered non-teaching to the educational system. This issue is still being discussed because after this withdrawal origami became restricted to children and family environments.

Other Disciplines

Kaze no Ryu Ogawa Ha Bugei is comprised of 36 Physical Disciplines. There are also Cultural Disciplines, as well as, Mental Disciplines. Although a large portion of the disciplines have been listed on this page, this is not an exhaustive list of all the disciplines practiced in this lineage of Bugei.

The Makimono of Kaze no Ryu Ogawa Ha Bugei

After ten years of intense work and achievements with constant trials required by the relevant people in the area, the International Bugei Society (IBS) has established itself as a serious and honorable institution in the maintenance of Japanese culture and Bugei.

Once formed, Shidoshi Jordan Augusto was granted by Hiroshi Ogawa, for tirelessly devoting himself to new achievements specializing in various areas, has become in actuality, a reference to Japanese Bugei as a great exponent of the culture of Bugei.

After returning closer ties with his former teachers, Jordan Augusto received the Makimono - (The Maximum document containing the Pedigree with all Koryu Seiteigata required), stamps with official recognition by Sensei Ogawa himself, which certifies the competence of Shidoshi Jordan in maintaining the art of Kaze no Ryu Bugei.

Shidoshi Jordan was dedicated to the priesthood of the O-Chikara, along with Shiniyuki Sensei, to study the "Bugei Juhappan". He is responsible for several books and articles on the subject that have become required references for study.

He was also director of national events such as congresses, basic courses, intermediate and specializations in the arts of Kaze no Ryu Bugei, and has promoted and launched videos and DVDs on the subject. He has written over fifty books (awaiting publication) which two of them are launching at the Federal University of Goiás - "Shogo, The Paths of the Body (Oriental Medicine)" and "Sumi-e, A Path to Zen" with also over ninety essays on various topics. Shidoshi Jordan is the founder and sponsor of Bugei Magazine (found online today at the official website of the SABS), has recorded two CDs and was the Director of the Japanese-Brazilian Fair of Bugei, including contributions to the cultural growth of the Japanese colony - Kay Kan - Goiás

In an extraordinary way, Shidoshi Jordan has received countless times from several Departments of Government the "Title of Merit", and also has received similar titles of very important people connected to the world of Bugei.

Having overcome many difficulties in 2003 due to internal problems, Shidoshi Jordan was praised by the Executive Boards of Bugei led by Mr. Roberto Kunio Araki, who repeatedly stressed the honest work of the IBS. Today, with these details properly resolved, Shidoshi Jordan enjoys the confidence and support of his superiors and is constantly new international opportunities.

The International Bugei Society is now engaging in rapid expansion and large investment in the training of their representatives, at a high technical level to all practitioners worldwide. With regulations of the National Council of Kaze no Ryu Bugei (CNKB), a new step has been offered for all who dream of living the tradition of classic forms and follow a path within the Arts of War, in the Ogawa lineage.

We know that for the future, large lands await the work of the International Bugei Society, where many countries from around the world are now awaiting a response from the Board Headquarters in Spain.

The Government of Kaze no Ryu Ogawa Ha Bugei

Regional Governing Authorities

  • The North American Bugei Society - The North American Bugei Society (NABS) is an anthropological organization created to preserve, maintain and promote the Bugei lineage of Kaze no Ryu Ogawa Ha, the Classical Arts of War and Japanese Culture. NABS is the regional governing body that directly administers and supervises the activities of the schools and study groups in United States, Mexico and Canada.


  • The Central American Bugei Society - The Central American Bugei Society (CABS) is an anthropological organization created to preserve, maintain and promote the Bugei lineage of Kaze no Ryu Ogawa Ha, the Classical Arts of War and Japanese Culture. CABS is the regional governing body that directly administers and supervises the activities of the schools and study groups in Central America.


  • The South American Bugei Society - The South American Bugei Society (SABS) is an anthropological organization created to preserve, maintain and promote the Bugei lineage of Kaze no Ryu Ogawa Ha, the Classical Arts of War and Japanese Culture. SABS is the regional governing body that directly administers and supervises the activities of the schools and study groups in South America.


  • The European Bugei Society - The European Bugei Society (EBS) is an anthropological organization created to preserve, maintain and promote the Bugei lineage of Kaze no Ryu Ogawa Ha, the Classical Arts of War and Japanese Culture. EBS is the regional governing body that directly administers and supervises the activities of the schools and study groups in Europe.

Inter-Continental Governing Authority

The National Council of Kaze no Ryu Bugei (CNKB) - The National Council of Kaze no Ryu Bugei (CNKB) is the apex body that regulates schools and teachers providing regulation and supervision of the teaching and learning methodology of Kaze no Ryu Bugei worldwide.

(CNKB)’s responsibilities are as follows:

  • To supervise comptroller and teaching activities in the schools of Kaze no Ryu Bugei
  • To promote and authorize the formation of schools and teachers
  • To standardize and update the curriculum and courses for teacher training
  • To promote conventions, seminars, gashukos, training courses, and study tours
  • To regularly monitor and evaluate schools, teachers and students
  • To edit texts and convene with publishers concerning articles and books on Bugei
  • To provide examinations for the conducting of graduation exams
  • To issue diplomas, certificates, and identification to affiliates.

The written materials are developed, adapted and reviewed by qualified teachers of the respective disciplines. Meetings and detailed analysis aims to provide the student with Bugei didactic material that is intelligent, understandable and perfectly framed in quality standard methodology.

The (CNKB), when it deems necessary and appropriate, may eventually recommend books and videos with content related to the arts that can contribute to the development of the student. As for materials such as clothing and equipment for training, eg., Kimono , Tabi , Bokuto , Jo , Bo etc., the (CNKB) ensures the supply of quality products and vendors whose products best fit the institution. The (CNKB) may further amend, revise or supplement the instructional materials as it deems necessary, without prior notice to the student, when it deems appropriate.

Controversies

In the name of the CNKB - Conselho Nacional de Kaze no Ryu Bugei (National Council of Kaze no Ryu Bugei), registered in Brazil, and under the request of superiors, we will attempt to clarify some of the various comments, in no certain order, made by unauthorized people on forums, blogs, and the internet…most of whom:

  1. Have never been to any of our schools from around the world.
  2. Have gone to one of our schools but had misguided expectations.
  3. Have given their own opinion but acting like it is a fact.

The story of our style, formerly called “Kaze no Ryuu Bugei”, started in the Kamakura age - 1192 A.D. - 1333 A.D., with the Shizen people at that time, living in the northern part of Japan near Hokkaido. The Shizen people are closely related to the Ainu people who are known as the first natives of Japan. The Shizen people were the repressed Ainu as well as other discontented within the feudal regime, such as Rounin and Farmers among others. Notably, as rebels, all efforts were made towards keeping themselves hidden and silent.

Mr. Oscar Ratti, author of many known books, mentions in his book, “Secrets of the Samurai”, that the Ainu people were pushed back into the northern lands of Hokkaido. According to this source, this knowledge has been passed down from teacher to student, as is the custom, for at least three generations.

Mr. Ratti’s book, however, is not the only available source for researching the fact that the Ainu people and culture existed, and that they opposed and resisted the rules of the Japanese Emperors. Many citations and explanations can be found in the Encyclopedia Britannica and there are several books written about their history.

The term “Emishi” was used, at that time in Japan, to designate those tribes and to differentiate between the culture, habits and language of the “nihon jin” or Japanese people. With the constant need to learn and develop a martial art, an effective system called “Uchiuu Shizen” was created that provided effective means for when a life was threatened during conflicts and combat.

Naturally, due to the differences that many Bushi had for the martial arts, other arts such as calligraphy, painting and meditation among others, were incorporated into the style and studies.

The teachings from our school say that the name “Kaze no Ryuu” (style of the wind) was baptized by Yorike Mizuguchi because of the strategic knowledge that aimed to deceive the enemy, that is, moving forward and backward, as the wind. The writing of the kanji for wind, “kaze”; and style or method, “ryuu”, in its Chinese readings, onyomi, respectively, “Fuu” and “Ryuu”, although makes a lot of sense in Japanese, could lead to a misunderstanding, since “Fuuryuu”, with exactly those kanji, is a word of common use, meaning “elegance”, or something like “refinement”, being a noun or an adjective. Be that as it may, the name “Kaze no Ryuu” has been taught at least since Ogawa Sensei.

History reveals that although Ogawa Hiroshi was known as a martial arts genius, he was also a man that went through many frustrations and bitterness in his lifetime, notably being a person quite difficult to live with. From this point of view, in the story of Ogawa Sensei, there are three versions: his own, the one from his enemies and the true one. With that said...We only know his version.

This small résumé, however, may be seen as legend, and there is no way to prove it. There is no way to attest that the style is definitively ancient, nor that the grandparents of Ogawa Sensei practiced in this fashion.

Henceforth, we his students, deal with the responsibility of passing forward what was transmitted from him. We are not affiliated with any kind of organization, because Ogawa Sensei did not like to appear at events very often and did not allow his students to frequent events either. This feeling was adopted by everyone active in the group. It was only later, in the latter 90’s that Shidoshi Jordan Augusto started to gradually disclose our order. Although, as mentioned, we are not affiliated with any kind of organization, at the same time, we continue the method of Ogawa Sensei in a very organized manner.

Ogawa Sensei always said he taught Koryuu; and for every movement and sequence of Koryuu there was a precise explanation for that movement, at that certain time in history and according to the line of thought of the ancient warriors…which is still held to this day. Because of the very large amount of details and references to ancient things like objects, weapons, situations and ways of thinking, it was always clearly taken, that what was studied, was from ancient times.

Ogawa Sensei developed several studies beyond the classical sequences, which made his students quite different technically from the other students of Kaze no Ryuu Bugei. As a matter of preserving what was taught by Ogawa Sensei, his students began to refer to it as Ogawa Ryuu, and probably at this time, the most correct interpretation was Ogawa Ryuu Ha.

In the same way, aiming to preserve what was taught in Brazil, all of the Seiteigata was cataloged and photographed and it is kept officially as internal documents of our school.

Anyway, if it is a Ryuu, a Ryuu Ha or a method created by himself, we do not know for sure and it’s extremely hard to prove.

The study of Ogawa Ryuu, since Ogawa Sensei’s time, was developed under subjects, or arts. Many of them are briefly described on our website at: www.bugei.com.br The subjects can also be found at http://www.bugei.com.br/bugei/bugeinobrasil.asp with the most coherent history, with names and dates, about the early development of the Ogawa Ryuu Bugei in Brazil.

Under the subject “Juujutsu”, for example, all the postures, breathing, disposal of hara, angles, ma-ai, timings and peculiar characteristics will be according to the specific ways of thinking present in Juujutsu. In our style, Juujutsu is typically an art of self-defense, used most generally in situations of aggression, attacks or everyday situations. The sequences and movements prove this historical feature, and so do all of the details surrounding the study. We note that the characteristics of this example may be applied to our Juujutsu only; because of the so many existing styles of Juujutsu, there are certainly some that were not developed mostly for self-defense.

For each subject there are different studies, different exercises, and different explanations.

On the other hand, the school has two kinds of study and practice: The classical sequences and the other is the free form in which Ogawa Sensei stood out the most. In the free form, logically, every student and teacher makes an effort to polish and improve himself, with constant changes pursuing the maximum reality, but never adulterating the Koryuu Seiteigata forms.

We have videos and documentaries that are available on our various sites, as well as thousands of videos on Youtube and other social media. All of the public videos made in our institution are available to the public and may be found there. There are many videos showing Seiteigata forms, and others showing free forms. Some are performed by Shidoshi Jordan Augusto, and others by older students and also by beginners. The purpose of each one is different.

We truly admire researchers who share their opinions in a serious way with other people and believe that this can lead to great conclusions and study. Nevertheless, because of the clandestine nature of our organization, it is not usual for our institution to reply to any kind of forums, blogs or digital platforms, regardless of its aims, purposes or contents. Thus, even though we know that many questions will still be raised in forums with so many experts and researchers, we guard the right to remain silent.

As said, the institution is open to whoever wants to know or study the style in a serious and ethical way, according to our purposes. We do believe that even with the experience that great experts may have, having your own experiences about something, especially a style or school, is the first minimum step to be able to evaluate it.

Whenever you are doing your Due Diligence, we just ask that you please consider the source of where your information is coming from. You always have to make sure that the source you are getting your information from is a credible source in the martial arts community.

Unfortunately, most people who have something negative to say about Kaze no Ryu Ogawa Ha Bugei are either people who are not serious practitioners of martial traditions or people who are ignorant. We find that many people in this sector have unrealistic expectations, do not operate in sound judgment or best practices.”

International Governing Authority

The International Bugei Society (IBS) - The International Bugei Society is the headquarters for Bugei worldwide and is head by Shidoshi Jordan Augusto di Oliveira Moraes. The IBS was founded in 2002 with the primary objective to preserve, maintain, cultivate and spread the culture of Bugei (Traditional Japanese Military Art) and how to regulate and monitor the educational activities aimed at this art, so it is not warped or distorted from its original principles.

To achieve this goal, the organization focuses its activities in two main areas: Education and Service to the community in which it operates. The educational aspect is developed through institutions (schools) dedicated to this purpose, duly registered and authorized by the (IBS) organization.

To that, schools must have adequate conditions of teaching and practice. To propagate Bugei, it must meet certain requirements to qualify for the status of an institution affiliated with the International Bugei Society, according to the standard determined by the status of (CNKB) - National Council of Kaze no Ryu Bugei.

The objective of controlling these educational entities is to ensure the highest possible fidelity of the art and its more traditional forms. Such control is through the constant contact between the schools and the organization for periodic reports and surveillance. The goal is to establish a cooperative relationship between the schools and the organization, as that plays a role both impartial and collaborator, that the entities have the backing and support necessary to the success of its educational activities.

The prestational aspect is developed through the provision of community services, which can contribute to their well-being, their physical and mental health, their quality of life and its spiritual evolution. To this end, it offers services in the fields of oriental medicine (shiatsu, acupuncture etc., meditation and body practices geared to the mental balance through qualified professionals.

The (IBS) may also establish partnerships with individuals and corporations deemed appropriate, for the provision of related services that share the same goal. Today, internationally, each area has the authority to regulate these same principles in each country, such as the European Bugei Society, North American Bugei Society, South American Bugei Society, Central American Bugei Society and others."

References

  1. (By Jordan Augusto - Contribution Takeshi Hasegawa)
  2. Illustrations: Secrets of the Samurai, Oscar Ratti / Adele Westbrook, Tuttle, 2001.
  3. Text taken from an excerpt from a lecture given by Juliana Uchideshi Galende on the headquarters of the IBS.
  4. Augusto, Jordan. "Ki - Living in Harmony with the Energies" and "Haragei - The Force Comes from Within"
  5. Augusto, Jordan. "Tetsugako - Philosophy as Interior Weapon", Ed Kanji. 2002.
  6. Text from the book "Sumie - A Path to Zen" (Augusto Jordan, 2002)
  7. Augusto, Jordan. "Shogo - The ways of the Corps - Vol 1" Ed Kanji. 2001.
  8. Augusto, Jordan. "Haragei" Ed Kanji, 2002.
  9. Augusto, Jordan. "Kusa - The encounter with the Balance." Ed Kanji, 2002.
  10. Augusto, Jordan. "Ki - Living in Harmony with the Energies", Ed Kanji, 2002.
  11. FF Source: www.bonsaibrasil.com.br
  12. Ikebana Arts and Creation in Style Ikenobo. Brazil-Japan Cultural Alliance
  13. www.bugei.com/br
  14. Bujutsu Encyclopeia
  15. South American Bugei Society
  16. International Bugei Society
  17. Jordan Augusto
  18. Augusto, Jordan. "Tetsugako - Philosophy as Interior Weapon", Ed Kanji. 2002.
  19. (Takeo Nagaki and Hideo Sasaki documents)
  20. "Bujutsu a arte da guerra eo spirito" Augusto Jordan & Galende Julianna, book in Portuguese, published in Brésil.On finds the history of Japan, the main cultural aspects, the history of the school and bugei Kaze no Ryu and a presentation of all bujutsu.En French, you can read in-depth articles on the martial arts school long remained confidential, in the journal "International Budo" No. 186 in March 2012 and No. 266 of novembre2013 and in the Karate-Bushido "No. 394, March 2012 journal".
  21. "Bujutsu a arte da guerra eo spirito" Augusto Jordan & Galende Julianna.
  22. Budo International Martial Arts Magazine " [ archive ]  : Many articles discuss the origins Shizen school as they were transmitted through the lineage Ogawa in the journal "International Budo", particularly in the March 2014 and June , 2014.
  23. Encyclopedic Dictionary of the story "Mourre," Bordas
  24. Pierre-François Souyri, New History of Japan , France, Perrin, 2010, 627 p. , p 463
  25. Budo International Martial Arts Magazine " [ archive ] See the article by International Budo June 2014.
  26. The family tree of the Ogawa family but do not back up Yorike Mizuguchi [1] [ archive ]
  27. Center for Japanese Studies -Brazilian http://www.cenb.org.br/cenb/index.php [ archive ]
  28. More detailed information on the website of the Brazilian company bugei explanations [2] [ archive ]
  29. On the bugei in the state of Goias [ archive ]
  30. An excellent presentation of the traditional grading system in "martial Chronicles" by Henry Plée 10 dan, Budo 2002 editions
  31. [3] [ archive ]
  32. These divisions are exposed in the magazine "Karate-Bushido" No. 394, March 2012.

External Links

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