The lost European countries in the 20th century

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Introduction

The lost country is the extinct state which had lost its ethnic grounds, land, language or was occupied by the other country and lost their national identity (name, anthem, flag). It is also a country which had lost any of its political powers and become completely dependent on other countries' interests.

In the beginning of the 20th century our world covered a few dozen independent countries. Now we are living in the 21th century and can count only more than 200 sovereign states. So, the question is what have happened to the others? Why did time pass away numerous of different governments, flags and hyms and why all of that happened exactly in the 20th century?

The 20th century was the time of changes. The world was touched by the First and the Second world wars, Economic depression, the Holocaust, the rise of dictatorship and many other events which had a huge influence on country‘s independence. Scientists* still cannot answer for sure and guarantee that all of these facts are the reason why more than hundred of countries had lost their independence. Anyway, these enigmatical suspicious should be lightened up.

So, the purpose of this article is to sum up all the possibilities why some countries didn‘t survive till this day and find out what could be the main reasons of this loss by exploring these aspects:

• What was that country like in its golden time?

• Why have happend to that country?

• What is happening in its territory now?

*Just to comphasize, in this article you are going to find out 10 different science hypothesis and personal authors' opinion. Nevertheless, a variety of articles constantly show up with different opinions on this topic, nobody still has not tried to mix all of ideas and find the real answer. Everyone is able to have an access to include more countries to this list.

The list of the countries

  • The European countries that had disappeared in 20th century
Name Period National flag Description
Albanian Kingdom 1928-1939
Flag of Albania (1934–1939).svg
  • The  Albanian Kingdom was a de facto protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy. And the king was Zog I.[1] The new kingdom was recognised immediately by Italy - naturally as it was Italian money that was propping up Zogu's takeover - and then by Greece, Hungary, the USA and the Vatican. A reluctant Belgrade followed soon after, in mid-September 1928[2].
  • Unfortunately, Italy's Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, as a leader of National Fascist Party,  took power in the government.[3] The aggresive policy was oriented to expansion of Italy. Even Italy and Albania maintained close relations, Albania became a target to strengthen the fascist country. An ultimatum, demanding to accept Italy's occupation of Albania, was delivered to Zog I on March 25, 1939, however, he refused to allow the invasion. On April 7 all Albanian ports were attacked concurrently.[4]
  • These days exists Republic of Albania.
Albanian Republic 1925-1928
Flag of Albania (1926–1928).svg
  • Albania became a de facto protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy after the signing of the Treaties of Tirana of 1926 and 1927.[5]
  • The country has changed the status in 1928. Zogu, who has established himself as Albania's dictator with the title of president, decided to emphasise his dictatorship permanently. A new Constituent Assembly proclaimed Albania a monarchy under Zog I, King of the Albanians. [6]
  • These days exists Republic of Albania.
Armenia (Democratic Republic) 1918-1920
Flag of the First Republic of Armenia.svg
  • The collapse of the Russian Tsarist empire with the Russian Revolution of 1917 gave a chance to the Armenian Revolutionary Federation to create the new republic.[7]
  • Armenia Democratic Republic had conflicts with The Turkish Revolutionaries who claimed turkish people were not held in respect in Armenia. While dealing with cessation of arms, the 11th Red Army began its virtually unopposed advance into Armenia on November 29, 1920. Soviet Russia delivered an ultimatum in order to take power at the government. That was a part of aggressive policy. The Armenian leadership approved it without any resistance. The Soviets seemed to be salvation from the Turkish Revolutionaries. Armenia Democratic Republic changed its name to Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic and became one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922.[8]
  • Currently also exists Republic of Armenia (or just Armenia).
Austrio - Hungarian Empire 1867-1918
Austria-Hungary flag 1869-1918.png
  • The Austro-Hungarian Empire, also known as Austria-Hungary, Dual Monarchy or k.u.k. Monarchy or Dual State, was a dual-monarchic union state in Central Europe. As a multi-national empire and great power in an era of national awakening, it found its political life dominated by disputes among the eleven principal national groups. Its economic and social life was marked by a rapid economic growth through the age of industrialization and social modernization through many liberal and democratic reforms.[9]
  • There are two basic reasons for the breakup of Austria-Hungary, as discussed by the inter-war authors. The first one is the monarchy’s inability to satisfy its nationalities’ claims, and the second is its military defeat during the First World War, the latter being often explained as a consequence of the former.  for those authors who argue that Austria-Hungary could have survived if the problem of the nationalities’ claims had somehow been solved, it is clear that its state organization needed a serious reform that actually never occurred.[10]
  • Today Austria-Hungary Empire would be a part of Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina.
Azerbaijan (Democratic Republic) 1918-1920
Flag of Azerbaijan Democtratic Republic.PNG
  • On May 28, 1918 Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) was declared by the session of the Azerbaijani National Council. The collapse of the Russian Empire in the wake of revolution in 1917 allowed its ethnic provinces, being among them, to obtain their long-awaited, albeit short-lived freedom from the Russian rule. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established as the first democracy in the Muslim world. Not only a true multi-party republican form of government was created, but it also extended the suffrage to all persons, irrespective of ethnicity, religion or gender, becoming the first country in the Muslim world to give voting rights to women, even ahead of such advanced western democracies as the United States and the United Kingdom.[11]
  • The 11th Red Army occupied Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in order to expand its aggressive policy and implement communism as much as it is possible. Even Azerbaijani forces struggled with the invaders, communism took place in Azerbaijan quite easily. A certain popular support for Bolshevik ideology in the country might be the crucial factor to collapse democratic republic and establish Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic in 1920.[12]
  • Currently also exists Republic of Azerbaijan (or just Azerbaijan).
Bulgaria (Principality) 1878–1908
Bulgaria,Principality 1879-86.jpg
  • It was established by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.[13]
  • In 1908 Ferdinand used the struggles between the Great Powers to declare Bulgaria a fully independent kingdom.[14]
  • Today Bulgaria seems stronger than ever before. The economic rise brings profit to country‘s budget, which is a great tool for increasing GDP.
Cretan State 1898-1913
Flag of Cretan State.svg
  • In 1898, the Great Powers declared Crete as "an independent Cretan State", under the rule of the Sultan. [15]
  • The Cretan deputies declared  union with Greece. Greek flag and laws were enacted on Crete. The island  officialy became a part of Greece.  The Cretans wanted to become a part of bigger country to protect itself from dangers such as Turkish invasion. [16][17]
  • Cretan State would be a part of Greece nowadays.
Czechoslovakia 1918-1992
Flag of Czechoslovakia (bordered).svg
  • Czechoslovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The well-known Czechoslovakian Uprising was a period of political liberalization from the reign of the Soviet Union in 1968. It began early in the year on January 5, 1968 when reformist Alexander Dubcek came into power and ended in late August when the Soviet Union and members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to stop the reforms that were taking place.[18]
  • There is not only one reason. It is claimed dozens of factors might have affected the dissolution of Czechoslovakia.  The Velvet Revolution, which had taken the place from November 17 to December 29, 1989, contained massive demonstrations againts Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Besides, the collaption of the country might be seen as the result of constitutional deadlock, the absence of political parties as well as other associations and groupings that unite people across ethnic lines, regional economic disparities. From international prospectives display the breakaway of the Soviet satellite nations, the lack of unified media and the actions of the political leaders of the two nations. The dissolution was peaceful .[19]
  • There are two separated and independed countries - Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Democratic Republic of Georgia 1918-1921
Flag of Georgia (1918–1921).svg
  • Previously Georgia was a part of Transcaucasia Republic. Life showed that it was not a perspective creature. It didn't exist longer than two months and was destroyed after the inner resistances. On May 26, 1918 on the last meeting, Same officially declared the abolishment of Federation. In the evening of the same day, the sitting of "the national council" of Georgia was held, on which Georgia was declared as the Sovereign-democratic Republic. [20]
  • As it was mentioned above, between Georgia and Soviet Russia, there existed May 7, 1920 Agreement, according to which, Russia acknowledged the State independence of Georgia. In return, Georgia pledged the free local activity for Communists on its territory. But soon it became clear, that Russia needed this Agreement only to weaken Georgian sobriety and to create working conditions for its agents in Georgia. Moscow was preparing for military intervention and making the last independent Transcaucasian republics Soviet. It should be denoted , that the negative role for Georgia in this action, was played by the high-rank Georgian communists - I. Stalin, S. Orjonikidze etc. On February 12, 1921, in the region, contiguous to Armenia, communists arranged the peasant rebellion imitation, and on February 16, on the ground of the aid to the "rebels", Russian armies invaded Georgia.[20]
  • Today Democratic Republic of Georgia would be a part of Georgia.
East Germany 1949-1990
Flag of East Germany.svg
  • The German Democratic Republic (GDR) regarded itself as the first Socialist state on German soil, the governmental structure of which was to be based on the principles of ‘democratic centralism’, in other words on the principles established by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin for the leadership of Communist parties. The representative assembly of the GDR, the Volkskammer or People’s Chamber, however, remained an exceptional phenomenon in the development of German parliamentary democracy. [21]
  • A strong drive for reunification developed in East and West Germany in 1990. In East Germany, conservative parties supporting reunification won the elections, and the new government and the force of events proceeded to dismantle the state. Economic union with the West occurred in July, and on Oct. 3, 1990, political reunification took place under what had been the West German constitution. In new national elections (Dec. 1990), the conservative coalition headed by Kohl retained power. The economy of the East largely collapsed, and the costs of reunification and the privatization of state-owned businesses in the East pushed Germany into recession and led to increased social tensions. [22]
  • Today it is a part of Germany.
First Austrian Republic 1918–1934
State flag of Austria (1918-1934).gif
  • After the defeat of the Austro- Hungarian Empire in the First World War Austria and Hungarian were divided on the basis of the national population composition.
  • Austria’s population mainly composed of Germans. So soon Austrian was named as Deutschösterreich (German Austria) The proclamation of the authoritarian "May Constitution" on 1 May 1934 marked the beginning of the Ständestaat, a corporative authoritarian system under the leadership of the Fatherland Front (Vaterländische Front). Also known as Austrofascism, it meant the end of democratic parliamentarians and party pluralism. The Constitution of 1934 was declared on the basis of a constitutional Enabling Act.[23][24]
  • At this moment Austria is Federal semi-presidential republic. This country also have 4 ethnic groups: Austrian, German, Turks and Serbs but official language is only one-Germany.[25]
Federal State of Austria 1934–1938
State Ensign of Austria 1934-1938.svg
  • In 1934 February Austrian new fascism regime led to the Austrian civil war.
  • The system lasted until Austria became part of the Third Reich in 1938. PF supporters' frustration caused Hitler, who wanted political influence and union with Germany.[26]
  • Today Austria holds more than 8 million inhabitants and is famous of an incredible capital named Vienna.[27]
Finland (Grand Duchy) 1809–1918 
Grand Duchy of Finland Arms.svg
  • In 1809 Finland became an autonomous grand duchy within the autocratic Russian Empire.
  • In 1917, after the February Revolution in Russia, Finland's government worked towards securing and perhaps even increasing Finland's autonomy in domestic matters.[28]
  • Today the Grand Duchy territory is divided for Russia and Finland.
German Empire 1871-1918
Flag of German Empire (pilot).svg
  • The German Empire was an industrial, military, and technological giant which dominated central Europe from 1871-1918. With natural strengths in coal, iron, and railways, the empire’s strong industrial base made Germany an economic power. It operated as a scientific powerhouse, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science during its 47 years of existence than France, Britain, Russia, and the United States combined. The empire’s domestic and foreign policy was increasingly determined by two men: Kaiser Wilhelm I’s careful strategist Otto von Bismarck, and the king’s son, Wilhelm II.[29]
  • With their armies retreating after such a horrific four years, the German people had had enough of war. Starved working class citizens, soldiers, and sailors took to the streets and demanded an end to the devastation. The anti-war sentiment swept through the empire and Wilhelm II was overthrown overnight in the November 1918 Revolution. Bismarck’s ominous prediction 20 years earlier was fulfilled, with the Kaiser’s abdication and empire’s downfall almost exactly 20 years to the day after Bismarck’s death.The remnants of Germany’s once great empire formed the Weimar Republic, which immediately surrendered to allied leaders. Seeing the First World War as a war of German aggression, the allied powers imposed harsh, humiliating peace terms at Versailles. The treaty forced Germany to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions, and pay severe reparations. The once powerful German Empire was dismantled, leaving a weak republic burdened with debt. With her military annihilated, her economy ravaged, and significant territory in eastern Prussia given to Poland, the Weimar Republic had little political influence. World War I saw the intimidating German Empire make an attempt for European hegemony, only to be defeated and defanged. The driven, industrialized nation that had achieved so much under Otto von Bismarck’s realpolitik was turned into a reckless, antagonistic empire obsessed with military expansion. Ignoring political delicacy, Wilhelm II directly threatened his neighbors and alienated his allies. The resulting war saw the German Empire decimated, with her military, political, and economic influence significantly limited.[29]
  • Today is a part of Germany, Poland, Denmark, Russia, France, Belgium and Lithuania.
Irish Free state 1922–1937
Flag of Ireland.svg
  • The state was established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty.The first two months were incredibly stressed for the Irish peeople because of Civil war. Anyway, after the Civil war did not take even a year and ended of goverment‘s victory.[30]
  • In 1932 De Valera started an economic war between Irish and Birtain. This war took over 6 years and ended in 1937 with annoucement that Irish Free state signed a new constitution and since then will be known as Ireland.[31]
Italian Social Republic 1943–1945
War flag of the Italian Social Republic.svg
o    In the middle of the Second World War the Italian was divided into to different states: South Italian and Italian Social Republic (also called as a Salo) which was governed by Mussolini. The purpose for ISR was to control political power of  fascist Italy.[33]

o    By the end of the Second World War Italians were fed up with monarchy regime and made a decision to capitulate[34].

o    At this moment Italy is united parliamentary democracy. The capital of Italy is Rome. The city is famous for its Coliseum which attract more than 5 miliion tourists every year[35].

Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1918-1941
State Flag of Kingdom of Yugoslavia.png
  • A state in Southeast and Central Europ. It was ruled by the Serbian dynasty.
  • The Axis Powers occupied Yugoslavia during World War II. The people in the invaded country did not manage to resist the occupants as one united society. There were inner struggles and disagreements as well. [36]
  • There are seven independend coutries:  Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia and Kosovo.  
Kingdom of Prussia 1701-1918
Flag of Prussia (1892-1918).svg
  • Frederick William's son, Frederick I, became king of Prussia in 1701, receiving royal recognition in exchange for a promise of military aid to Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. Frederick's son, Frederick William I, greatly increased the size of the Prussian army and rebuilt the organization of the state around the military establishment. To his son, Frederick II, the Great, he left enormous financial reserves and the best army in Europe. Through the military genius of Frederick the Great, Prussia became a major power in Europe. In 1740 he invaded the Austrian province of Silesia and precipitated the War of the Austrian Succession.[37] It is not that Prussia which has dissapeared in the 13th century.
  • Bismarck's new empire was the most powerful state on the Continent. Prussia's dominance over the new empire was almost as absolute as it was with the North German Confederation. It included two-thirds of the empire's territory and three-fifths of its population. The imperial crown was a hereditary office of the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia also had a large plurality of seats in the Bundesrat, and as before could control the proceedings with the support of its allies in the secondary states. The Imperial Army was essentially an enlarged Prussian army, and the embassies of the new empire were mostly old Prussian embassies. The constitution of the German Empire was essentially an amended version of the constitution of the North German Confederation. However, the seeds for future problems lay in a gross disparity between the imperial and Prussian systems. The empire granted the vote to all men over 25. However, Prussia retained its restrictive three-class voting system, in which the well-to-do had 17½ times the voting power of the rest of the population. Since the imperial chancellor was, except for two periods (January–November 1873 and 1892–94) also prime minister of Prussia, this meant that for most of the empire's existence, the king/emperor and prime minister/chancellor had to seek majorities from legislatures elected by two completely different franchises.William I died in 1888, and the Crown Prince succeeded to the throne as Frederick III. The new emperor, a decided Anglophile, planned to transform Prussia and the empire into a more liberal and democratic monarchy based on the British model. However, Frederick was already ill with inoperable throat cancer, and died after only 99 days on the throne. He was succeeded by his 29-year-old son, William II. As a boy, William had rebelled against his parents' efforts to mould him as a liberal, and had become thoroughly Prussianised under Bismarck's tutelage. The new Kaiser rapidly soured relations with theBritish and Russian royal families (despite being closely related to them), becoming their rival and ultimately their enemy.[38]
  • Today's countries which belonged to the territory of Kingdom of Prussia are Germany, Poland, Denmark, Russia.
Kingdom of Portugal 1139–1910
Flag Kingdom portugal.png
  • In its golden time Portugal was known as one of the most powerful country in the world. This state empire began in 1139 once after Afonso Henriques was announced as the king of the Portuguese[39].
  • No matter that portal empire survived more than 800 years in 1910 all Portuguese were made to submit Great Britain‘s authority. As a result, after the revolution in the 5th of October 1910 the collapse of monarchical regime was destroyed[40].
  • Today Portugal is existed as a republic.
Moldavian Democratic Republic 1917-1918
Flag of the Moldavian Democratic Republic.svg
  • The Moldavian Democratic Republic were also known as Moldavian Republic were established in 1917 recently after Russian empire fall apart. This small country was known for its willingness achieve independence no matter what.[41]
  • Nonetheless that Moldavian Republic for one year and a half saved its independence  in 1919 after Following the signing of separate peace armistices by Romania, Ukraine, Russia and also Germany legally ending the Moldavian Democratic Republic.
  • In 1919 Moldavia were announced as a parliamentary democracy country and since 2007 keep seeking to become EU member. The capital of Moldavia is Kishinev, more than 90% of the population have belonged to an Orthodox Church.[42]
Montenegro (Kingdom) 1910-1918
Flag of Montenegro.svg
  • After Balcan wars Montenegro became a Kingdom. De facto it was a constitutional monarchy, but De jure it was an absolutist[43].
  • Montenegro existed when the world was during the First World War. The main power at that time had Allies. So, in 1918 the Allies liberated Montenegro for its own interests and merged it with Serbia.[44]
  • Nowadays Montenegro is known as as a parliamentary democracy country with its own flag, him and the government. No matter that the population of this country is only about 700 000 people it takes part in such organizations like the UN, WHO, WTO and also keep seeking to become a member of the EU and NATO.[45]
Montenegro (Principality) 1878–1910
Flag map of Montenegro.svg
  • The Principality of Montenegro established in 1878 and known as the jure constitutional monarchy, but De facto absolutist. Nicholas I announced Montenegro as a kingdom and became the leader (king) of that territory[46].
  • The ending of the Principality of Montenegro started in 1905 then political rifts emerged between the parliamentary People's Party[47] that supported the process of democratization and union with Serbia and those of the True People's Party who were monarchist *[48]
  • Nowadays Montenegro is reactivated as Republic of Montenegro.
Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus 1917–1920
Flag of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.svg
  • The beginning of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus started in 1917 and lasted till 1920. The official Republic was established after the Russian empire fall in 1918. During the first year were established government, created flag and the capital Temir-Khan-Shura was announced as a capital of MRNC. The beginning of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus started in 1917 and lasted till 1920. The official Republic was established after the Russian empire fall in 1918. During the first year were established government, created flag and the capital Temir-Khan-Shura was announced as a capital of MRNC.[49]
  • In the 1920 Soviet Russian army showed up and occupied country. The state was transformed into Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
  • Today the territory of MRNC belongs to the Russia.[50]
Nazi Germany 1933–1945
Flag of the NSDAP (1920–1945).svg
  • Nazi Germany or Third Germany was created by Hitler at the time of the Great Depression. This state helped to restore economic stability and unemployment.
  • No matter that this country captured centralized power of all Germany by the end of Second World War the Germany was theoretically announced as a looser. In 1945 on 5 June the declaration of Berlin was signed and soon after it was created Allied Control Council (the four powers) which taken all control of Germany‘s government.[51]
  • Nowadays this country is called as Federal Republic of Germany and is one of the most powerful countries of the world. What is more, Germany is known as economic and political strong country which has a huge influence on all EU decisions.
Ottoman Empire 1299-1923
Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg
  • The Ottoman state rose to become a world empire, which lasted from the late 13th century to 1923. Like that of the Habsburgs, its eventual rival, the Ottoman Empire was dynastic; its territories and character owed little to national, ethnic or religious boundaries, and were determined by the military and administrative power of the dynasty at any particular time. The Ottomans attempted to bring as much territory as possible into the Islamic fold. The non-Muslims living in these areas were then absorbed into the Empire as protected subjects.[52]
  • The armistice of 31 October 1918 ended the fighting between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies but did not bring stability or peace to the region. The interim Ottoman government came under increasing pressure from the Allies to suppress the nationalist groups. In the end they were reluctantly forced to act. In the face of this crackdown, on 23 April 1920 the nationalists convened a Grand National Assembly in Ankara, deep in central Anatolia. They elected Mustafa Kemal as its first president, effectively establishing an alternative government. This triggered a short but brutal civil war, which ended only when the details of the Treaty of Sèvres were publicised in August. The harshness of its terms destroyed what little credibility the interim Ottoman government had left. Turks of all political persuasions began to unite behind the Grand National Assembly, which completely rejected the treaty. A showdown with the Allies seemed unavoidable.[53]
  • Ottoman Empire contained the countries or at least a part of them such as Turkey, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Romania, Montenegro, Albania,  Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece.  Empire contained the countries or at least a part of them such as Turkey, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Romania, Montenegro, Albania,  Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece. 
People's Republic of Yugoslavia 1944-1992
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg
  • Yugoslavia—the land of South (i.e. Yugo) Slavs—was created at the end of World War I when Croat, Slovenian, and Bosnian territories that had been part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire united with the Serbian Kingdom. The country broke up under Nazi occupation during World War II with the creation of a Nazi-allied independent Croat state, but was reunified at the end of the war when the communist-dominated partisan force of Josip Broz Tito liberated the country. Following the end of World War II, Yugoslavian unity was a top priority for the U.S. Government. While ostensibly a communist state, Yugoslavia broke away from the Soviet sphere of influence in 1948. [54]
  • The main factors were the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev which claimed to implement new policies of glasnost and perestroika in the Soviet Union. Also inner conflicts among different ethnic groups.
  • Nowadays there would be the countries such as Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Montenegro, Macedonia and Bosnia & Herzegovina.
People's Socialist Republic of Albania 1946-1992
Flag of Albania (1946, 3-2).svg
  • The People's Republic of Albania was proclaimed on January 11, 1946, by a newly elected People's Assembly. The assembly, which was elected in December 1945, initially included both communists and noncommunists. Within a year, however, all noncommunists had been purged from the assembly and were subsequently executed. The communists had a monopoly of power by the end of 1946.[55]
  • The period was exceptional because of communist regime.  The beginning of the reforms was Mikhail Gorbachev's statement which claimed to implement new policies of glasnost and perestroika in the Soviet Union. The people in Albania also caused enormous pressure for the government to make changes in the country as well. The last communist leader Ramiz Alia announced that free elections would be held in 1991.[56]
  • These days exists Republic of Albania.
Principality of Albania 1914-1925
Principality of Albania (Prince's standard).svg
  • In supporting the independence of Albania, the Great Powers were assisted by Aubrey Herbert, a British MP who passionately advocated the Albanian cause in London. [57] The Great Powers selected Prince William of Wied, a nephew of Queen Elisabeth of Romania to become the sovereign of the newly independent Albania. A formal offer was made by 18 Albanian delegates representing the 18 districts of Albania on February 21, 1914, an offer which he accepted.Prince William arrived in Albania at his provisional capital of Durrės on March 7, 1914 along with the Royal family. The security of Albania was to be provided by a International Gendarmeriecommanded by Dutch officers.[58]
  • The country has changed the status in 1928. Zogu, who has established himself as Albania's dictator with the title of president, decided to emphasise his dictatorship permanently. A new Constituent Assembly proclaimed Albania a monarchy under Zog I, King of the Albanians. [59]
  • These days exists Republic of Albania.
Romania (Kingdom) 1881–1947
Romanian Army Flag - 1921 official model.svg
  • 1881-1947 is really specific time in Romania‘s history for many reasons. Firstly, at that time Romania was in control of five kings. Secondly, Romania was a constitutional monarchy and had its own senate and a prime minister.[60]
  • In 1947 the last king was compelled to abdicate and a socialist republic ruled by the Romanian Communist Party replaced the monarchy.[61]
  • Today Romania is a democratic parliamentary republic. The capital of Romania is Bucharest, which population is about 2 million people.[62]
Romania

(People’s Republic)

1947–1989
Romanian flag.svg
Russian Empire 1721–1917
Flag-map of the Russian Empire (flag for private use).svg
  • The beginning of the Russian Empire is marked by Peter I. He was the first ruler which managed to unite all Russian‘s territories, established new capital Sant Peterburg (Moscow were destroyed after the war with Sweden) and announced himself as monarch.[66]
  • This empire, which lasts more than 200 years lasted because of the Communist Party Revolution in 1917. The Bolsheviks party with its leader V. Lenin occupied government and changed Russia's social structure.[67]
  • Today Russia is one of the biggest country in the world. The capital of Russia is Moscow, which holds more than 12 million people.
Russian SFSR 1917–1922
Coat of arms of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1920-1956).svg
Serbia (Kingdom) 1882–1918
State Flag of Serbia (1882-1918).svg
  • It was founded in 1882. When Serbia Duke Milan Obrenovic (Milan Obrenovic) was crowned king of Serbia. Since then Kingdom or Serbia existed about 30 years and won two Balkan Wars.[70]
  • In 1918 Kingdom of Serbia joined the newly-formed Serbian, Croatian and Slovenian kingdom, which later became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.[71]
  • Today Serbia's economy is based on a variety of industrial, agricultural and service industry branches. The main partner of business at the moment for Serbians is the EU.[72]
Slovak State 1939–1945
Flag of Slovakia.svg
  • After the collapse of Czechoslovakia in 1939 the March Slovak Republic was declared and independent country in Bratislava.
  • Slovak State from the very beginning was like a puppet for the Third Reich. So, then the Second World War was about going to end with Soviet Russian triumph, he Red Army occupied Bratislava and it marked the end of the Slovak State.[73]
  • Nowadays Slovak is known for its an amazing capital Bratislava and form of government. Slovak head of state is the president, elected directly for a five -year term.[74]
Spanish State 1939–1975
Flag of Spain (1945–1977).svg
  • The state was formed in 1936 with the beginning of the Spanish civil war, which lasted 2 years.[75]
  • Spanish state also knows as Francoist Spain ended in 1975 with the death of Franco. Soon after it Juan Carlos became the King of Spain. He initiated that Spain became a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament.[76]
  • Nowadays Spain is a constitutional monarchy with the king and parliament institutions. Today Spain is one the most attractive tourist sightseeing countries in the world.
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic 1918
Flag of the Transcaucasian SFSR.svg
Trieste (Free Territory) 1947–1975
Free Territory Trieste Flag.svg
  • In February 1947, the Free Territory of Trieste was set up by the United Nations via a treaty, which came into force in September of that year.[78]
  • In 1954 Yugoslavia and Italy obtained civil administration of the Free Territory of Trieste. So there was no need for the existence of Trieste.
  • Nowadays this state is officially tauter. The directory is fully devoted to these countries: Croatia, Italy and Slovenia.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1922-1991
Flag of the Soviet Union (dark version, 3-2).svg
  • In post-revolutionary Russia, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) is established, comprising a confederation of Russia, Belorussia, Ukraine, and the Transcaucasian Federation (divided in 1936 into the Georgian, Azerbaijan, and Armenian republics). Also known as the Soviet Union, the new communist state was the successor to the Russian Empire and the first country in the world to be based on Marxist socialism.[79]
  • There was economic  decline in Soviet Union. The reforms were mandatory to help the USSR become a more prosperous and productive nation.  In March 1985, a longtime Communist Party politician named Mikhail Gorbachev assumed the leadership of the USSR. Gorbachev introduced two sets of policies. The first of these was known as glasnost, or political openness. Glasnost eliminated traces of Stalinist repression, like the banning of books and the omnipresent secret police, and gave new freedoms to Soviet citizens.The second set of reforms was known as perestroika, or economic restructuring. The best way to revive the Soviet economy, Gorbachev thought, was to loosen the government’s grip on it. He believed that private initiative would lead to innovation, so individuals and cooperatives were allowed to own businesses for the first time since the 1920s. However, these reforms were slow to bear fruit. Perestroika had torpedoed the “command economy” that had kept the Soviet state afloat, but the market economy took time to mature. As a result, people grew more and more frustrated with his government. Frustration with the bad economy combined with Gorbachev’s hands-off approach to Soviet satellites to inspire a series of independence movements in the republics on the USSR’s fringes. One by one, the Baltic states (Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia) declared their independence from Moscow. Then, in early December, the Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine broke away from the USSR and created the Commonwealth of Independent States. Weeks later, they were followed by eight of the nine remaining republics. (Georgia joined two years later.) At last, the mighty Soviet Union had fallen.[80]
  • Currently exist separated countries such as Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
Ukraine (People’s Republic) 1917–1921
Flag of Ukrainian People's Republic (non-official, 1917).svg
  • In 1917 June 28 was announced Ukraine’s autonomy from Russia. In the same year was pronounced the establishment of the Ukrainian People's Republic and the end of 1918 ULR independence.
  • After the Treaty of Riga, the Ukrainian People's Republic actually stopped existed.[81]
  • Today the territory of Ukrainian People‘s Republic is divided to Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Belarus, Moldova, Poland and Slovakia.[82]
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1801–1922
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
  • The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established on 1 January 1801 under the terms of the Acts of Union 1800, by which the nominally separate kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were united.[83]
  • This union was abolished after Iris War of independence.[84]
  • Now this union is officially divided into the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. Both countries are extremely powerful in political view.
West Germany 1949-1990
Flag of Germany.svg
  • West Germany was created in 1949 when the United States, Great Britain, and France consolidated those zones, or portions, of Germany that they had occupied at the end of World War II. The leader of West Germany was Konrad Adenauer. He was a non-Nazi patriot who attempted to reunite his country.[85]
  • A strong drive for reunification developed in East and West Germany in 1990. In East Germany, conservative parties supporting reunification won the elections, and the new government and the force of events proceeded to dismantle the state. Economic union with the West occurred in July, and on Oct. 3, 1990, political reunification took place under what had been the West German constitution. In new national elections (Dec. 1990), the conservative coalition headed by Kohl retained power. The economy of the East largely collapsed, and the costs of reunification and the privatization of state-owned businesses in the East pushed Germany into recession and led to increased social tensions.[22]
  • Today it is a part of Germany.

Findings

There is not only one reason of dissolutions of countries. It depends on the exact period which contains political context (for instance, World War I). Furthermore, the states were established in unique ways as well. There are different countries with their own regime, culture, history, ethnic groups and even influence in the world. The diplomatic or radical relations among the neighbours did an enormous impact on every state's further existence.

First of all, major collapses were caused by two aggresive countries - the Soviet Union and Germany. Their expansion policy had the tendency to capture other territories and strengthen the power. Besides, there were also more countries that have made inroads into neighbourd states in order to reinforce themselves.

Secondly, it might be one country but changing its status (Kingdom, Democratic Republic etc ). Especially the leaders are willing to make their authority permanent.

Many countries have split and several new countries have created as well. Global reforms affected the others to make changes in their states too.

Conversely, it was even beneficial to unite territories and become one strong country which can protect ourselves from dangers or start developing as one big society.

Wars, economic struggles, inner anarchy are claimed to be the other reasons. A wave of nationalism swept many countries in Europe.

The First and the Second world wars, Economic depression, the Holocaust, the rise of dictatorship and many other events really had a huge influence on country‘s independence.

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